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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth retardation is an important feature of celiac disease (CeD) that can lead to the failure of attainment of potential adult height. There is lack of data on the spectrum of height in treatment-naïve patients with CeD, with normal expected height at one end and short stature at the other. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database at our center, including a total of 583 treatment-naïve patients with CeD: 419 adults (183 [43.7%] males) and 164 adolescents (12-18 years) (72 [43.9%] males). The details extracted from the database included demographic details, height, weight, body mass index, clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody anti-tTG Ab) titer, and the severity of villous abnormalities (as per modified Marsh grade). The data from Indian National Family Health Survey-4 were used as comparators. RESULTS: Overall, 19.6% of adults and 57.9% of adolescents with CeD had short stature. While mean height of men with CeD was similar, women were taller than population controls. While a higher proportion of men with CeD had short stature as compared to the controls (32.2% vs. 20%, p<0.001), a lower proportion of women with CeD had short stature (9.7% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001). Higher proportion of adolescents with CeD had short stature compared to adults (57.9% vs. 19.6%, p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, adulthood was found to be associated with a lower prevalence of short stature. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 19.6% of adults and 57.9% of adolescents with CeD had short stature. While the mean height of adult men with CeD was not significantly different from the population controls, women were taller. Adolescents with CeD were significantly shorter than their peers.

4.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1990827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747326

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelium represents a dynamic and diverse cellular system that continuously interacts with gut commensals and external cues. Intestinal stem cells, which lie at the heart of epithelial renewal and turnover, proliferate to maintain a steady stem cell population and differentiate to form functional epithelial cell types. This rather sophisticated assembly-line is maintained by an elaborate micro-environment, sculpted by a myriad of host and gut microbiota-derived signals, forming an intestinal stem cell niche. This complex, yet crucial signaling niche undergoes dynamic changes during homeostasis and chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflammatory bowel disease refers to a chronic inflammatory response toward pathogenic or commensal microbiota, in a genetically susceptible host. Compositional and functional alterations in gut microbiota are pathognomonic of IBD.The present review highlights the modulatory role of gut microbiota on the intestinal stem cell niche during homeostasis and inflammatory bowel disease. We discuss the mechanisms of direct action of gut commensals (through microbiota-derived or microbiota-influenced metabolites) on ISCs, followed by their effects via other epithelial and immune cell types.

5.
JGH Open ; 5(10): 1190-1196, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622007

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Human Leukocyte Antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genotypes play a permissive role in the genesis of celiac disease (CeD). In this case-control study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine HLA-DQA1 and ~DQB1 genotypes and haplotypes associated with CeD in Indian patients. Methods: HLA-DQA1 and ~DQB1 loci were amplified, using long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), from DNA of 259 patients with symptomatic CeD (160 typical and 99 atypical), 45 asymptomatic CeD, 96 potential CeD, and 300 healthy adults. Amplicons were fragmented and sequenced on the Illumina platform, and alleles and haplotypes were assigned by matching against the HLA-international ImMunoGeneTics (IMGT) database. Results: HLA-DQA1*05:01 (odds ratio [OR] 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.64-12.47) and HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 8.59, 95% CI 5.75-12.83) were the genotypes that showed a risk association with symptomatic CeD. Among the haplotypes, HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 8.56, 95% CI 5.67-13.19) showed a strong risk association with symptomatic CeD. When comparing symptomatic CeD with subclinical forms (asymptomatic and potential) CeD, HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.61-3.43) was significantly associated with risk of symptomatic disease. The strength of association between the HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 haplotype and the CeD phenotype showed a gradient in the order typical > atypical > asymptomatic > potential CeD. Genotypes consistent with expression of HLA DQ2 and/or 8 were noted in 128 (80%) typical, 73 atypical (74%), 27 (60%) asymptomatic, and 52 (54%) potential CeD participants. Conclusion: HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (haplotype DQ2.5) showed a very strong risk association with symptomatic CeD in Indian patients. The strength of association showed a gradient of increase from potential to typical CeD, coinciding with a phenotypic change in the celiac iceberg.

