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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-22, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579892

RESUMO

Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has become the predominant variant worldwide. VV116 is an oral drug with robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy in preclinical studies. We conducted an open, prospective cohort study to evaluate its safety and effectiveness in Chinese participants infected with SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant from March 8th, 2022 to Marth 24th, 2022. 136 patients hospitalized patients confirmed with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, including 60 patients who received VV116 (300mg, BID×5 days) in the treatment group and 76 patients who didn't receive VV116 in the control group besides standard treatment. Viral load shedding time and adverse events were collected during the follow-up. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the VV116 group and the control group, except for a higher prevalence of symptoms in the control group (P=0.021). The median time from the first positive test to the first VV116 administration was 5 (range: 2-10) days. Participants who received VV116 within 5 days since the first positive test had a shorter viral shedding time than the control group (8.56 vs 11.13 days), and cox regression analysis showed adjusted HR of 2.37 [95%CI 1.50-3.75], P<0.001). In symptomatic subgroup participants, VV116 group had a shorter viral shedding time than the control group (P=0.016). A total of 9 adverse events with no serious adverse events were reported in the VV116 group, 7 of which were mild liver function abnormalities, and all of them were resolved without intervention. VV116 is a safe, effective oral antiviral drug, which shows a better performance within the early onset of omicron infection.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05242042.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05279235.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05341609.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-57, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579924

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of liver in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated acute - chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) remains largely unknown. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of liver in HBV-ACLF patients by using multiple approaches including transcriptome analysis. We performed transcriptomic sequencing analysis on the liver of HBV-ACLF patients (n = 6), chronic hepatitis B (n = 6), liver cirrhosis (n = 6) and normal control (n = 5), then explored the potential pathogenesis mechanism in liver specimen from another 48 subjects and further validated the molecular and cellular mechanism using THP-1 cells. RNA-sequencing data analysis indicated that, among the genes up-regulated in HBV-ACLF, genes related to inflammatory response and chemotaxis accounted for a large proportion of the total DEGs. A number of key chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8) and NF-ĸB pathway were identified to be robust in the liver samples from HBV-ACLF patients. Interestingly, cylindromatosis (CYLD) was found to be downregulated in the liver of HBV-ACLF patients, in line with the well-established role of CYLD in regulating most of the chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1ß) via inhibition of NF-ĸB. Indeed, knockdown of CYLD resulted in sustained activation of NF-ĸB in macrophages and enhanced chemokines and inflammatory cytokines production, which in turn enhanced chemotactic migration of neutrophil, monocyte, T lymphocytes and NK cell. In conclusions, down-regulated CYLD aggravated inflammatory cell chemotaxis through enhancing NF-κB activation in HBV-ACLF patients, thereby participating in the pathogenesis of HBV-ACLF injury.

3.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the effectiveness of flexible bronchoscopy in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included children with MPP admitted between 2016 and 2019 in Shanghai. Tracheobronchial manifestations, etiologic findings, therapeutic effect, and health-economic indicators were assessed in bronchoscopy (plus bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and non-bronchoscopy group. We used propensity-score matching and multivariable logistic regression to investigate the effect of bronchoscopy and BAL on disease recovery. RESULTS: In 900 children with MPP, 24/278 (8.6%) of those who underwent bronchoscopy had sputum plugs. Coinfection rate was four-fold enhanced by BAL (19.6% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.01) in patients with severe MPP (SMPP) and nearly doubled (10.8% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.03) in those without SMPP, compared with no BAL. Total of 224 (24.9%) patients had multilobar consolidation; after BAL, a significantly shorter lesion-resolution duration was observed on imaging (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.0-0.7). However, longer fever duration (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7-4.8), hospital stay (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9-5.1), and higher costs were found in the bronchoscopy group than in the non-bronchoscopy group. CONCLUSIONS: Through BAL, coinfection may explain one-fifth of causes for SMPP. Bronchoscopy with BAL may increase the detection rate of pathogen and resolve pulmonary lesions in patients with multilobar consolidation. IMPACT: Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is of great assistance in the timely detection of coinfection, sputum plug and inflammatory polyps in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), and improves the recovery of lung damage in MPP patients with multilobar consolidation. This study provides new insights into the indications of flexible bronchoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with MPP.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(14): 3158-3164, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362990

