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1.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117651, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426396

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance in aquatic ecosystems presents an environmental health issue worldwide. Urban recipient water quality is susceptible to effluent discharges with antibiotic resistance contaminants and needs to be protected, particularly for those as sources of drinking water production. Knowledge on aquatic resistome profiles in downstream of wastewater treatment plants allows a better understanding of the extent to which antibiotic resistance contaminants emerge and spread in recipient waters, but such information remains very limited in Sweden. The key objective of this study was to determine the resistome profiles of numerous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and other genes in urban recipient water systems connected to Sweden's major drinking water reservoir. This was achieved through analysis of surface water samples for 296 genes using high-throughput quantitative PCR arrays. A total of 167 genes were detected in at least one of the samples, including 150 ARGs conferring resistance to 11 classes of antibiotics, 7 integrase MGEs and 9 other genes. There was a spatial difference in the resistome profiles with the greatest average relative abundance of resistance genes observed in the water body of Västerås followed by Uppsala, Stockholm and Eskilstuna, as similar to the general pattern of the antibiotic sales for these regions. ARGs against ß-lactams and sulfonamides showed the highest average relative abundance in the studied water bodies, while vancomycin resistance genes were only found in the Uppsala water environment. Generally, the recipient water bodies were detected with higher numbers of genes and greater relative abundances as compared to the upstream sites. Anthropogenic pollution, i.e., wastewater discharge, in the recipient water was also reflected by the finding of intI, sul1 and crAssphage. Overall, this study provided the first quantitative assessment of aquatic environmental resistomes in Sweden, highlighting the widespread of antibiotic resistance contaminants in urban recipient waters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Ecossistema , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Suécia , Águas Residuárias
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112495, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265536

RESUMO

The environment contains a multitude of man-made chemicals, some of which can act as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), while others can be immunotoxic. We evaluated thyroid disruption and immunotoxic effects in wild female perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from two contaminated areas in Sweden; one site contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and two sites contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with one reference site included for each area. The hepatic mRNA expression of thyroid receptors α and ß, and the thyroid hormone metabolising iodothyronine deiodinases (dio1, dio2 and dio3) were measured using real-time PCR, while the levels of thyroid hormone T3 in plasma was analysed using a radioimmunoassay. In addition, lymphocytes, granulocytes, and thrombocytes were counted microscopically. Our results showed lower levels of T3 as well as lower amounts of lymphocytes and granulocytes in perch collected from the PFAS-contaminated site compared to reference sites. In addition, expressions of mRNA coding for thyroid hormone metabolising enzymes (dio2 and dio3) and thyroid receptor α (thra) were significantly different in these fish compared to their reference site. For perch collected at the two PCB-contaminated sites, there were no significant differences in T3 levels or in expression levels of the thyroid-related genes, compared to the reference fish. Fish from one of the PCB-contaminated sites had higher levels of thrombocytes compared with both the second PCB lake and their reference lake; hence PCBs are unlikely to be the cause of this effect. The current study suggests that lifelong exposure to PFASs could affect both the thyroid hormone status and immune defence of perch in the wild.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Percas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10343-10353, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291901

RESUMO

Pesticides are widespread anthropogenic chemicals and well-known environmental contaminants of concern. Much less is known about transformation products (TPs) of pesticides and their presence in the environment. We developed a novel suspect screening approach for not well-explored pesticides (n = 16) and pesticide TPs (n = 242) by integrating knowledge from national monitoring with high-resolution mass spectrometry data. Weekly time-integrated samples were collected in two Swedish agricultural streams using the novel Time-Integrating, MicroFlow, In-line Extraction (TIMFIE) sampler. The integration of national monitoring data in the screening approach increased the number of prioritized compounds approximately twofold (from 23 to 42). Ultimately, 11 pesticide TPs were confirmed by reference standards and 12 TPs were considered tentatively identified with varying levels of confidence. Semiquantification of the newly confirmed TPs indicated higher concentrations than their corresponding parent pesticides in some cases, which highlights concerns related to (unknown) pesticide TPs in the environment. Some TPs were present in the environment without co-occurrence of their corresponding parent compounds, indicating higher persistency or mobility of the identified TPs. This study showcased the benefits of integrating monitoring knowledge in this type of studies, with advantages for suspect screening performance and the possibility to increase relevance of future monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13510, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188128

