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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 48, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pan-European approach to evaluate policy impact on health behaviour requires the employment of a consensus set of established and relevant indicators. METHODS: As part of the Joint Programming Initiative on a Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life, the Policy Evaluation Network PEN identified key indicators of health behaviours and their determinants. These key indicators are already, or have the potential to be, adopted by large European Union surveillance systems for the assessment of policy impact. The iterative selection process included consultations in two rounds via email prior to a 2-days expert workshop. The experts collated a list of dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary behaviour indicators for European policy monitoring in young and adult populations based on existing frameworks and literature reviews. The expert panel was composed of researchers, policy makers and representatives of major European surveillance systems and related initiatives, as well as, representatives of organisations providing monitoring data, such as the European Commission and Eurostat. RESULTS: The process provided two lists of key indicators including 37 diet 'policy' indicators and 35 indicators for dietary behaviour and their 'determinants'; as well as 32 physical activity 'policy' indicators and 35 indicators for physical activity, sedentary behaviour and their 'determinants'. CONCLUSION: A total of 139 key indicators related to the individual, the setting and the population level, and suitable for the assessment of dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were prioritised by policy makers and researchers with the ultimate aim to embed policy evaluation measures in existing surveillance systems across the European Union. In a next step, data sources and suitable instruments will be identified to assess these key indicators.

2.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness (MF and CRF) have been related to inflammation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fitness and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children both in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-seven children (46.2% males) aged 2-9 years with hs-CRP measured, data from MF and CRF, diet quality, objectively measured physical activity (PA) and screen time at baseline and follow-up after 2 years were included. Body mass index z-score (zBMI), waist circumference (WC) and fat mass index (FMI) were assessed. MF and CRF were also dichotomized as follows: low-medium quartiles (Q1-Q3) and highest quartile (Q4). RESULTS: At follow-up, children with the highest CRF (Q4) showed a lower probability of having high hs-CRP. In the longitudinal analysis, children who improved their CRF over time showed a significantly lower probability (p < 0.05) of being in the highest hs-CRP category at follow-up, independently of the body composition index considered: odds ratio (OR) = 0.22 for zBMI, OR = 0.17 for WC, and OR = 0.21 for FMI. CONCLUSIONS: Improving CRF during childhood reduces the odds of an inflammatory profile, independently of body composition and lifestyle behaviours. These highlight the importance of enhancing fitness, especially CRF, to avoid an inflammatory state in children. IMPACT: Improvements in the cardiorespiratory profile during childhood could reverse an unfavourable inflammatory status. There is a longitudinal and inverse association between CRF and inflammation in children. This is the first longitudinal study assessing the relationship between fitness and inflammation during childhood that takes also into account the lifestyle behaviours. Results from the present study suggest a protective role of fitness already in childhood. Efforts to improve fitness in children should be aimed at as inflammation could trigger future cardiovascular disease.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a complex multifaceted condition, which is influenced by genetics, environmental factors, and their interaction. However, these interactions have mainly been studied in twin studies and evidence from population-based cohorts is limited. Here, we analyze the interaction of an obesity-related genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors for BMI and waist circumference (WC) in European children and adolescents. METHODS: The analyses are based on 8609 repeated observations from 3098 participants aged 2-16 years from the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort. A genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated using summary statistics from independent genome-wide association studies of BMI. Associations were estimated using generalized linear mixed models adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, parental education, dietary intake, relatedness, and population stratification. RESULTS: The PRS was associated with BMI (beta estimate [95% confidence interval (95%-CI)] = 0.33 [0.30, 0.37], r2 = 0.11, p value = 7.9 × 10-81) and WC (beta [95%-CI] = 0.36 [0.32, 0.40], r2 = 0.09, p value = 1.8 × 10-71). We observed significant interactions with demographic and lifestyle factors for BMI as well as WC. Children from Southern Europe showed increased genetic liability to obesity (BMI: beta [95%-CI] = 0.40 [0.34, 0.45]) in comparison to children from central Europe (beta [95%-CI] = 0.29 [0.23, 0.34]), p-interaction = 0.0066). Children of parents with a low level of education showed an increased genetic liability to obesity (BMI: beta [95%-CI] = 0.48 [0.38, 0.59]) in comparison to children of parents with a high level of education (beta [95%-CI] = 0.30 [0.26, 0.34]), p-interaction = 0.0012). Furthermore, the genetic liability to obesity was attenuated by a higher intake of fiber (BMI: beta [95%-CI] interaction = -0.02 [-0.04,-0.01]) and shorter screen times (beta [95%-CI] interaction = 0.02 [0.00, 0.03]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that a healthy childhood environment might partly offset a genetic predisposition to obesity during childhood and adolescence.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic disadvantage (low education and/or income) and head and neck cancer is well established, with smoking and alcohol consumption explaining up to three-quarters of the risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of and explanations for head and neck cancer risk associated with occupational socioeconomic prestige (a perceptual measure of psychosocial status), occupational socioeconomic position and manual-work experience, and to assess the potential explanatory role of occupational exposures. METHODS: Pooled analysis included 5818 patients with head and neck cancer (and 7326 control participants) from five studies in Europe and South America. Lifetime job histories were coded to: (1) occupational social prestige-Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS); (2) occupational socioeconomic position-International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI); and (3) manual/non-manual jobs. RESULTS: For the longest held job, adjusting for smoking, alcohol and nature of occupation, increased head and neck cancer risk estimates were observed for low SIOPS OR=1.88 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.17), low ISEI OR=1.74 (95% CI: 1.51 to 1.99) and manual occupations OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.64). Following mutual adjustment by socioeconomic exposures, risk associated with low SIOPS remained OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.94). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that low occupational socioeconomic prestige, position and manual work are associated with head and neck cancer, and such risks are only partly explained by smoking, alcohol and occupational exposures. Perceptual occupational psychosocial status (SIOPS) appears to be the strongest socioeconomic factor, relative to socioeconomic position and manual/non-manual work.