6.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 18(3): 122-126, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691398
7.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While celiac disease (CeD) is considered to affect primarily the small intestine, pathological changes in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are also known to occur. IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase-2 antibody (anti-TG2 Ab) deposits at the site of involvement is one of the methods to establish CeD-related tissue pathology. AIMS: To explore the utility of IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits in pan-gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies as evidence of CeD-related pathologies. METHODS: Forty-two treatment-naive patients with CeD and 45 patients with irritable bowel syndrome were included as cases and controls, respectively. Mucosal biopsies were collected from the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and rectosigmoid regions at baseline from cases and controls, and additionally after 6-months of gluten-free diet in cases. All biopsies were evaluated for histological changes and subjected to dual-color immunohistochemical staining for identifying IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits. RESULTS: Significantly higher number of patients with CeD had lymphocytic esophagitis (9.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.05), lymphocytic gastritis (35% vs. 8.8%, P < 0.01) and lymphocytic colitis (17.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.05) than that in controls. IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits were observed in significantly more numbers in esophagus (30.9% vs. 6%, P < 0.001), stomach (62.2% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.01), duodenum (88.5% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) and rectum (17.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.05) than that in controls. There was a decline, but not statistically significant, in severity of lymphocytosis and intensity of IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits in follow-up biopsies. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher number of patients with CeD had evidence of lymphocytic infiltration and IgA anti-TG2 deposits along GIT suggesting that CeD affects other parts of GIT.

8.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1215-1227, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590904

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted this network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of targeted pharmacotherapies and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT). Patients & methods: Nineteen studies were included and there was only one head-to-head randomized controlled trial (adalimumab vs vedolizumab). Results: All interventions, including FMT, were superior to a placebo in inducing clinical remission (except adalimumab - odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI: 0.97-2.85), clinical response and endoscopic remission. FMT was comparable with other agents in achieving all efficacy outcomes. Infliximab was ranked highest in inducing clinical remission (surface under the cumulative ranking, 0.8). There was no difference in safety outcomes between FMT and other targeted therapies. Conclusion: FMT is as efficacious and as safe as other targeted therapies in inducing clinical remission, clinical response and endoscopic remission. Further studies to assess the long-term benefits are needed in order to reach a definitive conclusion.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crohn's disease (CD) and Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) are chronic inflammatory ulcero-constrictive intestinal diseases with similar phenotype. Although both are disease models of chronic inflammation and their clinical presentations, imaging, histological and endoscopic findings are very similar, yet their etiologies are diverse. Hence, we aimed to look at differences in the prevalence of pathobionts like adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica in CD and ITB as well as their associations with host-associated genetic polymorphisms in genes majorly involved in pathways of microbial handling and immune responses. METHODS: The study cohort included 142 subjects (69 patients with CD, 32 with ITB and 41 controls). RT- PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of AIEC, L. monocytogenes, C. jejuni, and Y. enterocolitica DNA in colonic mucosal biopsies. Additionally, we tested three SNPs in IRGM (rs13361189, rs10065172, and rs4958847), one SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and one SNP in TNFRSF1A (rs4149570) by real-time PCR with SYBR green from peripheral blood samples in this cohort. RESULTS: In patients with CD, AIEC was most frequently present (16/ 69, 23.19%) followed by L. monocytogenes (14/69, 20.29%), C. jejuni (9/69, 13.04%), and Y. enterocolitica (7/69, 10.14%). Among them, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were significantly associated with CD (p = 0.02). In addition, we identified all the three SNPs in IRGM (rs13361189, rs10065172, and rs4958847), one SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and TNFRSF1A (rs4149570) with a significant difference in frequency in patients with CD compared with ITB and controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence of host gene polymorphisms, as well as the presence of pathobionts, was seen in the colonic mucosa of patients with CD as compared to ITB, although both are disease models of chronic inflammation.