RESUMO

Consumption of illicit drugs poses health risks to the public and environment. Knowledge on their usage helps better implementations of intervention strategies to reduce drug-related harms in the society and also policies to limit their releases as emerging contaminants to recipient environments. This study aimed to investigate from the daily consumption to treatment efficiency and subsequent discharge of illicit drugs by the Swedish urban populations based on simultaneous collection and analysis of influent and effluent wastewater. Two different weekly monitoring campaigns showed similar drug prevalence in Stockholm and Uppsala, with amphetamine as the most popular drug. Almost all target drug residues were still measurable in effluent wastewater. High removal efficiencies (> 94%) were observed for amphetamine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine, whereas ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), mephedrone and methamphetamine were the least removed substances (< 64%), with the highest discharge observed for MDMA in both catchments (~ 3.0 g/day in Uppsala; ~ 18 g/day in Stockholm). Our study provides new insights into short-term changes in the use and related discharge of illicit drugs by urban populations. Such wastewater monitoring can provide useful information to public health, forensic and environmental authorities in planning future intervention and regulation policies.

5.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134442

RESUMO

Historical use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Republic of Moldova could pose a potential risk for the aquatic environment due to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties of these environmental pollutants. However, knowledge on environmental concentrations of legacy OCPs in Moldova is limited. In this study, surface sediment from the two main rivers; Dniester (8 sites, n = 15) and Prut (6 sites, n = 12), and two tributary rivers; Bîc (11 sites, n = 11) and Raut (6 sites, n = 6), were collected during 2017-2018 and analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their transformation products (DDDs and DDEs) using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Sediment concentrations of Æ©6DDX (1.9-140 ng g-1 dry weight (dw)) and Æ©4HCHs (n.d-2.5 ng g-1 dw) were found. In the big rivers, the average Æ©6DDX concentration (18 ng g-1 dw) were 35 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.51 ng g-1 dw). Whereas, in the small rivers the average Æ©6DDX concentration (32 ng g-1 dw) was approximately 41 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.77 ng g-1 dw). Compared to previous studies from Eastern Europe, the sediment levels were generally similar as found in Moldova's neighboring countries (Romania and Ukraine). Overall, the contamination profile indicates long-term ageing of OCPs used in the past in the agricultural sector. Less than half of the sites (45%) had levels that pose a potential risk for benthic organisms. Hence, further work is needed to determine the bioaccumulation of OCPs in the aquatic food web in this region and the associated risks to ecosystems and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa Oriental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Moldávia , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Romênia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ucrânia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130799, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162120

RESUMO

Ion mobility separation (IMS) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (IMS-HRMS) is a promising technique for (non-)target/suspect analysis of micropollutants in complex matrices. IMS separates ionized compounds based on their charge, shape and size facilitating the removal of co-eluting isomeric/isobaric species. Additionally, IMS data can be translated into collision cross-section (CCS) values, which can be used to increase the identification reliability. However, IMS-HRMS for the screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) have been scarcely explored. In this study, the role of IMS-HRMS for the identification of CECs in complex matrices is highlighted, with emphasis on when and with which purpose is of use. The utilization of IMS can result in much cleaner mass spectra, which considerably facilitates data interpretation and the obtaining of reliable identifications. Furthermore, the robustness of IMS measurements across matrices permits the use of CCS as an additional relevant parameter during the identification step even when reference standards are not available. Moreover, an effect on the number of true and false identifications could be demonstrated by including IMS restrictions within the identification workflow. Data shown in this work is of special interest for environmental researchers dealing with the detection of CECs with state-of-the-art IMS-HRMS instruments.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Isomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fluxo de Trabalho
7.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130607, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971407

