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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 752108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777430

RESUMO

Protons may have contributed to the evolution of plants as a major component of cosmic-rays and also have been used for mutagenesis in plants. Although the mutagenic effect of protons has been well-characterized in animals, no comprehensive phenotypic and genomic analyses has been reported in plants. Here, we investigated the phenotypes and whole genome sequences of Arabidopsis M2 lines derived by irradiation with proton beams and gamma-rays, to determine unique characteristics of proton beams in mutagenesis. We found that mutation frequency was dependent on the irradiation doses of both proton beams and gamma-rays. On the basis of the relationship between survival and mutation rates, we hypothesized that there may be a mutation rate threshold for survived individuals after irradiation. There were no significant differences between the total mutation rates in groups derived using proton beam or gamma-ray irradiation at doses that had similar impacts on survival rate. However, proton beam irradiation resulted in a broader mutant phenotype spectrum than gamma-ray irradiation, and proton beams generated more DNA structural variations (SVs) than gamma-rays. The most frequent SV was inversion. Most of the inversion junctions contained sequences with microhomology and were associated with the deletion of only a few nucleotides, which implies that preferential use of microhomology in non-homologous end joining was likely to be responsible for the SVs. These results show that protons, as particles with low linear energy transfer (LET), have unique characteristics in mutagenesis that partially overlap with those of low-LET gamma-rays and high-LET heavy ions in different respects.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 719846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512699

RESUMO

The enzyme phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase (PRPS) catalyzes the conversion of ribose 5-phosphate into phosphoribosyl diphosphate; the latter is a precursor of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Here, we investigated the function of PRPS from the single-celled green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in its response to DNA damage from gamma radiation or the alkylating agent LiCl. CrPRPS transcripts were upregulated in cells treated with these agents. We generated CrPRPS-overexpressing transgenic lines to study the function of CrPRPS. When grown in culture with LiCl or exposed to gamma radiation, the transgenic cells grew faster and had a greater survival rate than wild-type cells. CrPRPS overexpression enhanced expression of genes associated with DNA damage response, namely RAD51, RAD1, and LIG1. We observed, from transcriptome analysis, upregulation of genes that code for key enzymes in purine metabolism, namely ribonucleoside-diphosphate pyrophosphokinase subunit M1, adenylate kinase, and nucleoside-diphosphate kinase. We conclude that CrPRPS may affect DNA repair process via regulation of de novo nucleotide synthesis.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(9): 6387-6400, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perilla frutescens (Lamiaceae) is distributed in East Asia and is classified into var. frutescens and crispa. P. frutescens is multipurpose crop for human health because of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compound and essential oil. However, a lack of genetic information has hindered the development and utilization of Perilla genotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was performed to develop expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers from P. frutescens var. crispa (wild type) and Antisperill (a mutant cultivar) and used them to assess the genetic diversity of, and relationships among, 94 P. frutescens genotypes. We obtained 65 Gb of sequence data comprising 632,970 transcripts by de novo RNA-sequencing. Of the 14,780 common SSRs, 102 polymorphic EST-SSRs were selected using in silico polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, successful amplification from 58 EST-SSRs markers revealed remarkable genetic diversity and relationships among 94 P. frutescens genotypes. In total, 268 alleles were identified, with an average of 4.62 alleles per locus (range 2-11 alleles/locus). The average polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.50 (range 0.04-0.86). In phylogenetic and population structure analyses, the genotypes formed two major groups: Group I (var. crispa) and Group II (var. frutescens). CONCLUSION: This results suggest that 58 novel EST-SSR markers derived from wild-type cultivar (var. crispa) and its mutant cultivar (Antisperill) have potential uses for population genetics and recombinant inbred line mapping analyses, which will provide comprehensive insights into the genetic diversity and relationship of P. frutescens.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2250: 195-205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900606