10.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 402-409, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the small intestine is the main site of disease, many other organs are affected by celiac disease (CeD). Dental enamel defects (DED) are common in patients with CeD, and these are one of the indicators of CeD, even when no other symptom of CeD is present. Data on dental and oral cavity manifestations in Asian patients with CeD are scanty. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate dental and oral manifestations in Asian patients with CeD. METHODS: We recruited 118 patients with biopsy-confirmed CeD (36 treatment naïve and 82 on follow-up for at least 1 year on gluten-free diet [GFD]) and 40 controls. Diagnosis was made as per the standard criteria. Oral and dental manifestations were evaluated by a dental surgeon. The DED were evaluated according to Aine's criteria. RESULTS: Overall higher number of patients with CeD (66.9%), both treatment naïve (69.4%) and those on GFD (65.8%) had DED in comparison to controls (20%) (odds ratio, 8.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-19.2; p<0.001). Specific/bilaterally symmetrical DED were significantly higher in patients with CeD than controls. Recurrent aphthous ulcers were also significantly higher in patients with CeD. Approximately 80.6% and 63.4% treatment-naïve patients and those on GFD, respectively reported dry mouth sensation, which was significantly higher than the controls. CONCLUSION: Almost two-third of patients with CeD had DED. Physicians and dietitians caring for patients with CeD should be trained in identification of DED and other oral manifestations of CeD.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with celiac disease (CeD) can commonly present with symptoms of dyspepsia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the present literature to assess the prevalence of CeD in patients diagnosed with dyspepsia. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for the keywords: celiac disease, coeliac disease, anti-gliadin, tissue transglutaminase antibody, anti-endomysial antibody, dyspepsia and functional gastrointestinal disorder. All the studies published from January 1991 till May 2021 were included. Diagnosis of CeD was based on the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines. A random-effects model was used to pool the data. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies screening 10,275 patients with dyspepsia were included. The pooled seroprevalence of CeD based on a positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody and/or anti-endomysial antibody was 4.8% (95% CI [2.8, 6.7%], I2 = 87.7%). The pooled biopsy-confirmed CeD prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI [1.0, 1.9%]; I2 = 59.8%) in these patients. Both seroprevalence (Odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI [0.8, 4.0%]; I2 = 0%) and prevalence of biopsy-confirmed CeD (Odds ratio: 1.4; 95% CI [0.8, 2.4]; I2 = 0%) were not higher in patients with dyspepsia compared to controls. There was a moderate risk of selection bias and significant heterogeneity in the pooled results. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of CeD in patients with dyspepsia was 1.5% and it was not significantly higher than the general population. These results do not support screening of patients with dyspepsia for CeD.

12.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 420-444, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219211

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) felt the need to organize a consensus on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and to update the current management of H. pylori infection; hence, ISG constituted the ISG's Task Force on Helicobacter pylori. The Task Force on H. pylori undertook an exercise to produce consensus statements on H. pylori infection. Twenty-five experts from different parts of India, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, surgeons, epidemiologists, pediatricians, and microbiologists participated in the meeting. The participants were allocated to one of following sections for the meeting: Epidemiology of H. pylori infection in India and H. pylori associated conditions; diagnosis; treatment and retreatment; H. pylori and gastric cancer, and H. pylori prevention/public health. Each group reviewed all published literature on H. pylori infection with special reference to the Indian scenario and prepared appropriate statements on different aspects for voting and consensus development. This consensus, which was produced through a modified Delphi process including two rounds of face-to-face meetings, reflects our current understanding and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of H. pylori infection. These consensus should serve as a reference for not only guiding treatment of H. pylori infection but also to guide future research on the subject.

13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(Supplement): S8-S31, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135135

RESUMO

The Indian Association of Pathologists and Microbiologists (IAPM) and Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) decided to make a joint consensus recommendation for handling, processing, and interpretation of SI biopsies for the diagnosis and management of celiac disease (CD) recognizing the inhomogeneous practice of biopsy sampling, orientation, processing, and interpretation. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus document containing a total of 42 statements and recommendations, which were generated by sharing the document draft, incorporating expert's opinion, followed by three cycles of electronic voting as well as a full-day face-to-face virtual ZOOM meeting and review of supporting literature. Of the 42 statements, 7 statements are on small intestinal (SI) biopsy in suspected patients of CD, site and the number of biopsies; 7 on handling, fixative, orientation, processing, and sectioning in pathology laboratories; 2 on histological orientation; 13 statements on histological interpretation and histological grading; 3 on the assessment of follow-up biopsies; 2 statements on gluten-free diet (GFD)-nonresponsive CD; 4 on challenges in the diagnosis of CD; 2 statements each on pathology reporting protocol and training and infrastructure in this area. The goal of this guideline document is to formulate a uniform protocol agreed upon both by the experienced pathologists and gastroenterologists to standardize the practice, improve the yield of small bowel biopsy interpretation, patients' compliance, overall management in CD, and generate unified data for patient care and research in the related field.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Consenso , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Patologistas/educação , Patologistas/organização & administração , Patologia Clínica/educação , Biópsia , Feminino , Gastroenterologia/educação , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Patologia Clínica/métodos
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11704, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083575