RESUMO

A new method is preliminarily validated for the simultaneous analysis of ionic and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in both particulate and gaseous phases in air using a nanosampler-20 air sampler (NS20) composed of quartz fiber filters (QFFs), polyurethane foam (PUF) and artificial activated charcoal (GAIAC™). Perfluoroalkane sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs) mainly remained in PUF, whereas the other neutral analytes were mainly found in GAIAC. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for FOSEs, fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs), ranging fron 70%-120%, moderate recoveries were achieved for perfluorinated iodine alkanes (FIAs) and diiodofluoroalkanes (FDIAs), ranging from 50%-70%, while poor recoveries were found for perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FOSAs). Breakthrough experiments revealed that almost all the target analytes were well trapped in GAIAC™, including the very volatile 4:2 FTOH. Applying to real sampling, our results showed that 6:2 and 8:2 FTOH were the most abundant species, with levels detected at 190 pg/m3 and 160 pg/m3. To the best of our knowledge, FDIAs were detected in ambient air for the first time at an average level of 8.3 pg/m3. Overall, the profiles observed from the real air samples reflected current industrial transition from longer chain to shorter chain in PFAS production. Our results revealed that the current method is promising for a more comprehensive understanding on the fates of PFASs in air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Álcoois , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Gases , Sulfonamidas/análise
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 7900-7909, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029071

RESUMO

Emergent aquatic insects are important food subsidies to riparian food webs but can also transfer waterborne contaminants to the terrestrial environment. This study aimed to quantitatively assess this biodriven transfer for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Aquatic insect larvae, emergent aquatic insects, terrestrial consumers, sediment, and water were collected from a contaminated lake and stream and an uncontaminated pond, and analyzed for PFAS and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Top predators in this study were spiders, which showed the highest average ∑24PFAS concentration of 1400 ± 80 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) at the lake and 630 ng g-1 dw at the stream. The transfer of PFAS from the lake to the riparian zone, via deposition of emergent aquatic insects, was 280 ng ∑24PFAS m-2 d-1 in 2017 and only 23 ng ∑24PFAS m-2 d-1 in 2018. Because of higher production of emergent aquatic insects, the lake had higher PFAS transfer and higher concentrations in terrestrial consumers compared to the stream, despite the stream having higher PFAS concentration in water and aquatic insect larvae. Our results indicate that biodriven transfer of PFAS from the aquatic systems and subsequent uptake in terrestrial food webs depend more on emergence amounts, i.e., aquatic prey availability, rather than on PFAS concentrations in water and aquatic prey.


Assuntos
Insetos , Aranhas , Animais , Carbono , Cadeia Alimentar , Rios
9.
Water Res ; 198: 117099, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930794

RESUMO

There is growing worry that drinking water can be affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), potentially threatening human health. In this study, a wide range of CECs (n = 177), including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and other compounds, were analysed in raw water and in drinking water collected from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Europe and Asia (n = 13). The impact of human activities was reflected in large numbers of compounds detected (n = 115) and high variation in concentrations in the raw water (range 15-7995 ng L-1 for ∑177CECs). The variation was less pronounced in drinking water, with total concentration ranging from 35 to 919 ng L-1. Treatment efficiency was on average 65 ± 28%, with wide variation between different DWTPs. The DWTP with the highest ∑CEC concentrations in raw water had the most efficient treatment procedure (average treatment efficiency 89%), whereas the DWTP with the lowest ∑177CEC concentration in the raw water had the lowest average treatment efficiency (2.3%). Suspect screening was performed for 500 compounds ranked high as chemicals of concern for drinking water, using a prioritisation tool (SusTool). Overall, 208 features of interest were discovered and three were confirmed with reference standards. There was co-variation between removal efficiency in DWTPs for the target compounds and the suspected features detected using suspect screening, implying that removal of known contaminants can be used to predict overall removal of potential CECs for drinking water production. Our results can be of high value for DWTPs around the globe in their planning for future treatment strategies to meet the increasing concern about human exposure to unknown CECs present in their drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Ásia , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123453, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707463

RESUMO

Remediation of soil contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is critical due to the high persistence and mobility of these compounds. In this study, stabilization and solidification (S/S) treatment was evaluated at pilot-scale using 6 tons of soil contaminated with PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foam. At pilot-scale, long-term PFAS removal over 6 years of precipitation (simulated using irrigation) in leachate from non-treated contaminated reference soil and S/S-treated soil with 15 % binder and 0.2 % GAC was compared. PFAS removal rate from leachate, corresponding to reduction in leaching potential after 6 years, was >97 % for four dominant PFASs (perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS)), but low (3%) for short-chain perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). During the pilot-scale experiment, PFAS sorption strength (i.e., soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd)) increased 2- to 40-fold for both reference and S/S-treated soil, to much higher levels than in laboratory-scale tests. However, PFAS behavior in pilot-scale and laboratory-scale tests was generally well-correlated (p < 0.001), which will help in future S/S recipe optimization. In addition, seven PFASs were tentatively identified using an automated suspect screening approach. Among these, perfluorohexanesulfonamide and 3:2 fluorotelomer alcohol were tentatively identified and the latter had low removal rates from leachate (<12 %) in S/S treatment.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123681, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113720

