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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 563: 145-155, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874304

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We present a systematic study of the "smart water" induced wettability alteration. This process is believed to be greatly affected by the brine salinity and the presence of Mg2+ and SO42- in the brine. EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING: To characterize the wettability alteration, we perform spontaneous imbibition measurement using Indiana limestone cores and a model oil with added naphthenic acid. Both single-electrolyte-based and seawater-based "smart water" are tested to investigate the effect of Mg2+, SO42- and salinity on wettability alteration. Rock/brine and oil/brine zeta potentials are measured, and the electrostatic component of disjoining pressure is calculated to understand the role of electrostatics in the wettability alteration. The surface concentration of charged species on the limestone surface is analyzed based on a natural carbonate surface complexation model (SCM). FINDINGS: Both the reduction of Na+ and addition of SO42- are found to contribute to wettability alteration. Mg2+ is found to be unfavorable for wettability alteration. Ca2+ is believed to facilitate SO42- with wettability alteration based on the comparison between the single-electrolyte-based and seawater-based brines. The reduction of the Na+ surface complexation (>CaOH⋯Na+0.25) in low salinity brines is believed to be a critical mechanism responsible for wettability alteration based on the SCM calculations.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 245(Pt A): 925-932, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931209

RESUMO

The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fermentação , Etanol
3.
Langmuir ; 31(48): 13077-84, 2015 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26549532

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes exhibit very unique properties in biphasic systems. Their interparticle attraction leads to reduced droplet coalescence rates and corresponding improvements in emulsion stability. Here we use covalent and noncovalent techniques to modify the hydrophilicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and study their resulting behavior at an oil-water interface. By using both paraffin wax/water and dodecane/water systems, the thickness of the layer of MWNTs at the interface and resulting emulsion stability are shown to vary significantly with the approach used to modify the MWNTs. Increased hydrophilicity of the MWNTs shifts the emulsions from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. The stability of the emulsion is found to correlate with the thickness of nanotubes populating the oil-water interface and relative strength of the carbon nanotube network. The addition of a surfactant decreases the thickness of nanotubes at the interface and enhances the overall interfacial area stabilized at the expense of increased droplet coalescence rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the interfacial thickness of modified carbon nanotubes has been quantified and correlated to emulsion stability.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tensoativos/química , Alcanos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Água/química
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 173: 239-244, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25305654

RESUMO

This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental impacts of an ethanol production system using eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) as the feedstock. Aspen Plus® was used to model the acid bisulfite pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation steps. A cradle-to-gate LCA was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts from cutting the trees to the production of anhydrous ethanol. The environmental impacts of the redcedar ethanol process were compared to those from the production of corn ethanol. Inventory data for the system were collected and used to calculate a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the IMPACT 2002+ and BEES+ framework in SimaPro 8.0.0. Four impact categories were evaluated: land occupation, water use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and non-renewable energy use. Results indicate that acid bisulfite pretreatment contributed to 65% of GHG emissions, 81% of non-renewable energy use, and 77% of water use of the overall process.


Assuntos
Cedrus/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(8): 3926-32, 2013 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23506658

RESUMO

Traditionally, trays have been the mass-transfer device of choice in amine absorption units. However, the need to process large volumes of flue gas to capture CO2 and the resultant high costs of multiple trains of large trayed columns have prompted process licensors and vendors to investigate alternative mass-transfer devices. These alternatives include third-generation random packings and structured packings. Nevertheless, clear-cut guidelines for selection of packings for amine units are lacking. This paper provides well-defined guidelines and a consistent framework for the choice of mass-transfer devices for amine absorbers and regenerators. This work emphasizes the role played by the flow parameter, a measure of column liquid loading and pressure, in the type of packing selected. In addition, this paper demonstrates the significant economic advantage of packings over trays in terms of capital costs (CAPEX) and operating costs (OPEX).


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Químicos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Destilação , Reologia
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 315(2): 607-19, 2007 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17716679

RESUMO

This paper describes a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, pulsed field gradient with diffusion editing (PFG-DE), to quantify drop size distributions of brine/crude oil emulsions. The drop size distributions obtained from this technique were compared to results from the traditional pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique. The PFG-DE technique provides both transverse relaxation (T2) and drop size distributions simultaneously. In addition, the PFG-DE technique does not assume a form of the drop size distribution. An algorithm for the selection of the optimal parameters to use in a PFG-DE measurement is described in this paper. The PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve drop size distributions when the T2 distribution of the emulsified brine overlaps either the crude oil or the bulk brine T2 distribution. Finally, the PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve a bimodal drop size distribution.

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