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous repetitive components of eukaryotic organisms that show mobility in the genome against diverse stresses. TEs contribute considerably to the size, structure, and plasticity of genomes and also play an active role in genome evolution by helping their hosts adapt to novel conditions by conferring useful characteristics. We developed a simple and rapid method for investigation of genetic mobility and diversity among TEs in combination with a target region amplification polymorphism (TE-TRAP) marker system in gamma-irradiated sorghum mutants. The TE-TRAP marker system reveals a high level of genetic diversity, which provides a useful marker resource for genetic mobility research.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Sorghum/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , DNA de Plantas/análise , DNA de Plantas/genética , Eletroforese/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297321

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a novel technology capable of rapidly selecting mutant plant cell lines. Salt resistance was chosen as a rapid selection trait that is easily applicable to protoplast-derived cell colonies. Mesophyll protoplasts were cultured in a medium supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mM NaCl. At NaCl concentrations ≥ 100 mM, cell colony formation was strongly inhibited after 4 weeks of culture. Tobacco protoplasts irradiated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 Gy were then cultured to investigate the effects of radiation intensity on cell division. The optimal radiation intensity was 50 Gy. To develop salt-resistant tobacco mutant plants, protoplasts irradiated with 50 Gy were cultured in a medium containing 100 mM NaCl. The efficiency of cell colony formation from these protoplasts was approximately 0.002%. A salt-resistant mutant callus was selected and proliferated in the same medium and then transferred to a shoot inducing medium for adventitious shoot formation. The obtained shoots were then cultured in a medium supplemented with 200 mM NaCl and developed into normal plantlets. This rapid selection technology for generating salt-resistant tobacco mutants will be useful for the development of crop varieties resistant to environmental stresses.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957603

RESUMO

Roses are one of the most important floricultural crops, and their essential oils have long been used for cosmetics and aromatherapy. We investigated the volatile compound compositions of 12 flower-color mutant variants and their original cultivars. Twelve rose mutant genotypes were developed by treatment with 70 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation of six commercial rose cultivars. Essential oils from the flowers of the 18 genotypes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected, which were categorized into six classes: Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic ester, aromatic compounds, terpene alcohols, and others. Aliphatic (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and esters) compounds were abundant categories in all rose flowers. The CR-S2 mutant had the highest terpene alcohols and oil content. Three (CR-S1, CR-S3, and CR-S4) mutant genotypes showed higher ester contents than their original cultivar. Nonacosane, 2-methylhexacosane, and 2-methyltricosane were major volatile compounds among all genotypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the rose genotypes gave four groups according to grouping among the 77 volatile compounds. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) model was successfully applied to distinguish most attractive rose lines. These findings will be useful for the selection of rose genotypes with improved volatile compounds.

7.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932699

RESUMO

Hibiscus species are rich in phenolic compounds and have been traditionally used for improving human health through their bioactive activities. The present study investigated the phenolic compounds of leaf extracts from 18 different H. acetosella accessions and evaluated their biofunctional properties, focusing on antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The most abundant phenolic compound in H. acetosella was caffeic acid, with levels ranging from 14.95 to 42.93 mg/100 g. The antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS assay allowed the accessions to be classified into two groups: a high activity group with red leaf varieties (74.71-84.02%) and a relatively low activity group with green leaf varieties (57.47-65.94%). The antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with TAC (0.933), Dp3-Sam (0.932), Dp3-Glu (0.924), and Cy3-Sam (0.913) contents (p < 0.001). The H. acetosella phenolic extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against two bacteria, with zones of inhibition between 12.00 and 13.67 mm (Staphylococcus aureus), and 10.67 and 13.33 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All accessions exhibited a basal antibacterial activity level (12 mm) against the Gram-positive S. aureus, with PI500758 and PI500764 exhibiting increased antibacterial activity (13.67 mm), but they exhibited a more dynamic antibacterial activity level against the Gram-negative P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Hibiscus/química , Fenol/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Antocianinas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cátions , Flavonoides/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(5)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423146