5.
Obes Facts ; 14(1): 32-44, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are becoming less physically active as opportunities for safe active play, recreational activities, and active transport decrease. At the same time, sedentary screen-based activities both during school and leisure time are increasing. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA), screen time, and sleep duration of girls and boys aged 6-9 years in Europe using data from the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). METHOD: The fourth COSI data collection round was conducted in 2015-2017, using a standardized protocol that included a family form completed by parents with specific questions about their children's PA, screen time, and sleep duration. RESULTS: Nationally representative data from 25 countries was included and information on the PA behaviour, screen time, and sleep duration of 150,651 children was analysed. Pooled analysis showed that: 79.4% were actively playing for >1 h each day, 53.9% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 50.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 60.2% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 84.9% slept for 9-11 h/night. Country-specific analyses of these behaviours showed pronounced differences, with national prevalences in the range of 61.7-98.3% actively playing for >1 h/day, 8.2-85.6% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 17.7-94.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 32.3-80.0% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 50.0-95.8% slept for 9-11 h/night. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of engagement in PA and the achievement of healthy screen time and sleep duration are heterogenous across the region. Policymakers and other stakeholders, including school administrators and parents, should increase opportunities for young people to participate in daily PA as well as explore solutions to address excessive screen time and short sleep duration to improve the overall physical and mental health and well-being of children.

6.
Psychosom Med ; 82(8): 764-773, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research examining aspects of positive mental health as potential predictors of cardiometabolic health in young populations is scarce. We investigated the associations between psychosocial well-being and waist circumference (WAIST), blood pressure (BP), the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol considering life-style factors as mediators. METHODS: Data of European children and adolescents participating in the baseline (2007/2008), first follow-up (FU1; 2009/2010) and second follow-up (FU2; 2013/2014) examinations of the IDEFICS/I.Family study were used (ncross-sectional = 6519; nlongitudinal = 1393). A psychosocial well-being score was calculated from 16 items on emotional well-being, self-esteem, and social relationships (0-48 points). Cardiometabolic markers were transformed to age- and sex-specific and, in case of BP, also height-specific z scores. Life-style factors included diet, physical activity, sleep, and electronic media use. Applying path analysis, we obtained unstandardized estimates of direct and indirect effects of well-being on cardiometabolic markers. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, well-being score showed a negative direct and a negative indirect effect through life-style factors on WAIST z score (estimate per 4-point increase, -0.051 [p = .001] and -0.014 [p < .001], respectively). Longitudinally, positive changes in well-being score between baseline and FU1 and between FU1 and FU2, respectively, demonstrated negative indirect effects through life-style factorsFU2 on WAIST z scoreFU2. Both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, higher levels of well-being showed lowering indirect effects on homeostasis model assessment, BP, and triglyceride z scores and an increasing indirect effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol z score through both life-style factors and WAIST z score. CONCLUSIONS: These results supported our hypothesis that a healthier life-style may be one mechanism through which higher well-being is linked with lower abdominal obesity and fewer other cardiometabolic disorders in young populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-European IDEFICS/I.Family children cohort, ISRCTN registry number: ISRCTN62310987 (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN62310987).