RESUMO

ZnSe semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with a size comparable to their Bohr radius are synthesized, and the native capping agents with long hydrocarbon tails are replaced with short thiocyanate (SCN) ligands through a ligand exchange method. The structural dynamics of SCN ligands on the surface of ZnSe NCs in solution is investigated by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy. Vibrational population relaxation of SCN ligands is accelerated due to the specific interaction with the positively charged sites on the surface of NCs. The orientational anisotropy of the bound SCN ligands decayed at a rate much faster than that in the control solution containing Zn2+ cations. From the wobbling-in-the-cone model analysis, we found that the SCN ligand undergoes wobbling orientational diffusion with a relatively large cone semiangle on the surface of ZnSe NCs, and the overall orientational diffusion of bound SCN is found to be strongly dependent on the size of ZnSe NCs.

5.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276328
7.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 450-454, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a severe and acute disease associated with high mortality, for those who survive, long-term morbidity. In-time detection of pathogen for proper and optimized treatment in the early stage of sepsis is crucial. METHODS: We performed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) on two cases of sepsis. The clinical information, laboratory test results, and the therapeutic regimen was detailed recorded. RESULTS: ddPCR showed its clinical value of sepsis ultra-early diagnosis and the guidance of medication in both cases we provided. CONCLUSIONS: ddPCR has potential for rapid and precise diagnose in ultra-early stage of sepsis for its high sensitivity and short turn-around-time, thus benefiting in optimal and timely treatment of sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sepse/diagnóstico
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Críticos , Tempo de Internação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 639-647, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034582

RESUMO

A COVID-19 booster vaccination is being comprehensively evaluated globally due to the emerging concern of reduced protection rate of previous vaccination and circulating Variants of Concern (VOC). But the safety and immunogenicity of homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination are yet to be thoroughly evaluated. We conducted this prospective, open-label study in Huashan Hospital using a third 6.5U BBIBP-CorV administered at an interval of 4-8 months following the previous two doses in healthy adults. Safety, anti-RBD response and neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs were examined. Sixty-three and forty participants entered the booster and the control group, respectively. A significant increase in IFN-γ SFU per million PBMCs was observed on day 14 against N peptide (20 vs. 5, P < 0.001). On day 14, pVNT GMTs increased over 15 folds of the baseline levels against prototype to reach 404.54 titers and over 9-13 folds against 4 VOCs and continuously increased by day 28. sVNT GMTs increased 112.51 and 127.45 folds by days 14 and 28 compared to the baseline level. Median anti-RBD antibody and IgG level significantly increased from 11.12 to 2607.50 BAU/ml and 4.07 to 619.20 BAU/ml on day 14. On day 14, females showed a significantly higher cell-mediated immune response against S1 peptide. The 7-8 months interval group had a higher humoral response than the 4-6 months interval group. No severe adverse event was reported. A third homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for healthy adults and broadened participants' immunity against VOCs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 40, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Encephalitis/meningitis brings a heavy disease burden, and the origin of disease remains unknown in 30-40% of patients. It is greatly significant that combinations of nucleic acid amplification and autoimmune antibody testing improves the diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis/meningitis. Moreover, though several diagnostic methods are in clinical use, a recognized and unified diagnosis and treatment process for encephalitis management remains unclear. METHODS: IMPROVE is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled clinical trial that aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance, applications, and impact on patient outcomes of a new diagnostic algorithm that combines metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and autoimmune antibody testing. The enrolled patients will be grouped into two parallel groups, multiplex PCR test plus autoimmune antibody group (Group I) or the mNGS plus autoimmune antibody group (Group II) with a patient ratio of 1:1. Both groups will be followed up for 12 months. The primary outcomes include the initial time of targeted treatment and the modified Rankin scale score on the 30th day of the trial. The secondary outcomes are the cerebrospinal fluid index remission rate on the 14th day, mortality rate on the 30th day, and an evaluation of diagnostic efficacy. The two groups are predicted to comprise of 484 people in total. DISCUSSION: To optimize the roadmap of encephalitis/meningitis, precise diagnosis, and treatment are of great significance. The effect of rapid diagnosis undoubtedly depends on the progression of new diagnostic tests, such as the new multiplex PCR, mNGS, and examination of broad-spectrum autoimmune encephalitis antibodies. This randomized-controlled study could allow us to obtain an accurate atlas of the precise diagnostic ability of these tests and their effect on the treatment and prognosis of patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT04946682. Registered 29 June 2021, 'Retrospectively registered', https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04946682?term=NCT04946682&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Meningite , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metagenoma , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 452-464, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045787