RESUMO

Kenaf is a source of fiber and a bioenergy crop that is considered to be a third world crop. Recently, a new kenaf cultivar, "Jangdae," was developed by gamma irradiation. It exhibited distinguishable characteristics such as higher biomass, higher seed yield, and earlier flowering than the wild type. We sequenced and analyzed the transcriptome of apical leaf and stem using Pacific Biosciences single-molecule long-read isoform sequencing platform. De novo assembly yielded 26,822 full-length transcripts with a total length of 59 Mbp. Sequence similarity against protein sequence allowed the functional annotation of 11,370 unigenes. Among them, 10,100 unigenes were assigned gene ontology terms, the majority of which were associated with the metabolic and cellular process. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis mapped 8875 of the annotated unigenes to 149 metabolic pathways. We also identified the majority of putative genes involved in cellulose and lignin-biosynthesis. We further evaluated the expression pattern in eight gene families involved in lignin-biosynthesis at different growth stages. In this study, appropriate biotechnological approaches using the information obtained for these putative genes will help to modify the desirable content traits in mutants. The transcriptome data can be used as a reference dataset and provide a resource for molecular genetic studies in kenaf.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340179

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation combined with in vitro tissue culture has been used for development of new cultivars in diverse crops. The effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction have been analyzed on several orchid species, including Cymbidium. Limited information is available on the comparison of mutation frequency and spectrum based on phenotypes in Cymbidium species. In addition, the stability of induced chimera mutants in Cymbidium is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the radiation sensitivity, mutation frequency, and spectrum of mutants induced by diverse γ-ray treatments, and analyzed the stability of induced chimera mutants in the Cymbidium hybrid cultivars RB003 and RB012. The optimal γ-irradiation conditions of each cultivar differed as follows: RB003, mutation frequency of 4.06% (under 35 Gy/4 h); RB012, 1.51% (20 Gy/1 h). Re-irradiation of γ-rays broadened the mutation spectrum observed in RB012. The stability of leaf-color chimera mutants was higher than that of leaf-shape chimeras, and stability was dependent on the chimera type and location of a mutation in the cell layers of the shoot apical meristem. These results indicated that short-term γ-irradiation was more effective to induce mutations in Cymbidium. Information on the stability of chimera mutants will be useful for mutation breeding of diverse ornamental plants.

10.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(1): e20180273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479093

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation has a substantial effect on physiological and biochemical processes in plants via induction of transcriptional changes and diverse genetic alterations. Previous microarray analysis showed that rice OsFBX322, which encodes a rice F-box protein, was downregulated in response to three types of ionizing radiation: gamma irradiation, ion beams, and cosmic rays. In order to characterize the radiation-responsive genes in rice, OsFBX322 was selected for further analysis. OsFBX322 expression patterns in response to radiation were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Transient expression of a GFP-OsFBX322 fusion protein in tobacco leaf epidermis indicated that OsFBX322 is localized to the nucleus. To determine the effect of OsFBX322 expression on radiation response, OsFBX322 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Transgenic overexpression lines were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than control plants. These results suggest that OsFBX322 plays a negative role in the defense response to radiation in plants. In addition, we obtained four co-expression genes of OsFBX322 by specific co-expression networks using the ARANCE. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the four genes were also downregulated after exposure to the three types of radiation. These results imply that the co-expressed genes may serve as key regulators in the radiation response pathway in plants.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 561, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jacalin-related lectins in plants are important in defense signaling and regulate growth, development, and response to abiotic stress. We characterized the function of a rice mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin (OsJAC1) in the response to DNA damage from gamma radiation. RESULTS: Time- and dose-dependent changes of OsJAC1 expression in rice were detected in response to gamma radiation. To identify OsJAC1 function, OsJAC1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated. Interestingly, OsJAC1 overexpression conferred hyper-resistance to gamma radiation in these plants. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, genes related to pathogen defense were identified among 22 differentially expressed genes in OsJAC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines following gamma irradiation. Furthermore, expression profiles of genes associated with the plant response to DNA damage were determined in these transgenic lines, revealing expression changes of important DNA damage checkpoint and perception regulatory components, namely MCMs, RPA, ATM, and MRE11. CONCLUSIONS: OsJAC1 overexpression may confer hyper-resistance to gamma radiation via activation of DNA damage perception and DNA damage checkpoints in Arabidopsis, implicating OsJAC1 as a key player in DNA damage response in plants. This study is the first report of a role for mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin in DNA damage.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Radiação Ionizante , Protetores contra Radiação/metabolismo , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430944