RESUMO

To date, there is no analytical approach available that allows the full identification and characterization of highly complex disinfection by-product (DBP) mixtures. This study aimed at investigating the chemodiversity of drinking water halogenated DBPs using diverse analytical tools: measurement of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) and mass spectrometry (MS)-based target and non-target analytical workflows. Water was sampled before and after chemical disinfection (chlorine or chloramine) at four drinking water treatment plants in Sweden. The target analysis had the highest sensitivity, although it could only partially explain the AOX formed in the disinfected waters. Non-target Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS analysis indicated that only up to 19 Cl and/or Br-CHO formulae were common to all disinfected waters. Unexpectedly, a high diversity of halogenated DBPs (presumed halogenated polyphenolic and highly unsaturated compounds) was found in chloraminated surface water, comparable to that found in chlorinated surface water. Overall, up to 86 DBPs (including isobaric species) were tentatively identified using liquid chromatography (LC)-Orbitrap MS. Although further work is needed to confirm their identity and assess their relevance in terms of toxicity, they can be used to design suspect lists to improve the characterization of disinfected water halogenated mixtures.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Suécia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123377, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652425

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are known point sources of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) to the aquatic environment, but current knowledge is mostly limited to well-known chemical structures. In this study, we sought to identify unknown CECs polluting the aquatic environment through a novel suspect screening approach for organohalogens, i.e. organic halogenated molecules often toxic and resistant to transformation and characterised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Surface water samples were collected with passive samplers in the Fyris River catchment (Uppsala, Sweden), analysed using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and screened for organohalogens using a suspect screening approach based on market data obtained from a regulatory authority. Thirteen suspects from very different application areas were confirmed or tentatively identified with high confidence, including seven previously unknown structures (diflufenican, chlorzoxazone, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, 2,4-disulfamyl-5-trifluoromethylaniline, 5-amino-2-chlorotoluene-4-sulfonic acid, perfluoropentane-1-sufonic acid, (2-chlorophenyl)(hydroxy)methanesulfonic acid). Spatiotemporal occurrence patterns were detected, which helped to understand the usage pattern of the chemicals and pinpoint potential pollution sources, e.g. specific WWTPs in the catchment. Several of the newly identified structures had virtually no information publicly available and were detected years after their last registered use, which highlights the knowledge gaps and concerns about POPs.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142122, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920399

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered the main sources of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in aquatic environments, and can negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. In this study, WWTP influent, effluent, and sludge, and upstream and downstream waters from the WWTP recipient were investigated at 15 locations for a total of 164 CECs, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, industrial chemicals, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and pesticides. In addition, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity tests (ZFET) were applied to WWTP influent and effluent, and upstream and downstream waters from WWTP recipients. A total of 119 CECs were detected in at least one sample, mean concentrations ranging from 0.11 ng/L (propylparaben) to 64,000 ng/L (caffeine), in wastewater samples and from 0.44 ng/L (ciprofloxacin) to 19,000 ng/L (metformin) in surface water samples. Large variations of CEC concentrations were found between the selected WWTPs, which can be explained by differences in CEC composition in influent water and WWTP treatment process. The sludge-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of CECs showed a significant linear correlation to octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) (p < 0.001), and thus could be used for predicting their fate in the aqueous and solid phase. The ΣCEC concentrations in WWTPs declined by on average 60%, based on comparisons of WWTP influent and effluent concentrations. The high concentrations of CECs in WWTP effluent resulted in, on average, 50% higher concentrations of CECs in water downstream of WWTPs compared with upstream. Some WWTP samples showed toxicity in ZFET compared with the respective control group, but no individual CECs or groups of CECs could explain this toxicity. These results could provide a theoretical basis for optimization of existing treatment systems of different designs, and could significantly contribute to protecting recipient waters.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(24): 15722-15730, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244971

