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1.
Am Heart J ; 222: 38-45, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association recommends women with congenital heart defects (CHD) receive contraceptive counseling early in their reproductive years, but little is known about contraceptive method use among women with CHD. We describe recent female sterilization and reversible prescription contraceptive method use by presence of CHD and CHD severity in 2014. METHODS: Using IBM MarketScan Commercial Databases, we included women aged 15 to 44 years with prescription drug coverage in 2014 who were enrolled ≥11 months annually in employer-sponsored health plans between 2011 and 2014. CHD, CHD severity, contraceptive methods, and obstetrics-gynecology and cardiology provider encounters were identified using billing codes. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare contraceptive method use overall and by effectiveness tier by CHD presence and, for women with CHD, severity. RESULTS: Recent sterilization or current reversible prescription contraceptive method use varied slightly among women with (39.2%) and without (37.3%) CHD, aPR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01-1.07]. Women with CHD were more likely to use any Tier I method (12.9%) than women without CHD (9.3%), aPR = 1.41, 95% CI [1.33-1.50]. Women with severe, compared to non-severe, CHD were less likely to use any method, aPR = 0.85, 95% CI [0.78-0.92], or Tier I method, aPR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.70-0.99]. Approximately 60% of women with obstetrics-gynecology and <40% with cardiology encounters used any included method. CONCLUSIONS: There may be missed opportunities for providers to improve uptake of safe, effective contraceptive methods for women with CHD who wish to avoid pregnancy.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including brain and eye abnormalities. The clinical importance of detection of ZIKV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in amniotic fluid is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of ZIKV RNA testing of amniotic fluid relative to other clinical specimens and to examine the association between ZIKV detection in amniotic fluid and Zika-associated birth defects. Our null hypothesis was that ZIKV detection in amniotic fluid was not associated with Zika-associated birth defects. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women with amniotic fluid specimens submitted to Colombia's National Institute of Health as part of national ZIKV surveillance from January 2016 to January 2017. Specimens (maternal serum, amniotic fluid, cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and placental tissue) were tested for the presence of ZIKV RNA using a singleplex or multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. Birth defect information was abstracted from maternal prenatal and infant birth records and reviewed by expert clinicians. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency of Zika-associated birth defects (defined as brain abnormalities [with or without microcephaly, but excluding neural tube defects and their associated findings] or eye abnormalities) by frequency of detection of ZIKV RNA in amniotic fluid. RESULTS: Our analysis included 128 women with amniotic fluid specimens. Seventy-five women (58%) had prenatally-collected amniotic fluid, 42 (33%) at delivery, and 11 (9%) had missing collection dates. Ninety-one women had both amniotic fluid and other clinical specimens submitted for testing, allowing for comparison across specimen types. Of those 91 women, 68 had evidence of ZIKV infection based on detection of ZIKV RNA (ZIKV+) in >1 specimen. Testing of amniotic fluid collected prenatally or at delivery identified 39 (57%) of these ZIKV infections (15 [22%] identified only in amniotic fluid), and 29 (43%) infections were identified in other specimen types and not amniotic fluid. Among women included in the analysis, 89 had pregnancy outcome information available, allowing for assessment of the presence of Zika-associated birth defects. Zika-associated birth defects were significantly (p<0.05) more common among pregnancies with ZIKV+ amniotic fluid specimens collected prenatally (19/32, 59%) than for those with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection in any specimen (6/23, 26%), but the proportion was similar in pregnancies with only ZIKV+ specimens other than amniotic fluid (10/23, 43%). Though Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with any ZIKV+ amniotic fluid specimen (i.e., collected prenatally or at delivery; 21/43, 49%) than those with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection (6/23, 26%), this comparison did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Testing of amniotic fluid provided additional evidence for maternal diagnosis of ZIKV infection. Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with ZIKV RNA detected in prenatal amniotic fluid specimens than women with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection, but similar to women with ZIKV RNA detected in other, non-amniotic fluid specimen types.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 25-29, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945037

RESUMO

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Atten Disord ; 24(3): 479-489, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519207

