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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112519, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883475

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin, commonly named "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in China, has long been renowned for its ability to dispel dampness and regulate gastrointestinal functions. Patchouli oil (P.oil), the major active fraction of Pogostemon cablin, has been traditionally used as the principal component of Chinese medicinal formulae to treat exterior syndrome and diarrhea. However, the effects of P.oil in treating 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis have not yet been reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective effects of P.oil against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5-FU (30 mg/kg) to establish an intestinal mucositis model. Meanwhile, rats with intestinal mucositis were orally administered with P.oil (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Histological analysis, ELISA (for detecting inflammatory cytokines and aquaporins), immunohistochemistry analysis (for examining caspases), qRT-PCR analysis (for assessment tight junctions), and western blotting analysis (for the assessment of TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 and VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway-related proteins) were performed to estimate the protective effects of P.oil against intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. RESULTS: The histopathological assessment preliminarily exhibited that P.oil alleviated the 5-FU-induced damage to the intestinal structure. After P.oil administration, the elevation of the expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-13) decreased markedly and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling was significantly inhibited. P.oil also increased the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, thereby stabilizing intestinal barrier. In addition, P.oil decreased the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-3, and Bax, and increased the expression of Bcl-2, thereby reducing the apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa. These results were closely related to the regulation of the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway. It has been indicated that P.oil possibly protected the intestinal barrier by reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, this study showed that P.oil inhibited the abnormal expression of AQP3, AQP7, and AQP11 by regulating the VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, it restored the intestinal water absorption, thereby alleviating diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: P.oil ameliorated 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in rats via protecting intestinal barrier and regulating water transport.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104603, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863867

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, has been widely used for the treatment of dysentery and colitis. However, its blood concentration was less than 1 %, and intestinal microflora-mediated metabolites of BBR were considered to be the important material basis for the bioactivities of BBR. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis activity and potential mechanism of oxyberberine (OBB), a novel gut microbiota metabolite of BBR, in DSS-induced colitis mice. Balb/C mice treated with 3 % DSS in drinking water to induce acute colitis were orally administrated with OBB once daily for 8 days. Clinical symptoms were analyzed, and biological samples were collected for microscopic, immune-inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota analysis. Results showed that OBB significantly attenuated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, colon shortening and histological injury in the mice with colitis, which achieved similar therapeutic effect to azathioprine (AZA) and was superior to BBR. Furthermore, OBB remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. OBB appreciably inhibited TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway through down-regulating the protein expressions of TLR4 and MyD88, inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. Moreover, OBB markedly modulated the gut dysbiosis induced by DSS and restored the dysbacteria to normal level. Taken together, the result for the first time revealed that OBB effectively improved DSS-induced experimental colitis, at least partly through maintaining the colonic integrity, inhibiting inflammation response, and modulating gut microflora profile.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105802, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401380

RESUMO

Dihydroberberine (DHB), a hydrogenated derivative of berberine (BBR), has been firstly identified in Phellodendri Chinese Cortex (PC) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Nowadays most researches on PC focus on its main components like BBR, however, the role of its naturally-occurring derivatives remains poorly defined heretofore. The present work aimed to comparatively evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of DHB and BBR in three typical inflammatory murine models. The results showed that DHB effectively mitigated acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, xylene-elicited ear edema and carrageenan-caused paw edema. Meanwhile, DHB markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell infiltration in pathological sections of ears and paws. DHB was also observed to significantly decrease the production and mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, NO (iNOS) and PGE2 (COX-2), increase the release of IL-10, and inhibit the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHB was weaker than that of BBR. The results might further contribute to unraveling the pharmacodynamic basis of PC and support its ethnomedical use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. DHB possesses good potential to be further developed into a promising anti-inflammatory alternative, and can serve as a lead template for novel anti-inflammatory candidate.

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