RESUMO

Breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious challenge, as increased infections were documented in fully-vaccinated individuals. Recipients with poor antibody response are highly vulnerable to reinfection, whereas those with strong antibody responses achieve sterilizing immunity. Thus far, biomarkers associated with levels of vaccine-elicited antibody response are still lacking. Here, we studied the antibody response of age- and gender-controlled healthy cohort, who received inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and profiled the B cell receptor repertoires in longitudinally consecutive samples. Upon vaccination, all vaccinated individuals displayed a convergent antibody response with shared common antibody clones and public neutralizing antibodies. Strikingly, poor vaccine-responders are distinguishable from strong vaccine-responders by a biased V-usage before vaccination and IgG to IgM mRNA ratio. These findings reveal molecular signatures associated with the different levels of vaccine-induced antibody response, which could be further developed into biomarkers for the design of vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 337-343, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935594

RESUMO

ABSTRACTThe emerging new VOC B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant has raised serious concerns due to multiple mutations, reported significant immune escape, and unprecedented rapid spreading speed. Currently, studies describing the neutralization ability of different homologous and heterologous booster vaccination against Omicron are still lacking. In this study, we explored the immunogenicity of COVID-19 breakthrough patients, BBIBP-CorV homologous booster group and BBIBP-CorV/ZF2001 heterologous booster group against SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes corresponding to the prototype, Beta, Delta, and the emergent Omicron variant.Notably, at 14 days post two-dose inactivated vaccines, pVNT titre increased to 67.4 GMTs against prototype, 8.85 against Beta and 35.07 against Delta, while neutralization activity against Omicron was below the lower limit of quantitation in 80% of the samples. At day 14 post BBIBP-CorV homologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 285.6, 215.7, 250.8, 48.73 against prototype, Beta, Delta, and Omicron, while at day 14 post ZF2001 heterologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 1436.00, 789.6, 1501.00, 95.86, respectively. Post booster vaccination, 100% samples showed positive neutralization activity against Omicron, albeit illustrated a significant reduction (5.86- to 14.98-fold) of pVNT against Omicron compared to prototype at 14 days after the homologous or heterologous vaccine boosters.Overall, our study demonstrates that vaccine-induced immune protection might more likely be escaped by Omicron compared to prototypes and other VOCs. After two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines as the "priming" shot, a third heterologous protein subunit vaccine and a homologous inactivated vaccine booster could improve neutralization against Omicron.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105190, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954104

RESUMO

We reported a case of B.mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis in mainland China. Metagenomics next-generation sequencing helped initial diagnosis and then polymerase chain reaction of the B.mandrillaris in the infected nasal skin tissues reported positive and amoeba cysts were found in the tissue under microscopic observation.