RESUMO

The flowers of chrysanthemum species are used as a herbal tea and in traditional medicine. In addition, members of the genus have been selected to develop horticultural cultivars of diverse floral colors and capitulum forms. In this research, we investigated the phytochemical composition of eight gamma-irradiation mutant cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium and their original cultivars. The mutant chrysanthemum cultivars were generated by treatment with various doses of 60Co gamma irradiation of stem cuttings of three commercial chrysanthemum cultivars as follows: 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate' (50Gy), 'ARTI-Purple Lady' (30 Gy), and 'ARTI-Yellow Star' (50 Gy) derived from 'Noble Wine'; 'ARTI-Red Star' (50 Gy) and 'ARTI-Rising Sun' (30 Gy) from 'Pinky'; 'ARTI-Purple' (40 Gy) and 'ARTI-Queen' (30 Gy) from 'Argus'; and 'ARTI-Rollypop' (70 Gy) from 'Plaisir d'amour'. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids in the flowers of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS). Essential oils from the flowers of these cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady', 'ARTI-Purple', and 'ARTI-Queen' showed higher total amounts of flavonoid and phenolic acid compared with those of the respective original cultivars. The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady' and 'ARTI-Purple', which produce purple to pink petals, contained more than two-times higher amounts of anthocyanins compared with those of their original cultivars. Of the mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Yellow Star' in which petal color was changed to yellow, showed the greatest accumulation of carotenoids. Ninety-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which hydrocarbons and terpenoids were abundant in all cultivars analyzed. This is the first report that demonstrated the phytochemical analysis of novel chrysanthemum cultivars derived from C. morifolium hydrid using HPLC-DAD-ESIMS and GC-MS. These findings suggest that the selected mutant chrysanthemum cultivars show potential as a functional source of phytochemicals associated with the abundance of health-beneficial components, as well as good source for horticulture and pigment industries.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antocianinas/química , Carotenoides/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cor , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Raios gama , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pigmentação
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(1): 55-63, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat grain is recognized as a rich source of nutrients, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers and antioxidants. In recent years, the focus of wheat breeding has been to increase the content of bioactive compounds to improve human health and prevent diseases. RESULTS: Five novel wheat mutant lines with variable seed color were developed using gamma irradiation of hexaploid wheat inbred line K4191 (purple seed color). The total anthocyanin contents of three mutant lines (L47, L167 and L925) were significantly higher than those of wild-type lines, including K4191 and 'Keumkang' (white seed color). L925 showed the highest total anthocyanin content, and cyanidin-3-glucoside was presented as the most predominant anthocyanin. Compared with 'Keumkang', the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was significantly up-regulated in purple seed mutant lines. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in L925 extracts. The expression of a few antioxidant-related genes and total anthocyanin content were positively correlated with antioxidant capacity. These data suggest that anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wheat grains contribute to the antioxidant potential. CONCLUSION: Purple grain color is associated with higher anthocyanin accumulation and antioxidant capacity in wheat. Wheat mutants developed in this study may serve as a valuable source of antioxidants. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cor , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Genet Mol Biol ; 41(3): 611-623, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004105

