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1.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(11): 1321-1333, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685987

RESUMO

Following severe or chronic liver injury, adult ductal cells (cholangiocytes) contribute to regeneration by restoring both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. We recently showed that ductal cells clonally expand as self-renewing liver organoids that retain their differentiation capacity into both hepatocytes and ductal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which adult ductal-committed cells acquire cellular plasticity, initiate organoids and regenerate the damaged tissue remain largely unknown. Here, we describe that ductal cells undergo a transient, genome-wide, remodelling of their transcriptome and epigenome during organoid initiation and in vivo following tissue damage. TET1-mediated hydroxymethylation licences differentiated ductal cells to initiate organoids and activate the regenerative programme through the transcriptional regulation of stem-cell genes and regenerative pathways including the YAP-Hippo signalling. Our results argue in favour of the remodelling of genomic methylome/hydroxymethylome landscapes as a general mechanism by which differentiated cells exit a committed state in response to tissue damage.

2.
Prog Lipid Res ; 76: 101007, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499096

RESUMO

Thraustochytrids are unicellular heterotrophic marine protists of the Stramenopile group, often considered as non-photosynthetic microalgae. They have been isolated from a wide range of habitats including deep sea, but are mostly present in waters rich in sediments and organic materials. They are abundant in mangrove forests where they are major colonizers, feeding on decaying leaves and initiating the mangrove food web. Discovered 80 years ago, they have recently attracted considerable attention due to their biotechnological potential. This interest arises from their fast growth, their specific lipid metabolism and the improvement of the genetic tools and transformation techniques. These organisms are particularly rich in ω3-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an 'essential' fatty acid poorly encountered in land plants and animals but required for human health. To produce their DHA, thraustochytrids use a sophisticated system different from the classical fatty acid synthase system. They are also a potential source of squalene and carotenoids. Here we review our current knowledge about the life cycle, ecophysiology, and metabolism of these organisms, with a particular focus on lipid dynamics. We describe the different pathways involved in lipid and fatty acid syntheses, emphasizing their specificity, and we report on the recent efforts aimed to engineer their lipid metabolism.

3.
Mycopathologia ; 184(5): 555-557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473911

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis is a human infection caused mainly by two species of the Cryptococcus genus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, whose populations contain several phylogenetically related haploid (VN/VG-types) and hybrid genotypes. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing of a Nigerian C. neoformans VNII, Mat-α, strain with a rare multilocus-sequence-type (MLST) genotype (ST43).

4.
Plant J ; 100(6): 1163-1175, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436858

RESUMO

During meiosis, recombination ensures allelic exchanges through crossovers (COs) between the homologous chromosomes. Advances in our understanding of the rules of COs have come from studies of mutations including structural chromosomal rearrangements that, when heterozygous, are known to impair COs in various organisms. In this work, we investigate the effect of a large heterozygous pericentric inversion on male and female recombination in Arabidopsis. The inversion was discovered in the Atmcc1 mutant background and was characterized through genetic and next-generation sequencing analysis. Reciprocal backcross populations, each consisting of over 400 individuals, obtained from the mutant and the wild type, both crossed with Landsberg erecta, were analyzed genome-wide by 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The negative impact of inversion became evident in terms of CO loss in the rearranged chromosome in both male and female meiosis. No single-CO event was detected within the inversion, consistent with a post-meiotic selection operating against unbalanced gametes. Cytological analysis of chiasmata in F1 plants confirmed that COs were reduced in male meiosis in the chromosome with inversion. Crossover suppression on the rearranged chromosome is associated with a significant increase of COs in the other chromosomes, thereby maintaining unchanged the number of COs per cell. The CO pattern observed in our study is consistent with the interchromosomal (IC) effect as first described in Drosophila. In contrast to male meiosis, in female meiosis no IC effect is visible. This may be related to the greater strength of interference that constrains the CO number in excess of the minimum value imposed by CO assurance in Arabidopsis female meiosis.

5.
Cell Rep ; 28(2): 352-367.e9, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291573

RESUMO

Mammalian gametogenesis involves dramatic and tightly regulated chromatin remodeling, whose regulatory pathways remain largely unexplored. Here, we generate a comprehensive high-resolution structural and functional atlas of mouse spermatogenesis by combining in situ chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and meiotic cohesins, coupled with confocal and super-resolution microscopy. Spermatogonia presents well-defined compartment patterns and topological domains. However, chromosome occupancy and compartmentalization are highly re-arranged during prophase I, with cohesins bound to active promoters in DNA loops out of the chromosomal axes. Compartment patterns re-emerge in round spermatids, where cohesin occupancy correlates with transcriptional activity of key developmental genes. The compact sperm genome contains compartments with actively transcribed genes but no fine-scale topological domains, concomitant with the presence of protamines. Overall, we demonstrate how genome-wide cohesin occupancy and transcriptional activity is associated with three-dimensional (3D) remodeling during spermatogenesis, ultimately reprogramming the genome for the next generation.