7.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(11): 2236-2245, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify the effects of lifestyle, C-reactive protein (CRP) and non-modifiable risk factors on metabolic disturbances in the transition from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: In 3889 children of the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort, latent transition analysis was applied to estimate probabilities of metabolic disturbances based on waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids assessed at baseline and at 2- and 6-year follow-ups. Multivariate mixed-effects models were used to assess the age-dependent associations of lifestyle, non-modifiable risk factors and CRP, with the transformed probabilities of showing abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or several metabolic disturbances (reference: being metabolically healthy). RESULTS: Higher maternal body mass index, familial hypertension as well as higher CRP z-score increased the risk for all four metabolic outcomes while low/medium parental education increased the risk of abdominal obesity and of showing several metabolic disturbances. Out of the lifestyle factors, the number of media in the bedroom, membership in a sports club, and well-being were associated with some of the outcomes. For instance, having at least one media in the bedroom increased the risk for showing several metabolic disturbances where the odds ratio (OR) markedly increased with age (1.30 [95% confidence interval 1.18; 1.43] at age 8; 1.18 [1.14; 1.23] for interaction with age; i.e., resulting in an OR of 1.30 × 1.18 = 1.53 at age 9 and so forth). Further, entering puberty at an early age was strongly associated with the risk of abdominal obesity (2.43 [1.60; 3.69] at age 8; 0.75 [0.69; 0.81] for interaction with age) and the risk of showing several metabolic disturbances (2.46 [1.53; 3.96] at age 8; 0.71 [0.65; 0.77] for interaction with age). CONCLUSIONS: Various factors influence the metabolic risk of children revealing the need for multifactorial interventions. Specifically, removing media from children's bedroom as well as membership in a sports club seem to be promising targets for prevention.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