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the biological responses induced by acute and chronic gamma irradiation in colored wheat seeds rich in natural antioxidants. After acute and chronic irradiation, the phenotypic effects on plant growth, germination rate, seedling height, and root length were examined, and the biochemical changes were investigated by analyzing the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and total antioxidant capacity. High dosages of chronic radiation reduced plant growth compared with the controls. Electron spin resonance measurement and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity analysis showed lower amount of free radicals in colored wheat seeds on chronic irradiation with low dosage of gamma rays compared to seeds subjected to acute irradiation. Expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, antioxidant-related genes, and antioxidant enzyme activity in seeds and young leaves of seedling showed diverse effects in response to different dosages and types of gamma irradiation. This suggests that phenotype is affected by the dosage and type of gamma radiation, and the phytochemicals in colored wheat seeds involved in antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals respond differently to irradiation types. This provides evidence that acute and chronic exposure to radiation have different effects on seeds and young leaves after germination.

15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(7): 96, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916185

RESUMO

The unicellular green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has the highest content of the natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. Previously, it was determined that astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis could be induced by blue-wavelength irradiation; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study aimed to compare the transcriptome of H. pluvialis, with respect to astaxanthin biosynthesis, under the monochromatic red (660 nm) or blue (450 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation. Among a total of 165,372 transcripts, we identified 67,703 unigenes, of which 2245 and 171 were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to blue and red irradiation, respectively. Interestingly, expressional changes of blue light receptor cryptochromes were detected in response to blue and/or red LED irradiation in H. pluvialis, which may directly and indirectly regulate astaxanthin biosynthesis. In accordance with this observation, expression of the BKT and CHY genes, which are part of the downstream section of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway, was significantly upregulated by blue LED irradiation compared with their expression under control white irradiation. Contrastingly, they were downregulated by red LED irradiation. Our transcriptome study provided molecular insights that highlighted the different of responses of H. pluvialis to red and blue irradiation, especially for astaxanthin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Clorófitas/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos da radiação , Divisão Celular/efeitos da radiação , Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Microbiologia Industrial , Iluminação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação para Cima , Xantofilas/biossíntese , Xantofilas/genética
16.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 858, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588557

RESUMO

The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway. Interestingly, transcript levels of phosphoglucose isomerase 1 (PGI1), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 1 and 2 (FBA1 and FBA2) were down-regulated in all mutants; PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 act on downstream of glucose 6-phosphate conversion in glycolytic pathway. Therefore, down-regulations of PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 may lead to accumulation of upstream metabolites, notably glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in induction of PGM1 expression through feed-forward regulation and that PGM1 overexpression caused starch over-accumulation in mutants. These results suggest that PGI1, FBA1, FBA2, and PGM1 correlate with each other in terms of coordinated transcriptional regulation and play central roles for starch over-accumulation in C. reinhardtii.

17.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 93(7): 717-725, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation induces plant defenses by regulating the expression of response genes. The systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) is a key gene in plant defense response. In this study, the function of Oryza sativa SARD1 (OsSARD1) was investigated after exposure of seeds/plants to ionizing radiation, jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice seeds exposed to two types of ionizing radiations (gamma ray [GR] and ion beam [IB]) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to identify the genes that are altered in response to ionizing radiation. Then, OsSARD1-overexpressing homozygous Arabidopsis plants were generated to assess the effects of OsSARD1 in the response to irradiation. The phenotypes of these transgenic plants, as well as control plants, were monitored after GR irradiation at doses of 200 and 300 Gray (Gy). RESULTS: The OsSARD1 transcript was strongly downregulated after exposure to GR and IB irradiation. Previous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Arabidopsis SARD1 (AtSARD1) protein is closely related to Arabidopsis calmodulin-binding protein 60g (AtCBP60g), which is known to be required for activation of SA biosynthesis. In this study, phylogenetic analysis showed that OsSARD1 was grouped with AtSARD1. The OsSARD1 gene was induced after exposure to SA and JA. The biological phenotype of OsSARD1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants was examined. OsSARD1-overexpressing plants displayed resistance to GR; in comparison with wild-type plants, the height and weight of OsSARD1-overexpressing plants were significantly greater after GR irradiation. In addition, OsSARD1 protein was abundantly accumulated in the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that OsSARD1 plays an important role in the regulation of the defense responses to GR and IB irradiation and exhibits phytohormone induced expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Mecanismos de Defesa , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Raios gama , Íons Pesados , Doses de Radiação
18.
Genes Genet Syst ; 91(5): 245-256, 2017 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27582185