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by strictures and associated with increased risk for surgery. Inflammatory strictures respond to medical therapy, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is often used after the failure of steroids. However, data on efficacy of anti-TNF therapy in stricturing CD is limited. We retrospectively analysed the records of patients with stricturing CD who were treated with anti-TNF therapy and were prospectively followed from January 2005 to July 2020. Treatment success was defined as continuation of anti-TNF without the requirement for steroids or parenteral nutrition, switch to other anti-TNF, endoscopic dilation, surgery and severe adverse events leading to the withdrawal of anti-TNF. Fifty-nine patients were included [50-infliximab, 9-adalimumab; mean age-30.1 ± 15 years; males-69.5%; median disease duration-124 (range 30-396) months; median follow-up duration-42 (range 8-180) months]. Ileum was the most common site of stricture (69.5%), 20.3% of patients had colonic strictures, and 64.4% had multiple strictures. 55.9% of patients were steroid dependent and 37.3% were steroid refractory. The median duration of anti-TNF therapy was 14 (range 2-96) months, and 54.2% (n = 32) patients received concomitant immunomodulators. 88% improved with induction (11.8% primary non-response), secondary loss of response was seen in 52.2%, and the cumulative probability of treatment success at 1, 2 and 5 years was 69%, 51%, and 28% respectively. Anaemia at presentation predicted poor response. Only 30% of patients retained biologics on long-term (lack of response, cost, adverse events). 16.9% had adverse events, the commonest being reactivation of tuberculosis (5.1%). Anti-TNF therapy is associated with good short-term treatment success with modest long-term response in stricturing CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Constrição Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155144

RESUMO

Aberrant inflammation, such as that associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is fueled by the inordinate activity of RelA/NF-κB factors. As such, the canonical NF-κB module mediates controlled nuclear activation of RelA dimers from the latent cytoplasmic complexes. What provokes pathological RelA activity in the colitogenic gut remains unclear. The noncanonical NF-κB pathway typically promotes immune organogenesis involving Nfkb2 gene products. Because NF-κB pathways are intertwined, we asked whether noncanonical signaling aggravated inflammatory RelA activity. Our investigation revealed frequent engagement of the noncanonical pathway in human IBD. In a mouse model of experimental colitis, we established that Nfkb2-mediated regulations escalated the RelA-driven proinflammatory gene response in intestinal epithelial cells, exacerbating the infiltration of inflammatory cells and colon pathologies. Our mechanistic studies clarified that cell-autonomous Nfkb2 signaling supplemented latent NF-κB dimers, leading to a hyperactive canonical RelA response in the inflamed colon. In sum, the regulation of latent NF-κB dimers appears to link noncanonical Nfkb2 signaling to RelA-driven inflammatory pathologies and may provide for therapeutic targets.

16.
Intest Res ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934587

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) is difficult to diagnose due to poor sensitivity of definitive diagnostic tests. ITB may be associated with concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) which may remain undetected on chest X-ray. We assessed the role of contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) chest in detecting the prevalence of active PTB, and increasing the diagnostic yield in patients with suspected ITB. Methods: Consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected ITB (n=200) who underwent CECT chest (n=88) and had follow-up duration>1 year were recruited in this retrospective study (February 2016 to October 2018). ITB was diagnosed in the presence of caseating granuloma, positive acid fast stain or culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on biopsy, presence of necrotic lymph nodes (LNs) on CT enterography or positive response to anti-tubercular therapy. Evidence of active tuberculosis on CECT-chest was defined as presence of centrilobular nodules with or without consolidation/miliary nodules/thick-walled cavity/enlarged necrotic mediastinal LNs. Results: Sixty-five of eighty-eight patients (mean age, 33.8±12.8 years; 47.7% of females) were finally diagnosed as ITB (4-caseating granuloma on biopsy, 12-necrotic LNs on CT enterography, 1-both, and 48-response to anti-tubercular therapy) and 23 were diagnosed as Crohn's disease. Findings of active TB on CECT chest with or without necrotic abdominal LNs were demonstrated in 5 and 20 patients, respectively. No patient with Crohn's disease had necrotic abdominal LNs or active PTB. Addition of CECT chest in the diagnostic algorithm improved the sensitivity of ITB diagnosis from 26.2% to 56.9%. Conclusions: Addition of CECT chest significantly improves the sensitivity for definite diagnosis in a patient with suspected ITB.