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of, and maternal characteristics associated with, ADHD medication use before and during pregnancy, and associations between early pregnancy ADHD medication use and risk for 12 selected birth defects. Method: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. Results: There was an increase in ADHD medication use from 1998-1999 (0.2%) to 2010-2011 (0.5%; p < .001). Early pregnancy ADHD medication use was more commonly reported by mothers of infants/fetuses with gastroschisis (crude odds ratio [cOR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 6.9]), omphalocele (cOR: 4.0, 95% CI = [1.2, 13.6]), and transverse limb deficiency (cOR: 3.3, 95% CI = [1.1, 9.6]). Conclusion: ADHD medication use before and during pregnancy was rare, but the prevalence of use has increased over time. In this analysis, early pregnancy ADHD medication use was associated with three of 12 selected birth defects.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, atypical antipsychotic use among U.S. pregnant women, and potential associations between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and risk for 14 birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. RESULTS: Atypical antipsychotic use during pregnancy was more common among women with pre-pregnancy obesity, and women who reported illicit drug use before and during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol use during pregnancy, or use of other psychiatric medications during pregnancy. We observed elevated associations (defined as a crude odds ratio [cOR] ≥2.0) between early pregnancy atypical antipsychotic use and conotruncal heart defects (6 exposed cases; cOR: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-6.1), and more specifically Tetralogy of Fallot (3 exposed cases; cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.7-8.8), cleft palate (4 exposed cases, cOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.6), anorectal atresia/stenosis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 0.8-9.9), and gastroschisis (3 exposed cases, cOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.6-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the close clinical monitoring of pregnant women using atypical antipsychotics. Women treated with atypical antipsychotics generally access healthcare services before pregnancy; efforts to reduce correlates of atypical antipsychotic use might improve maternal and infant health in this population.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e013608, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510829

RESUMO

Background Our objective was to estimate receipt of preconception health care among women with congenital heart defects (CHD), according to 2017 American Heart Association recommendations, as a baseline for evaluating recommendation implementation. Methods and Results Using 2007 to 2013 IBM MarketScan Commercial Databases, we identified women with CHD diagnosis codes ages 15 to 44 years who became pregnant and were enrolled in health insurance for ≥11 months in the year before estimated conception. We assessed documentation of complete blood count, electrolytes, thyroid-stimulating hormone, liver function, ECG, comprehensive echocardiogram, and exercise stress test, using procedural codes, and outpatient prescription claims for US Food and Drug Administration category D and X cardiac-related medications. Differences were examined according to CHD severity, age, region of residence, year of conception, and documented encounters at obstetric and cardiology practices. We found 2524 pregnancies among 2003 women with CHD (14.4% severe CHD). In the 98.3% of women with a healthcare encounter in the year before conception, <1% received all and 22.6% received no American Heart Association-recommended tests or assessments (range: 54.4% for complete blood count to 3.1% for exercise stress test). Women with the highest prevalence of receipt of recommended care were 35 to 44 years old, pregnant in 2012 to 2013, or had a documented obstetric or cardiology encounter in the year before conception (P<0.05 for all). In 9.0% of pregnancies, ≥1 prescriptions for US Food and Drug Administration category D or X cardiac-related medications were filled in the year before conception. Conclusions A low percentage of women with CHD received American Heart Association-recommended preconception health care in the year before conception.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(7): 177-180, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789880

RESUMO

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that can occur following prenatal exposure to opioids (1). NAS surveillance in the United States is based largely on diagnosis codes in hospital discharge data, without validation of these codes or case confirmation. During 2004-2014, reported NAS incidence increased from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 U.S. hospital births (2), based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes identified in hospital discharge data, without case confirmation. However, little is known about how well these codes identify NAS or how the October 1, 2015, transition from ICD-9-CM to the tenth revision of ICD-CM (ICD-10-CM) codes affected estimated NAS incidence. This report describes a pilot project in Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont to use birth defects surveillance infrastructure to obtain state-level, population-based estimates of NAS incidence among births in 2015 (all three states) and 2016 (Illinois) using hospital discharge records and other sources (varied by state) with case confirmation, and to evaluate the validity of NAS diagnosis codes used by each state. Wide variation in NAS incidence was observed across the three states. In 2015, NAS incidence for Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont was 3.0, 7.5, and 30.8 per 1,000 births, respectively. Among evaluated diagnosis codes, those with the highest positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying confirmed cases of NAS, based on a uniform case definition, were drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn (ICD-9-CM code 779.5; state range = 58.6%-80.2%) and drug withdrawal, infant of dependent mother (ICD-10-CM code P96.1; state range = 58.5%-80.2%). The methods used to assess NAS incidence in this pilot project might help inform other states' NAS surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Vermont/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(1): 6-10, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629576