RESUMO

A high-salt environment represents environmental stress for most plants. Those that can grow and thrive in such an environment must have membrane transport systems that can respond effectively. Plant roots absorb Na+ from the soil, and the plant must maintain Na+ homeostasis to survive salt stress. A major mechanism by which salt-tolerant plants adapt to salt stress is through modulation of ion transport genes. We have subjected a population of rice plants to mutagenesis, and identified lines with both single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in membrane transport genes and altered responses to salt stress. Primers labeled with FAM or HEX fluorescent dyes were designed for nine target genes encoding membrane transport proteins that are believed to regulate salt stress tolerance. A TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genome) assay was performed on 2,961 M2 rice mutant lines using electrophoresis. After the TILLING assay, a total of 41 mutant lines containing SNPs in the target genes were identified and screened. The average number of mutations per gene was 1/492 kb in lines having SNPs, and the percentage of mutation sites per total sequence was 0.67. Among the 41 lines, nine had altered sequences in the exon region of the genes. Of these nine lines, seven were tolerant to salt stress after exposure to 170 mM NaCl for three weeks, while the other two lines were not more salt-tolerant than the control lines. Furthermore, five mutant lines containing SNPs in the coding region of OsAKT1, OsHKT6, OsNSCC2, OsHAK11 and OsSOS1 showed changed expression levels for each gene. We conclude that variation in membrane transport genes, such as expression levels and protein structures, may affect the rice plant's tolerance to salt stress. These mutations represent traits that may be selected for large rice mutant populations, permitting efficient acquisition of salt-tolerant lines.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Primers do DNA , Raios gama , Mutagênese , Mutação/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação
19.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699037

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acid desaturases catalyze the conversion of dienoic fatty acids (C18:2 and C16:2) into trienoic fatty acids (C18:3 and C16:3), accounting for more than 50% of the total fatty acids in higher plants and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we describe a Thr residue located in the fourth transmembrane domain of fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) that is essential for the biosynthesis of ω-3 fatty acids in C. reinhardtii. The ω-3 fatty acid deficiency in strain CC-620, which contains a putative missense mutation at Thr286 of CrFAD7, was recovered by the overexpression of CC-125 CrFAD7. A Ser substitution in position 286 was able to partially complement the phenotype of the ω-3 fatty acid deficiency, but other substitution variants, such as Tyr, His, Cys, and Gly, failed to do so. Prediction of the phosphorylation target site revealed that Thr286 may be phosphorylated. Analysis of the structural conformation of CC-620 CrFAD7 via topology prediction (and bends in the helix) shows that this missense mutation may collapse the catalytic structure of CrFAD7. Taken together, this study suggests that Thr286 is essential for the maintaining the catalytic structure of CrFAD7.

20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 25(5): 637-47, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25563422

RESUMO

In this study, we attempted to understand signaling pathways behind lipid biosynthesis by employing a chemical genetics approach based on small molecule inhibitors. Specific signaling inhibitors of MAP kinase or modulators of cAMP signaling were selected to evaluate the functional roles of each of the key signaling pathways in three different microalgal species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Haematococcus pluvialis. Our results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are indeed positively associated with microalgal lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, MAP kinase pathways in three microalgal species are all negatively implicated in both lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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