17.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(3): 337-346, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967028

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD) is a systemic, immune-mediated enteropathy, which is triggered by gluten protein in genetically susceptible individuals. CeD, once thought to be an uncommon disease, is now recognized to affect approximately 40-60 million people globally. While CeD is now well reported from a few Asian countries such as India, China, Pakistan, and Middle Eastern countries; it is still believed to be uncommon in the rest of Asia. Gluten-related diseases other than CeD, like non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are also emerging globally. CeD and NCGS may present with either intestinal or extra-intestinal symptoms, and a proportion of them have overlapping symptoms with irritable bowel syndrome. Hence, many of them are misdiagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the emergence of CeD and other gluten-related disorders, both globally and in Asia, the overlapping manifestations between gluten-related disorders and irritable bowel syndrome, and the challenges associated with diagnosis and management of CeD in Asia.

18.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(3): 253-264, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037954

RESUMO

The role of diet and its manipulation in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is gradually acquiring central stage. Certain dietary factors have been identified as putative triggers in IBD as some other factors are found to be protective. The dietary manipulation as part of comprehensive IBD care should be done by the clinician in conjunction with a skilled dietitian. Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with IBD and can have long-term effects on disease course and quality of life in these patients. So, early identification and correction of these deficiencies along with proper nutritional supplementation should be addressed routinely as a part of IBD management. Oral nutritional supplementation is sufficient for most patients, but in some sick patients, tube feeding may be necessary. Diet needs to be individualized based on the nutritional deficiencies and dietary triggers in a specific patient. Multiple specific diets, with elimination of components that trigger inflammation or addition of components that alter gut microbes in a favorable way, are now appearing as a treatment option in IBD, but more evidence is required before their universal recommendation. Though enteral nutrition (EN) (both exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] and partial enteral nutrition [PEN]) have proven therapeutic role in pediatric IBD, their uses and role are now expanding in adult IBD patients as well.

19.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(12): 766-773, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789921

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite clinical evidence of liver involvement in patients with coeliac disease (CeD), there is a lack of a method to prove this association. METHODS: Of 146 treatment-naive patients with CeD, 26 had liver dysfunction. Liver biopsies and corresponding small intestinal biopsies were obtained from these 26 patients. Multicolour immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence confocal microscopic studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue to detect the IgA/anti-TG2 deposits. Follow-up liver biopsies were taken after a gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Twenty-six out of the 146 patients (17.8%) with suspected coeliac-associated liver disease on histological examination revealed irregular sinusoidal dilatation in 15 (57.6%), steatohepatitis in 4 (15.3%), non-specific chronic hepatitis in 3 (11.5%), autoimmune hepatitis in 2 (7.6%) biopsies, including cirrhosis in one of them, irregular perisinusoidal fibrosis and changes of non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis in one biopsy each (3.8%). IgA/anti-tTG deposits were observed in 22 (84.6%) liver biopsies by dual immunohistochemistry technique, and in 24 (92.3%) by confocal immunofluorescence technique and in all corresponding duodenal biopsies (100%). Overall, IgA/anti-tTG deposits showed 100% sensitivity, 77% specificity and 85% positive predictive value for establishing an association of extraintestinal pathology and CeD using archived tissues. Follow-up liver biopsies could be obtained in five patients; four of them showed not only resolution of the histological lesions but disappearance of IgA/anti-tTG co-localisation. CONCLUSIONS: Data of the present study adds to the body of evidence that liver lesions in patients with CeD are disease related and may have been caused by a similar pathogenic mechanism that causes intestinal changes.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/análise , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Transglutaminases/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Intest Res ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845546

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), once considered a disease of the Western hemisphere, has emerged as a global disease. As the disease prevalence is on a steady rise, management of IBD has come under the spotlight. 5-Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and biologics are the backbone of treatment of IBD. With the advent of biologics and small molecules, the need for surgery and hospitalization has decreased. However, economic viability and acceptability is an important determinant of local prescription patterns. Nearly one-third of the patients in West receive biologics as the first/initial therapy. The scenario is different in developing countries where biologics are used only in a small proportion of patients with IBD. Increased risk of reactivation of tuberculosis and high cost of the therapy are limitations to their use. Thiopurines hence become critical for optimal management of patients with IBD in these regions. However, approximately one-third of patients are intolerant or develop adverse effects with their use. This has led to suboptimal use of thiopurines in clinical practice. This review article discusses the clinical aspects of thiopurine use in patients with IBD with the aim of optimizing their use to full therapeutic potential.

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