RESUMO

An improved quantitative and qualitative understanding of the interaction of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and short-range ordered Fe (hydr)oxides is crucial for environmental risk assessment in environments low in natural organic matter. Here, we present data on the pH-dependent sorption behavior of 12 PFASs onto ferrihydrite. The nature of the binding mechanisms was investigated by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and by phosphate competition experiments. Sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy showed that the sulfur atom of the head group of the sulfonated PFASs retained an oxidation state of +V after adsorption. Furthermore, the XANES spectra did not indicate any involvement of inner-sphere surface complexes in the sorption process. Adsorption was inversely related to pH (p < 0.05) for all PFASs (i.e., C3-C5 and C7-C9 perfluorocarboxylates, C4, C6, and C8 perfluorosulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, and 6:2 and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonates). This was attributed to the pH-dependent charge of the ferrihydrite surface, as reflected in the decrease of surface ζ-potential with increasing pH. The importance of surface charge for PFAS adsorption was further corroborated by the observation that the adsorption of PFASs decreased upon phosphate adsorption in a way that was consistent with the decrease in ferrihydrite ζ-potential. The results show that ferrihydrite can be an important sorbent for PFASs with six or more perfluorinated carbons in acid environments (pH ≤ 5), particularly when phosphate and other competitors are present in relatively low concentrations.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Adsorção , Alcanossulfonatos , Compostos Férricos
15.
Talanta ; 219: 121294, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887036

RESUMO

A new extraction method with limited clean-up requirements prior to screening various matrices for organic micropollutants using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for analysis was developed. First, the performance of three extraction methods (QuEChERS with SPE clean-up, ultrasonication with SPE clean-up, extraction without SPE clean-up) was tested, optimized, and compared using >200 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) together covering a wide range of physicochemical properties applicable for suspect and non-target screening in biota. White-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) muscle tissue was used in method development and optimization. The method without SPE clean-up was then applied to European perch (Perca fluviatilis) muscle, heart, and liver tissues. The optimization and application of the method demonstrated a wide applicable domain of the novel extraction method regarding species, tissues, and chemicals. For future applications, the suitability of the method for suspect and non-target screening was tested. Overall, our extraction method appears to be sufficiently simple and broad (relatively non-discriminant) for use prior to analysis of CECs in various biota.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 12881-12889, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924452

RESUMO

A retrospective analysis of a comprehensive series of high-volume air samples (n = 70) collected during 2010-2011 in Toronto (Canada) was performed. Seven UV compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with sum of concentrations (gas + particle phase) ranging from 80 to 2030 pg/m3. Homosalate (HMS) was the most prevalent organic UV-filter in air (47% of the total concentration), followed by 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS, ∼29%), E- and Z-2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC, ∼17%). Ambient air (gas + particle phase) concentrations of organic UV-filters showed a strong seasonality, with peak levels during the summer. An analysis of Clausius-Clapeyron slopes indicated that much of the ambient burden of organic UV-filters are explained by volatilization from terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and supplemented with human activities and use of lotions and sunscreens, containing organic UV-filters, in addition to its use in plastics, textiles, paints, and pesticides. The results showed that organic UV-filters exist mainly in the gas phase with some exceptions, for instance, octocrylene (OCR), which was associated with both gas and particle phases, and avobenzone (AVB), which was predominantly in the particle phase. Lastly, this study revealed the need for basic physical chemical property data for organic UV-filters, including information on transformation rates and products, for better evaluating their environmental fate and effects.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Canadá , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Protetores Solares/análise
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 11951-11960, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870664

RESUMO

The occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic ecosystems is a global concern because of their persistence, potential bioaccumulation, and toxicity. In this study, we investigated a PFAS-contaminated pond in Sweden to assess the cross-boundary transfer of PFASs from the aquatic environment to the riparian zone via emergent aquatic insects. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, surface water, sediments, soils, and plants were analyzed for 24 PFASs including branched isomers. Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen was performed to elucidate the importance of diet and trophic position for PFAS uptake. We present the first evidence that PFASs can propagate to the riparian food web via aquatic emergent insects. Elevated Σ24PFAS concentrations were found in aquatic insect larvae, such as dragon- and damselflies, ranging from 1100 to 4600 ng g-1 dry weight (dw), and remained high in emerged adults (120-3500 ng g-1 dw), indicating exposure risks for top predators that prey in riparian zones. In terrestrial invertebrate consumers, PFAS concentrations increased with the degree of aquatic-based diet and at higher trophic levels. Furthermore, stable isotope data together with calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated that bioconcentration of PFASs was the major pathway of exposure in the aquatic food web and bioaccumulation in the riparian food web.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Suécia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764393