6.
Int J Genomics ; 2019: 9702342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192251

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs have been thoroughly studied in plants, animals, and yeasts, where they play important roles as regulators of transcription. Nevertheless, almost nothing is known about their presence and characteristics in filamentous fungi, especially in basidiomycetes. In the present study, we have carried out an exhaustive annotation and characterization of lncRNAs in two lignin degrader basidiomycetes, Coniophora puteana and Serpula lacrymans. We identified 2,712 putative lncRNAs in the former and 2,242 in the latter, mainly originating from intergenic locations of transposon-sparse genomic regions. The lncRNA length, GC content, expression levels, and stability of the secondary structure differ from coding transcripts but are similar in these two species and resemble that of other eukaryotes. Nevertheless, they lack sequence conservation. Also, we found that lncRNAs are transcriptionally regulated in the same proportion as genes when the fungus actively decomposes soil organic matter. Finally, up to 7% of the upstream gene regions of Coniophora puteana and Serpula lacrymans are transcribed and produce lncRNAs. The study of expression trends in these gene-lncRNA pairs uncovered groups with similar and opposite transcriptional profiles which may be the result of cis-transcriptional regulation.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7375, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089194

RESUMO

The Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) has been recently classified as overfished and in 2016, the International Commission for the Conservation of the Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) established a multi-annual management plan to recover this stock. To successfully achieve this goal, knowledge about swordfish biology is needed. To date, few studies on swordfish have been performed and none of them has provided useful insights into the reproductive biology at molecular level. Here we set to characterise the molecular dynamics underlying ovarian maturation by employing a de novo transcriptome assembly approach. Differential gene expression analysis in mature and immature ovaries identified a number of differentially expressed genes associated with biological processes driving ovarian maturation. Focusing on ovarian steroidogenesis and vitellogenin uptake, we depict the molecular dynamics characterizing these processes while a phylogenetic analysis let us identify a candidate vitellogenin receptor. This is the first swordfish transcriptome assembly and these findings provide in-depth understanding of molecular processes describing ovarian maturation. Moreover, the establishment of a publicly available database containing information on the swordfish transcriptome aims to boost research on this species with the long-term of developing more comprehensive and successful stock management plans.

8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1933: 397-414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945200

RESUMO

Experimentally validated plant lncRNAs have been shown to regulate important agronomic traits such as phosphate starvation response, flowering time, and interaction with symbiotic organisms, making them of great interest in plant biology and in breeding. We developed a pipeline to annotate lncRNAs and applied it to 37 plant species and 6 algae, resulting in the annotation of more than 120,000 lncRNAs. To facilitate the study of lncRNAs for the plant research community, the information gathered is organized in the Green Non-Coding Database (GreeNC, http://greenc.sciencedesigners.com/) . This chapter contains a detailed explanation of the content of GreeNC and how to access both programmatically and with a web browser.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Ferramenta de Busca , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
9.
PeerJ ; 6: e5507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310734

RESUMO

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, co-opted from a bacterial defense natural mechanism, is the cutting edge technology to carry out genome editing in a revolutionary fashion. It has been shown to work in many different model organisms, from human to microbes, including two diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Transforming P. tricornutum by bacterial conjugation, we have performed CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis delivering the nuclease as an episome; this allowed for avoiding unwanted perturbations due to random integration in the genome and for excluding the Cas9 activity when it was no longer required, reducing the probability of obtaining off-target mutations, a major drawback of the technology. Since there are no reports on off-target occurrence at the genome level in microalgae, we performed whole-genome Illumina sequencing and found a number of different unspecific changes in both the wild type and mutant strains, while we did not observe any preferential mutation in the genomic regions in which off-targets were predicted. Our results confirm that the CRISPR/Cas9 technology can be efficiently applied to diatoms, showing that the choice of the conjugation method is advantageous for minimizing unwanted changes in the genome of P. tricornutum.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6061, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643432

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

11.
Genome Announc ; 6(11)2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545303

RESUMO

Thraustochytrids are ecologically and biotechnologically relevant marine species. We report here the de novo assembly and annotation of the whole-genome sequence of a new thraustochytrid strain, CCAP_4062/3. The genome size was estimated at 38.7 Mb with 11,853 predicted coding sequences, and the GC content was scored at 57%.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(D1): D1197-D1201, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156057