RESUMO

From 2004 to 2014, the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the United States increased 433%, from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 hospital births. The latest national data from 2014 indicate that one baby was born with signs of NAS every 15 minutes in the United States (1). NAS is a drug withdrawal syndrome that most commonly occurs among infants after in utero exposure to opioids, although other substances have also been associated with NAS. Prenatal opioid exposure has also been associated with poor fetal growth, preterm birth, stillbirth, and possible specific birth defects (2-5). NAS surveillance has often depended on hospital discharge data, which historically underestimate the incidence of NAS and are not available in real time, thus limiting states' ability to quickly direct public health resources (6,7). This evaluation focused on six states with state laws implementing required NAS case reporting for public health surveillance during 2013-2017 and reviews implementation of the laws, state officials' reports of data quality before and after laws were passed, and advantages and challenges of legally mandating NAS reporting for public health surveillance in the absence of a national case definition. Using standardized search terms in an online legal research database, laws in six states mandating reporting of NAS from medical facilities to state health departments (SHDs) or from SHDs to a state legislative body were identified. SHD officials in these six states completed a questionnaire followed by a semistructured telephone interview to clarify open-text responses from the questionnaire. Variability was found in the type and number of surveillance data elements reported and in how states used NAS surveillance data. Following implementation, five states with identified laws reported receiving NAS case reports within 30 days of diagnosis. Mandated NAS case reporting allowed SHDs to quantify the incidence of NAS in their states and to inform programs and services. This information might be useful to states considering implementing mandatory NAS surveillance.


Assuntos
Notificação de Abuso , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(2): 66-70, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346342

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals across the lifespan. ADHD medication use among pregnant women is increasing (1), but consensus about the safety of ADHD medication use during pregnancy is lacking. Given that nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended (2), and early pregnancy is a critical period for fetal development, examining trends in ADHD medication prescriptions among reproductive-aged women is important to quantify the population at risk for potential exposure. CDC used the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* for the period 2003-2015 to estimate the percentage of women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance who filled prescriptions for ADHD medications each year. The percentage of reproductive-aged women who filled at least one ADHD medication prescription increased 344% from 2003 (0.9% of women) to 2015 (4.0% of women). In 2015, the most frequently filled medications were mixed amphetamine salts, lisdexamfetamine, and methylphenidate. Prescribing ADHD medications to reproductive-aged women is increasingly common; additional research on ADHD medication safety during pregnancy is warranted to inform women and their health care providers about any potential risks associated with ADHD medication exposure before and during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(1): 18-22, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324733

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estados Unidos
12.
JAMA ; 318(21): 2111-2118, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209720