RESUMO

Contamination of the water and sediment with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was studied for the lake impacted by the release of PFAS-containing aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). PFAS concentrations were analyzed in lake water and sediment core samples. ΣPFAS concentrations were in the range of 95-100 ng L-1 in the lake water and 3.0-61 µg kg-1 dry weight (dw) in sediment core samples, both dominated by perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctane sulfonate; 6:2 fluortelomer sulfonate was inconsistently present in water and sediment core samples. The sediment-water partitioning coefficients (log Kd) were estimated and ranged 0.6-2.3 L kg-1 for individual perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 0.9-5.6 L kg-1 for individual perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs). The influence of the sediment inorganic content and organic matter on PFAS distribution was investigated. In studied sediments, the mineral content (corresponding to <5% of the bulk media mass) was mainly represented by sulfur, iron and calcium. The PFAS distribution was found strongly connected to the sediment mineral content (i.e., Fe, Pb, Rb and As), whereas the sediment organic carbon content did not to have a direct influence on the PFAS distribution. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the PFAS distribution in the natural heterogeneous media.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Lagos , Minerais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Water Res ; 182: 115913, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585466

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been ubiquitously detected in drinking water which poses a risk for human exposure. In this study, the treatment efficiency for the removal of 15 PFASs was examined in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in the City of Uppsala, Sweden, over a period of two years (2015-2017). Removal of the five frequently detected PFASs was influenced by the total operation time of granular activated carbon (GAC) filters, GAC type and surface loading rate. The average removal efficiency of PFASs ranged from 92 to 100% for "young" GAC filters and decreased to 7.0-100% for "old" GAC filters (up to 357 operation days, 29 300 bed volumes (BV) treated). Flow-rates were adjusted in two full-scale GAC filters of different operational age to examine the removal of PFAS and organic matter depending on GAC operational age and operating flow. The decrease in flow-rate by 10 L s-1 from 39 to 29 L s-1 led to an average increase of 14% and 6.5% in total PFAS removal efficiency for an "old" (264 operation days, 21 971 BV treated) and a "young" GAC filter (63 operation days, 5 725 BV treated), respectively. A cost-analysis for various operation scenarios illustrated the dominating effect of treatment goals and costs for GAC regeneration on overall GAC operation costs. The unit costs for GAC filters ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 € m-3 water treated and 0.020-0.025 € m-3 water treated for a treatment goal of 10 ng L-1 and 85 ng L-1, respectively, for ∑11PFAS. Furthermore, it was concluded that prolonging the GAC service life by lowering the flow-rates after reaching the treatment goal could lead to a 26% cost-deduction. The results and methods presented in this study give drinking water providers valuable tools for the operation of a full-scale treatment train for the removal of PFAS in contaminated raw water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Suécia
20.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127293, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535449

RESUMO

The occurrence and distribution of 111 organic micropollutants (OMPs) were evaluated in water and sediment samples from Lake Mälaren, Sweden, using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The partitioning of contaminants between lake compartments was estimated using solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (KOC). In total, 30 and 24 OMPs were detected in lake water and sediment, respectively. Concentrations ranged from low ng/L to 89 ng/L (lamotrigine) in lake water and from low ng/g dry weight (dw) to 28 ng/g dw (citalopram) in sediment. Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, and tolyltriazole were the dominant compounds in Lake Mälaren samples (both water and sediment). Seventeen OMPs were detected in both water and sediment samples, including carbamazepine, DEET, tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, caffeine, lamotrigine, and cetirizine. Log Kd values varied between 0.84 for lamotrigine and 4.4 for citalopram, while log KOC values varied between 2.1 for lamotrigine and 5.9 for citalopram. These results indicate that sorption to sediment plays a minor role in removal of all OMPs analyzed in the aqueous phase except for citalopram and cetirizine, which showed high sorption potential. The environmental risks of OMPs were assessed based on the RQ values. The worst-case scenario for environmental risk assessment was conducted using the maximum measured environment concentration. For most of the target OMPs, including tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, fexofenadine, oxazepam, cetirizine, and diclofenac, the RQ values were below 0.01, indicating low or no risk to lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Suécia
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