10.
Menopause ; 27(9): 1081-1092, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852463

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Phytoestrogens are becoming popular constituents of human diets and are increasingly used by postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to determine the effects of phytoestrogen supplementation on intermediate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in postmenopausal women. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies, that is, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the association of phytoestrogen supplementation with CVD risk factors (serum lipids, homocysteine, fibrinogen, markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function, carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]) in postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a predefined data collection form. FINDINGS: In total, 56 RCTs were identified, including 4,039 individual postmenopausal women. There was substantial heterogeneity in quality across studies. Twenty-six (46%) RCTs showed poor quality and there was an indication of publication bias presence for some of the biomarkers. Results are reported in pooled mean difference (95% CI) of changes. Use of phytoestrogens was associated with a decrease in serum total cholesterol (-0.27 mmol/L [-0.41 to -0.13]), low-density lipoprotein (-0.25 mmol/L [-0.37 to -0.13]), triglycerides (-0.20 mmol/L [-0.28 to -0.11]), and apolipoprotein B (-0.13 g/L [-0.23 to -0.03]) and with an increase in serum apolipoprotein A-1 (0.04 g/L [0.02-0.07]. Also, phytoestrogen supplementation was associated with a decrease in serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (-18.86 ng/mL [-30.06 to -7.65]) and E-selectin (-2.32 ng/mL [-4.05 to -0.59]). There was no association observed between phytoestrogen supplementation and inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, homocysteine, or other endothelial function markers. In contrast, use of phytoestrogens was associated with an increase in CIMT (9.34 µm [95% CI, 0.39-18.29]). Effect estimates of phytoestrogen supplementation on oxidative stress could not be pooled. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Phytoestrogen supplementation seems to modestly improve the CVD risk profile of postmenopausal women by influencing blood lipids and parameters of endothelial function. In women with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, although modest, a harmful effect on CIMT progression may be present. Because of limited quality and the heterogeneous nature of the current evidence, additional rigorous studies are needed to explore the role of phytoestrogens in menopausal cardiovascular health. : Video Summary: http://links.lww.com/MENO/A593.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration has been suggested to lead to insulin resistance both directly by altering glucose metabolism and indirectly through obesity. This study aims to investigate associations between nocturnal sleep duration and insulin resistance considering abdominal obesity as a mediator. METHODS: We analysed data of 3 900 children aged 2-15 years participating in the second (2009/10) and third (2013/14) examination wave of the European IDEFICS/I.Family study (hereafter referred to as baseline and follow-up). Information on nocturnal sleep duration was collected by questionnaires and age-standardised (SLEEP z-score). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated from fasting insulin and fasting glucose obtained from blood samples; waist circumference (WAIST) was measured with an inelastic tape. HOMA and WAIST were used as indicators for insulin resistance and abdominal obesity, respectively, and transformed to age- and sex-specific z-scores. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SLEEP z-score and HOMA z-score were investigated based on a path model considering WAIST z-score as a mediator adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, baseline SLEEP z-score was negatively associated with baseline WAIST z-score (unstandardised effect estimate -0.120, 95% confidence interval [-0.167; -0.073]). We observed no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on baseline HOMA z-score but a negative indirect effect through baseline WAIST z-score (-0.042 [-0.058; -0.025]). Longitudinally, there was no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on HOMA z-score at follow-up but a negative indirect effect through both baseline WAIST z-score and WAIST z-score at follow-up (-0.028 [-0.040; -0.016]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between short sleep duration and insulin resistance independent of abdominal obesity. However, longer sleep duration may exert short and long term beneficial effects on insulin resistance through its beneficial effects on abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sono , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(10): 937-948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681390

RESUMO

Rare cancers together constitute one fourth of cancers. As some rare cancers are caused by occupational exposures, a systematic search for further associations might contribute to future prevention. We undertook a European, multi-center case-control study of occupational risks for cancers of small intestine, bone sarcoma, uveal melanoma, mycosis fungoides, thymus, male biliary tract and breast. Incident cases aged 35-69 years and sex-and age-matched population/colon cancer controls were interviewed, including a complete list of jobs. Associations between occupational exposure and cancer were assessed with unconditional logistic regression controlled for sex, age, country, and known confounders, and reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Interviewed were 1053 cases, 2062 population, and 1084 colon cancer controls. Male biliary tract cancer was associated with exposure to oils with polychlorinated biphenyls; OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.9); male breast cancer with exposure to trichloroethylene; OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.3); bone sarcoma with job as a carpenter/joiner; OR 4.3 (95% CI 1.7-10.5); and uveal melanoma with job as a welder/sheet metal worker; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.52); and cook; OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.4-4.3). A confirmatory study of printers enhanced suspicion of 1,2-dichloropropane as a risk for biliary tract cancer. Results contributed to evidence for classification of welding and 1,2-dichloropronane as human carcinogens. However, despite efforts across nine countries, for some cancer sites only about 100 cases were interviewed. The Rare Cancer Study illustrated both the strengths and limitations of explorative studies for identification of etiological leads.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Raras/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Curr Obes Rep ; 9(3): 219-230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594318

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Omics-based technologies were suggested to provide an advanced understanding of obesity etiology and its metabolic consequences. This review highlights the recent developments in "omics"-based research aimed to identify obesity-related biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in obesity and metabolism research increasingly rely on new technologies to identify mechanisms in the development of obesity using various "omics" platforms. Genetic and epigenetic biomarkers that translate into changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome could serve as targets for obesity prevention. Despite a number of promising candidate biomarkers, there is an increased demand for larger prospective cohort studies to validate findings and determine biomarker reproducibility before they can find applications in primary care and public health. "Omics" biomarkers have advanced our knowledge on the etiology of obesity and its links with chronic diseases. They bring substantial promise in identifying effective public health strategies that pave the way towards patient stratification and precision prevention.