RESUMO

The Plant Resistance Genes database (PRGdb; http://prgdb.org) has been redesigned with a new user interface, new sections, new tools and new data for genetic improvement, allowing easy access not only to the plant science research community but also to breeders who want to improve plant disease resistance. The home page offers an overview of easy-to-read search boxes that streamline data queries and directly show plant species for which data from candidate or cloned genes have been collected. Bulk data files and curated resistance gene annotations are made available for each plant species hosted. The new Gene Model view offers detailed information on each cloned resistance gene structure to highlight shared attributes with other genes. PRGdb 3.0 offers 153 reference resistance genes and 177 072 annotated candidate Pathogen Receptor Genes (PRGs). Compared to the previous release, the number of putative genes has been increased from 106 to 177 K from 76 sequenced Viridiplantae and algae genomes. The DRAGO 2 tool, which automatically annotates and predicts (PRGs) from DNA and amino acid with high accuracy and sensitivity, has been added. BLAST search has been implemented to offer users the opportunity to annotate and compare their own sequences. The improved section on plant diseases displays useful information linked to genes and genomes to connect complementary data and better address specific needs. Through, a revised and enlarged collection of data, the development of new tools and a renewed portal, PRGdb 3.0 engages the plant science community in developing a consensus plan to improve knowledge and strategies to fight diseases that afflict main crops and other plants.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Software , Viridiplantae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Internet , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
DNA Res ; 25(2): 149-160, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149280

RESUMO

Tomato is a high value crop and the primary model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Breeding priorities include increased fruit quality, shelf life and tolerance to stresses. To contribute towards this goal, we re-sequenced the genomes of Corbarino (COR) and Lucariello (LUC) landraces, which both possess the traits of plant adaptation to water deficit, prolonged fruit shelf-life and good fruit quality. Through the newly developed pipeline Reconstructor, we generated the genome sequences of COR and LUC using datasets of 65.8 M and 56.4 M of 30-150 bp paired-end reads, respectively. New contigs including reads that could not be mapped to the tomato reference genome were assembled, and a total of 43, 054 and 44, 579 gene loci were annotated in COR and LUC. Both genomes showed novel regions with similarity to Solanum pimpinellifolium and Solanum pennellii. In addition to small deletions and insertions, 2, 000 and 1, 700 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could exert potentially disruptive effects on 1, 371 and 1, 201 genes in COR and LUC, respectively. A detailed survey of the SNPs occurring in fruit quality, shelf life and stress tolerance related-genes identified several candidates of potential relevance. Variations in ethylene response components may concur in determining peculiar phenotypes of COR and LUC.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Sequência de Bases , Genes de Plantas , Genômica
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 161, 2017 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a plant-specific epigenetic process that relies on the RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) for the production of 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that guide the cytosine methylation and silencing of genes and transposons. Zea mays RPD1/RMR6 gene encodes the largest subunit of Pol IV and is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs) and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. RESULTS: In this study we applied a total RNA-Seq approach to compare the B73 and rpd1/rmr6 leaf transcriptomes. Although previous studies indicated that loss of siRNAs production in RdDM mutants provokes a strong loss of CHH DNA methylation but not massive gene or TEs transcriptional activation in both Arabidopsis and maize, our total RNA-Seq analysis of rpd1/rmr6 transcriptome reveals that loss of Pol IV activity causes a global increase in the transcribed fraction of the maize genome. Our results point to the genes with nearby TE insertions as being the most strongly affected by Pol IV-mediated gene silencing. TEs modulation of nearby gene expression is linked to alternative methylation profiles on gene flanking regions, and these profiles are strictly dependent on specific characteristics of the TE member inserted. Although Pol IV is essential for the biogenesis of siRNAs, the genes with associated siRNA loci are less affected by the pol IV mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This deep and integrated analysis of gene expression, TEs distribution, smallRNA targeting and DNA methylation levels, reveals that loss of Pol IV activity globally affects genome regulation, pointing at TEs as modulator of nearby gene expression and indicating the existence of multiple level epigenetic silencing mechanisms. Our results also suggest a predominant role of the Pol IV-mediated RdDM pathway in genome dominance regulation, and subgenome stability and evolution in maize.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Zea mays/enzimologia , Zea mays/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7817, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798312

RESUMO

There is epidemiological evidence that H. pylori might predispose to Alzheimer's disease. To understand the cellular processes potentially linking such unrelated events, we incubated the human gastric cells MNK-28 with the H. pylori peptide Hp(2-20). We then monitored the activated genes by global gene expression. The peptide modulated 77 genes, of which 65 are listed in the AlzBase database and include the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease: APP, APOE, PSEN1, and PSEN2. A large fraction of modulated genes (30 out of 77) belong to the inflammation pathway. Remarkably, the pathways dis-regulated in Alzheimer's and Leasch-Nyhan diseases result dis-regulated also in this study. The unsuspected links between such different diseases - though still awaiting formal validation - suggest new directions for the study of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 9(6)2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561789

