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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360726

RESUMO

Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213113

RESUMO

Scent is one of the most important economic traits in Freesia hybrida. "Shiny Gold", a popular cultivar in South Korea, is widely cultivated for its scent. The relative scent intensity of "Shiny Gold" was approximately 16% higher in full-bloomed flower when compared to the yellow bud stage, while tissue-specifically, tepals showed higher intensity in electronic-nose (e-nose) analysis. E-nose analysis also showed that the scent intensity of "Shiny Gold" was higher and lower than "10C3-424" and "10C3-894", respectively, and was similar to "Yvonne". These results correlated to those of the olfactory tests. In total, 19 volatile compounds, including linalool, ß-ocimene, D-limonene, trans-ß-ionone were detected in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among these, linalool was the major volatile compound, accounting for 38.7% in "Shiny Gold". Linalool synthase and TPS gene expression corresponded to the scent intensity of the four cultivars, with the lowest expression in the "10C3-424". TPS 2, TPS 3, TPS 5, TPS 6 and TPS 8 were highly expressed in both bud and flower in "Shiny Gold", while the expression of TPS 4 was lower, relative to other TPS genes in both the flowering stages. These results may aid in enhancing scent composition in Freesia cultivars using marker-assisted selection.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906764

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an economically important ornamental crop across the globe. As floral color is the major factor determining customer selection, manipulation of floral color has been a major objective for breeders. Anthocyanins are one of the main pigments contributing to a broad variety of colors in the ray florets of chrysanthemum. Manipulating petal pigments has resulted in the development of a vast range of floral colors. Although the candidate genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis have been well studied, the genetic and transcriptional control of floral color remains unclear. Despite advances in multi-omics technology, these methods remain in their infancy in chrysanthemum, owing to its large complex genome and hexaploidy. Hence, there is a need to further elucidate and better understand the genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms in chrysanthemum, which can provide a basis for future advances in breeding for novel and diverse floral colors in this commercially beneficial crop. Therefore, this review describes the significance of anthocyanins in chrysanthemum flowers, and the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under genetic and environmental factors, providing insight into the development of novel colored ray florets. Genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms that control anthocyanin biosynthesis and the various breeding efforts to modify floral color in chrysanthemum are detailed.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(22): 9563-9575, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218377

RESUMO

Hairy root cultures (HRCs) are characterized by fast and unlimited root growth, and they have greater genetic stability than other cultivation methods. HRCs are known to accumulate phytochemical levels comparable to those of intact plant. In this study, HRCs of Polygonum multiflorum were established from leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain KCCM 11879. Over 60% of the explants showed hairy root induction after 21 days of cultivation on hormone-free MS (Murashige and Skoog Physiol Plant 15:473-479, 1962) medium; induced roots were confirmed by PCR using a rolC-specific primer. Of the six lines of HRCs selected for further analysis, line HR-01 performed best, producing a root biomass (105.2 g L-1 of FW, 9.7 g L-1 of DW), which is 10-fold higher than that of non-transgenic roots. The HR-01 line also showed a significant increase in its total phenolic content (26.64 mg g-1 DW), while non-transgenic roots accumulated 8.36 mg g-1 DW of total phenolic. The levels of phenolic compounds in the HRCs increased more than 2.5-fold following exposure to 50 µM methyl jasmonate for 5 days. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis of bioactive accumulation in P. multiflorum enabled discrimination between hairy root and adventitious root cultures. Thus, it is evident from this study that HRCs could be an attractive proposition for large-scale production of root biomass and secondary metabolites of P. multiflorum in bioreactors.


Assuntos
Fallopia multiflora/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Agrobacterium , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meios de Cultura/química , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1965, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204151

RESUMO

Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1) was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX) tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT) plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1-2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol) induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

6.
J Ginseng Res ; 38(1): 52-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24558311

RESUMO

To determine whether Fourier transform (FT)-IR spectral analysis combined with multivariate analysis of whole-cell extracts from ginseng leaves can be applied as a high-throughput discrimination system of cultivation ages and cultivars, a total of total 480 leaf samples belonging to 12 categories corresponding to four different cultivars (Yunpung, Kumpung, Chunpung, and an open-pollinated variety) and three different cultivation ages (1 yr, 2 yr, and 3 yr) were subjected to FT-IR. The spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. A dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering analysis of the FT-IR spectral data on ginseng leaves showed that leaf samples were initially segregated into three groups in a cultivation age-dependent manner. Then, within the same cultivation age group, leaf samples were clustered into four subgroups in a cultivar-dependent manner. The overall prediction accuracy for discrimination of cultivars and cultivation ages was 94.8% in a cross-validation test. These results clearly show that the FT-IR spectra combined with multivariate analysis from ginseng leaves can be applied as an alternative tool for discriminating of ginseng cultivars and cultivation ages. Therefore, we suggest that this result could be used as a rapid and reliable F1 hybrid seed-screening tool for accelerating the conventional breeding of ginseng.

7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 41(2): 1091-101, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24415294

RESUMO

Abiotic stress slows plant growth and development. Because salt stress, particularly from NaCl, acts as an important limiting factor in agricultural productivity, the identification and manipulation of genes related to salt tolerance could improve crop productivity. Prokaryotic, heat shock protein (Hsp), DnaK from the ubiquitous Hsp70 family is upregulated in cells that are under abiotic stress. Synechocystis spp. cyanobacteria encode at least three potential DnaK proteins in their genome. Here, expressions of dnaK1s and dnaK2s from two Synechocystis spp. PCC6803 (Sy6803) and PCC6906 (Sy6906), enhanced salt tolerance in a dnaK-defective Escherichia coli strain. In contrast, dnaK3s in both strains were ineffective, indicating that dnaK3 is functionally different from dnaK1 and dnaK2 in Synechocystis spp. under salt stress. Ectopic expression of dnaK2s from Sy6803 and Sy6906 conferred salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which exhibited greater root length, chlorophyll content, fresh weight, and survival rate than wild type plants, all in the presence of NaCl. In transgenic plants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation was reduced under NaCl stress and loss of chlorophyll content was reduced under H2O2 stress. Overall results suggest that dnaK2s from Sy6803 and Sy6906 confer salt and oxidative tolerance in transgenic plants by reduction of H2O2 accumulation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Synechocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Synechocystis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/biossíntese , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Synechocystis/metabolismo
8.
Plant Methods ; 7: 14, 2011 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21658279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficient high throughput screening systems of useful mutants are prerequisite for study of plant functional genomics and lots of application fields. Advance in such screening tools, thanks to the development of analytic instruments. Direct analysis in real-time (DART)-mass spectrometry (MS) by ionization of complex materials at atmospheric pressure is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical technique. Here we describe a rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by DART-MS. RESULTS: To determine whether this DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis can perform genetic discrimination based on global metabolic profiling, intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds were subjected to DART-MS without any sample preparation. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of DART-MS spectral data from intact seeds classified 14 different lines of seeds into two distinct groups: Columbia (Col-0) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype backgrounds. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) subdivided the Col-0 ecotype into two groups: mutant lines harboring defects in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants without these defects. These results indicated that metabolic profiling with DART-MS could discriminate intact Arabidopsis seeds at least ecotype level and metabolic pathway level within same ecotype. CONCLUSION: The described DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis allows for rapid screening and metabolic characterization of lots of Arabidopsis mutant seeds without complex metabolic preparation steps. Moreover, potential novel metabolic markers can be detected and used to clarify the genetic relationship between Arabidopsis cultivars. Furthermore this technique can be applied to predict the novel gene function of metabolic mutants regardless of morphological phenotypes.

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