14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 37, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and physical activity policies have the potential to influence lifestyle patterns and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. In the world of health-related guidelines, GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) is the most widely used approach for assessing the certainty of evidence and determining the strength of recommendations. Thus, it is relevant to explore its usefulness also in the process of nutrition and physical activity policymaking and evaluation. The purpose of this scoping review was (i) to generate an exemplary overview of documents using the GRADE approach in the process of nutrition and physical activity policymaking and evaluation, (ii) to find out how the GRADE approach has been applied, and (iii) to explore which facilitators of and barriers to the use of GRADE have been described on the basis of the identified documents. The overarching aim of this work is to work towards improving the process of evidence-informed policymaking in the areas of dietary behavior, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted according to current reporting standards. MEDLINE via Ovid, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched up until 4 July 2019. Documents describing a body of evidence which was assessed for the development or evaluation of a policy, including documents labeled as "guidelines," or systematic reviews used to inform policymaking were included. RESULTS: Thirty-six documents were included. Overall, 313 GRADE certainty of evidence ratings were identified in systematic reviews and guidelines; the strength of recommendations/policies was assessed in four documents, and six documents mentioned facilitators or barriers for the use of GRADE. The major reported barrier was the initial low starting level of a body of evidence from non-randomized studies when assessing the certainty of evidence. CONCLUSION: This scoping review found that the GRADE approach has been used for policy evaluations, in the evaluation of the effectiveness of policy-relevant interventions (policymaking), as well as in the development of guidelines intended to guide policymaking. Several areas for future research were identified to explore the use of GRADE in health policymaking and evaluation.

15.
Maturitas ; 135: 6-26, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252966

RESUMO

Sex is a major determinant of cardiometabolic risk. DNA methylation (DNAm), an important epigenetic mechanism that differs between sexes, has been associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies in adults investigating sex-specific associations of DNAm with intermediate cardiometabolic traits and incident cardiovascular disease including stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Five bibliographic databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2019. We selected 35 articles (based on 30 unique studies) from 17,023 references identified, with a total of 14,020 participants of European, North American or Asian ancestry. Four studies reported sex differences between global DNAm and blood lipid levels and stroke risk. In 25 studies that took a genome wide or candidate gene approach, DNAm at 31 gene sites was associated with sex differences in cardiometabolic diseases. The identified genes were PLA2G7, BCL11A, KDM6A, LIPC, ABCG1, PLTP, CETP, ADD1, CNN1B, HOOK2, GFBP-7,PTPN1, GCK, PTX3, ABCG1, GALNT2, CDKN2B, APOE, CTH, GNASAS, INS, PON1, TCN2, CBS, AMT, KDMA6A, FTO, MAP3K13, CCDC8, MMP-2 and ER-α. Prioritized pathway connectivity analysis associated these genes with biological pathways such as vitamin B12 metabolism, statin pathway, plasma lipoprotein, plasma lipoprotein assembly, remodeling and clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Our findings suggest that DNAm might be a promising molecular strategy for understanding sex differences in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases and that future studies should investigate the effects of sex on epigenetic mechanisms in cardiometabolic risk. In addition, we emphasize the gap between the translational potential and the clinical utilization of cardiometabolic epigenetics.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Humanos
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 54, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and bone health may be differentially affected by weight status during growth. This study aims to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA, SB and bone stiffness index (SI) in European children and adolescents, taking the weight status into consideration. METHODS: Calcaneus SI was first measured by quantitative ultrasound among children aged 2-9 years old in 2007/08. It was measured again after 2 years in the IDEFICS study and after 6 years in the I. Family study. A sample of 2008 participants with time spent at sports clubs, watching TV and playing computer/games self-reported by questionnaire, and a subsample of 1037 participants with SB, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers were included in the analyses. Weight status was defined as thin/normal and overweight/obese according to the extended International Obesity Task Force criteria. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA, SB and SI percentiles, stratified by weight status. RESULTS: The cross-sectional association between weekly duration of watching TV and SI percentiles was negative in thin/normal weight group (ß = - 0.35, p = 0.008). However, baseline weekly duration of watching TV (ß = - 0.63, p = 0.021) and change after 2 years (ß = - 0.63, p = 0.022) as well as the change in weekly duration of playing computer/games after 6 years (ß = - 0.75, p = 0.019) were inversely associated with corresponding changes in SI percentiles in overweight/obese group. Change in time spent at sports clubs was positively associated with change in SI percentiles after 2 years (ß = 1.28, p = 0.001), with comparable effect sizes across weight status. In the subsample with accelerometer data, we found a positive cross-sectional association between MVPA and SI percentiles in thin/normal weight group. Baseline MVPA predicted changes in SI percentiles after 2 and 6 years in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested the beneficial effect of PA on SI. However, the increasing durations of screen-based SB might be risk factors for SI development, especially in overweight/obese children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Calcâneo/patologia , Calcâneo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tempo de Tela , Autorrelato , Esportes
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7189, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346024