RESUMO

Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot disease in maize and its contamination with fumonisins, mycotoxins harmful for humans and livestock. Lipids, and their oxidized forms, may drive the fate of this disease. In a previous study, we have explored the role of oxylipins in this interaction by deleting by standard transformation procedures a linoleate diol synthase-coding gene, lds1, in F. verticillioides. A profound phenotypic diversity in the mutants generated has prompted us to investigate more deeply the whole genome of two lds1-deleted strains. Bioinformatics analyses pinpoint significant differences in the genome sequences emerged between the wild type and the lds1-mutants further than those trivially attributable to the deletion of the lds1 locus, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, small deletion/insertion polymorphisms and structural variations. Results suggest that the effect of a (theoretically) punctual transformation event might have enhanced the natural mechanisms of genomic variability and that transformation practices, commonly used in the reverse genetics of fungi, may potentially be responsible for unexpected, stochastic and henceforth off-target rearrangements throughout the genome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/genética , Oxigenases/genética , Fusarium/fisiologia , Genes Fúngicos , Genoma Fúngico , Mutação , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Protoplastos , Zea mays/microbiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1176, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446759

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient representing a limiting factor for plant growth and development and affects productivity in wheat. In this study, durum wheat response to N chronic starvation during grain filling was investigated through a transcriptomic approach in roots, leaves/stems, flag leaf and spikes of cv. Svevo. Nitrogen stress negatively influenced plant height, tillering, flag leaf area, spike and seed traits, and total N content. RNA-seq data revealed 4,626 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most transcriptomic changes were observed in roots, with 3,270 DEGs, while 963 were found in leaves/stems, 470 in flag leaf, and 355 in spike tissues. A total of 799 gene ontology (GO) terms were identified, 180 and 619 among the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Among the most addressed GO categories, N compound metabolism, carbon metabolism, and photosynthesis were mostly represented. Interesting DEGs, such as N transporters, genes involved in N assimilation, along with transcription factors, protein kinases and other genes related to stress were highlighted. These results provide valuable information about the transcriptomic response to chronic N stress in durum wheat, which could be useful for future improvement of N use efficiency.

19.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 33(6): 709-719, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692602

RESUMO

The influence of aberrant sperm DNA methylation on the reproductive capacity of couples has been postulated as a cause of infertility. This study compared the DNA methylation of spermatozoa of 19 fertile donors and 42 infertile patients using the Illumina 450K array. Clustering analysis of methylation data arranged fertile and infertile patients into two groups. Bivariate clustering analysis identified a differential distribution of samples according to the characteristics of seminogram and age, suggesting a possible link between these parameters and specific methylation profiles. The study identified 696 differentially methylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) associated with 501 genes between fertile donors and infertile patients. Ontological enrichment analysis revealed 13 processes related to spermatogenesis. Data filtering identified a set of 17 differentially methylated genes, some of which had functions relating to spermatogenesis. A significant association was identified between RPS6KA2 hypermethylation and advanced age (P = 0.016); APCS hypermethylation and oligozoospermia (P = 0.041); JAM3/NCAPD3 hypermethylation and numerical chromosome sperm anomalies (P = 0.048); and ANK2 hypermethylation and lower pregnancy rate (P = 0.040). This description of a set of differentially methylated genes provides a framework for further investigation into the influence of such variation in male fertility in larger patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Oligospermia/genética , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodução , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30446, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461139

RESUMO

Plant's response and adaptation to abiotic stresses involve sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems. To obtain a global view of molecular response to osmotic stresses, including the non-coding portion of genome, we conducted a total leaf transcriptome analysis on maize plants subjected to prolonged drought and salt stresses. Stress application to both B73 wild type and the epiregulator mutant rpd1-1/rmr6 allowed dissection of the epigenetic component of stress response. Coupling total RNA-Seq and transcriptome re-assembly we annotated thousands of new maize transcripts, together with 13,387 lncRNAs that may play critical roles in regulating gene expression. Differential expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes modulated by long-term stress application, including also many lncRNAs and transposons specifically induced by stresses. The amplitude and dynamic of the stress-modulated gene sets are very different between B73 and rpd1-1/rmr6 mutant plants, as result of stress-like effect on genome regulation caused by the mutation itself, which activates many stress-related genes even in control condition. The analyzed extensive set of total RNA-Seq data, together with the improvement of the transcriptome and the identification of the non-coding portion of the transcriptome give a revealing insight into the genetic and epigenetic mechanism responsible for maize molecular response to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Ontologia Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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