Assuntos
Amebíase/parasitologia , Balamuthia mandrillaris/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Encefalite Infecciosa/parasitologia , Adolescente , China , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated whole-virion severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) in this study. METHODS: This was a prospective, multi-center, open-label study. Participants aged over 18 years with confirmed CLD and healthy volunteers were enrolled. All participants received 2 doses of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Adverse reactions were recorded within 14 days after any dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, laboratory testing results were collected after the second dose, and serum samples of enrolled subjects were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. RESULTS: A total of 581 participants (437 patients with CLD and 144 healthy volunteers) were enrolled from 15 sites in China. Most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (n = 36; 8.2%) was the most frequently reported adverse event. Three participants had grade 3 aminopherase elevation (defined as alanine aminopherase >5 upper limits of normal) after the second dose of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and only 1 of them was judged as severe adverse event potentially related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were 76.8% in the noncirrhotic CLD group, 78.9% in the compensated cirrhotic group, 76.7% in the decompensated cirrhotic group (P = .894 among CLD subgroups), and 90.3% in healthy controls (P = .008 vs CLD group). CONCLUSION: Inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe in patients with CLD. Patients with CLD had lower immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines than healthy population. The immunogenicity is similarly low in noncirrhotic CLD, compensated cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103649, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shotgun metagenomics has been used clinically for diagnosing infectious diseases. However, most technical assessments have been limited to individual sets of reference standards, experimental workflows, and laboratories. METHODS: A reference panel and performance metrics were designed and used to examine the performance of shotgun metagenomics at 17 laboratories in a coordinated collaborative study. We comprehensively assessed the reliability, key performance determinants, reproducibility, and quantitative potential. FINDINGS: Assay performance varied significantly across sites and microbial classes, with a read depth of 20 millions as a generally cost-efficient assay setting. Results of mapped reads by shotgun metagenomics could indicate relative and intra-site (but not absolute or inter-site) microbial abundance. INTERPRETATION: Assay performance was significantly impacted by the microbial type, the host context, and read depth, which emphasizes the importance of these factors when designing reference reagents and benchmarking studies. Across sites, workflows and platforms, false positive reporting and considerable site/library effects were common challenges to the assay's accuracy and quantifiability. Our study also suggested that laboratory-developed shotgun metagenomics tests for pathogen detection should aim to detect microbes at 500 CFU/mL (or copies/mL) in a clinically relevant host context (10^5 human cells/mL) within a 24h turn-around time, and with an efficient read depth of 20M. FUNDING: This work was supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of China (2018ZX10102001).


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Metagenômica/instrumentação , Metagenômica/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Benchmarking , China , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Células HeLa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Laboratórios , Metagenômica/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fluxo de Trabalho
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1327, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630681

RESUMO

Evodiae fructus (Wu-Zhu-Yu in Chinese) can be isolated from the dried, unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum and is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that is applied extensively in China, Japan and Korea. Evodiae fructus has been traditionally used to treat headaches, abdominal pain and menorrhalgia. In addition, it is widely used as a dietary supplement to provide carboxylic acids, essential oils and flavonoids. Evodiamine (EVO) is one of the major bioactive components contained within Evodiae fructus and is considered to be a potential candidate anti-cancer agent. EVO has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, whilst inducing apoptosis in numerous types of cancer cells. However, EVO is susceptible to metabolism and may inhibit the activities of metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450. Clinical application of EVO in the treatment of cancers may prove difficult due to poor bioavailability and potential toxicity due to metabolism. Currently, novel drug carriers involving the use of solid dispersion techniques, phospholipids and nanocomplexes to deliver EVO to improve its bioavailability and mitigate side effects have been tested. The present review aims to summarize the reported anti-cancer effects of EVO whilst discussing the pharmacokinetic behaviors, characteristics and effective delivery systems of EVO.

19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 638785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842388

RESUMO

Background: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness. Southeast Asia experienced severe dengue outbreaks in 2019, and over 1000 cases had been reported in Jiangxi, a previously known low-epidemic region in China. However, the emergence of a dengue virus epidemic in a non-epidemic region remains unclear. Methods: We enrolled 154 dengue fever patients from four hospitals in Jiangxi, from April 2019 to September 2019. Real-time PCR, NS1 antigen rapid test, and IgM, IgG tests were performed, and 14 samples were outsourced to be sequenced metagenomically. Results: Among the 154 cases, 42 were identified as imported and most of them returned from Cambodia. A total of 113 blood samples were obtained and 106 were identified as DENV-1, two as DENV-2, and five were negative through RT-PCR. All DENV-1 strains sequenced in this study were all classified to one cluster and owned a high similarity with a Cambodia strain isolated in 2019. The evolutionary relationships of amino acid were consistent with that of nucleotide genome result. The sequence-based findings of Jiangxi strains were consistent with epidemiological investigation. Conclusion: Epidemiological analysis demonstrated that the emergence of dengue cases led to autochthonous transmission in several cities in Jiangxi, a low-epidemic region before. This study emphasized future prevention and control of dengue fever in both epidemic and non-epidemic regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Epidemias , Animais , China , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Filogenia
20.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
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