RESUMO

As the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and young adults is increasing, a better understanding of genetics that underlie MetS will provide critical insights into the origin of the disease. We examined associations of common genetic variants and repeated MetS score from early childhood to adolescence in a pan-European, prospective IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study with baseline survey and follow-up examinations after two and six years. We tested associations in 3067 children using a linear mixed model and confirmed the results with meta-analysis of identified SNPs. With a stringent Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons we obtained significant associations(p < 1.4 × 10-4) for 5 SNPs, which were in high LD (r2 > 0.85) in the 16q12.2 non-coding intronic chromosomal region of FTO gene with strongest association observed for rs8050136 (effect size(ß) = 0.31, pWald = 1.52 × 10-5). We also observed a strong association of rs708272 in CETP with increased HDL (p = 5.63 × 10-40) and decreased TRG (p = 9.60 × 10-5) levels. These findings along with meta-analysis advance etiologic understanding of childhood MetS, highlighting that genetic predisposition to MetS is largely driven by genes of obesity and lipid metabolism. Inclusion of the associated genetic variants in polygenic scores for MetS may prove to be fundamental for identifying children and subsequently adults of the high-risk group to allow earlier targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 50, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions to prevent paediatric obesity often target family and peer settings; their success is likely to depend on the influence that peers and families exert on children's lifestyle behaviors at different developmental stages. OBJECTIVE: First, to determine whether children's lifestyle behavior more closely resembles their peers' or siblings' behaviors. Secondly, to investigate longitudinally whether children's behavioral change is predicted by that of their peers or their siblings as they grow older. METHODS: The European prospective IDEFICS/I.Family cohort (baseline survey: 2007/2008, first follow-up: 2009/2010, and second follow-up: 2013/2014) aims at investigating risk factors for overweight and related behaviors during childhood and adolescence. The present investigation includes 2694 observations of children and their siblings aged 2 to 18 years. Peers were defined as same-sex, same-age children in the same community and identified from the full cohort. The longitudinal analysis (mean follow-up time: 3.7 years) includes 525 sibling pairs. Children's lifestyle behaviors including fast food consumption (frequency/week), screen time (hours/week) and sports club participation (hours/week) were assessed by questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear models. RESULTS: Children's lifestyle behavior was associated with the respective behavior of their peers and sibling for all 3 behaviors. For fast food consumption, the peer resemblance was more than 6-fold higher than the sibling resemblance and the peer resemblance surpassed the sibling resemblance by the age of 9-10 years. The similarities with peers for fast food consumption and screen time steadily increased, while the similarities with siblings steadily decreased with increasing age of the children (Pinteraction < 0.001). In contrast, the relative importance of peers and siblings on sports club duration did not vary by the age of the children. Longitudinal results showed that children's changes in fast food consumption were more strongly associated with those in their peer group than their sibling, in particular if the age gap between siblings was large. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results support the implementation of multi-setting interventions for improving lifestyle behaviors in children. Our findings might also guide future intervention studies in the choice of timing and setting in which interventions are likely to be most effective. From the ages of 9-10 years onwards, family- or home-based interventions targeting children's fast food intake and screen time behavior may become less effective than school- or community-based interventions aimed at peer groups.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Estilo de Vida , Infuência dos Pares , Tempo de Tela , Irmãos , Esportes , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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