RESUMO

Importance: In 2011, critical congenital heart disease was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns, but whether state implementation of screening policies has been associated with infant death rates is unknown. Objective: To assess whether there was an association between implementation of state newborn screening policies for critical congenital heart disease and infant death rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study with group-level analyses. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted using the National Center for Health Statistics' period linked birth/infant death data set files for 2007-2013 for 26 546 503 US births through June 30, 2013, aggregated by month and state of birth. Exposures: State policies were classified as mandatory or nonmandatory (including voluntary policies and mandates that were not yet implemented). As of June 1, 2013, 8 states had implemented mandatory screening policies, 5 states had voluntary screening policies, and 9 states had adopted but not yet implemented mandates. Main Outcomes and Measures: Numbers of early infant deaths (between 24 hours and 6 months of age) coded for critical congenital heart disease or other/unspecified congenital cardiac causes for each state-month birth cohort. Results: Between 2007 and 2013, there were 2734 deaths due to critical congenital heart disease and 3967 deaths due to other/unspecified causes. Critical congenital heart disease death rates in states with mandatory screening policies were 8.0 (95% CI, 5.4-10.6) per 100 000 births (n = 37) in 2007 and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.9-9.9) per 100 000 births (n = 13) in 2013 (for births by the end of July); for other/unspecified cardiac causes, death rates were 11.7 (95% CI, 8.6-14.8) per 100 000 births in 2007 (n = 54) and 10.3 (95% CI, 5.9-14.8) per 100 000 births (n = 21) in 2013. Early infant deaths from critical congenital heart disease through December 31, 2013, decreased by 33.4% (95% CI, 10.6%-50.3%), with an absolute decline of 3.9 (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) deaths per 100 000 births after states implemented mandatory screening compared with prior periods and states without screening policies. Early infant deaths from other/unspecified cardiac causes declined by 21.4% (95% CI, 6.9%-33.7%), with an absolute decline of 3.5 (95% CI, 3.2-3.8) deaths per 100 000 births. No significant decrease was associated with nonmandatory screening policies. Conclusions and Relevance: Statewide implementation of mandatory policies for newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease was associated with a significant decrease in infant cardiac deaths between 2007 and 2013 compared with states without these policies.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Programas Obrigatórios , Triagem Neonatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade/tendências , Triagem Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 27(10): 645-653.e2, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or opioids to the use of acetaminophen without NSAIDs or opioids with respect to associations with birth defects. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Exposure was self-reported maternal analgesic use from the month before through the third month of pregnancy (periconceptional). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to examine associations with 16 birth defects. RESULTS: Compared to acetaminophen, mothers reporting NSAIDs were significantly more likely to have offspring with gastroschisis, hypospadias, cleft palate, cleft lip with cleft palate, cleft lip without cleft palate, anencephaly, spina bifida, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary valve stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot (aOR range, 1.2-1.6). Opioids were associated with tetralogy of Fallot, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and ventricular septal defect with atrial septal defect (aOR range, 1.8-2.3), whereas use of both opioids and NSAIDs was associated with gastroschisis, cleft palate, spina bifida, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and pulmonary valve stenosis (aOR range, 2.0-2.9). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to periconceptional use of acetaminophen, selected birth defects occurred more frequently among infants of women using NSAIDs and/or opioids. However, we could not definitely determine whether these risks relate to the drugs or to indications for treatment.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fenda Labial/induzido quimicamente , Fissura Palatina/induzido quimicamente , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Gastrosquise/induzido quimicamente , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Hipospadia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães , Vigilância da População , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatrics ; 139(6)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562278

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Opioid use and abuse have increased dramatically in recent years, particularly among women. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the association between prenatal opioid use and congenital malformations. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline and Embase for studies published from 1946 to 2016 and reviewed reference lists to identify additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that were full-text journal articles and reported the results of original epidemiologic research on prenatal opioid exposure and congenital malformations. We assessed study eligibility in multiple phases using a standardized, duplicate review process. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on study characteristics, opioid exposure, timing of exposure during pregnancy, congenital malformations (collectively or as individual subtypes), length of follow-up, and main findings were extracted from eligible studies. RESULTS: Of the 68 studies that met our inclusion criteria, 46 had an unexposed comparison group; of those, 30 performed statistical tests to measure associations between maternal opioid use during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Seventeen of these (10 of 12 case-control and 7 of 18 cohort studies) documented statistically significant positive associations. Among the case-control studies, associations with oral clefts and ventricular septal defects/atrial septal defects were the most frequently reported specific malformations. Among the cohort studies, clubfoot was the most frequently reported specific malformation. LIMITATIONS: Variabilities in study design, poor study quality, and weaknesses with outcome and exposure measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainty remains regarding the teratogenicity of opioids; a careful assessment of risks and benefits is warranted when considering opioid treatment for women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Derivados da Morfina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Metadona/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(2): 41-46, 2017 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103210

RESUMO

In the United States, major structural or genetic birth defects affect approximately 3% of live births (1) and are responsible for 20% of infant deaths (2). Birth defects can affect persons across their lifespan and are the cause of significant lifelong disabilities. CDC used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), a 20% stratified sample of discharges from nonfederal community hospitals, to estimate the annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States, both for persons of all ages and by age group. Birth defect-associated hospitalizations had disproportionately high costs, accounting for 3.0% of all hospitalizations and 5.2% of total hospital costs. The estimated annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States in 2013 was $22.9 billion. Estimates of the cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations offer important information about the impact of birth defects among persons of all ages on the overall health care system and can be used to prioritize prevention, early detection, and care.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(49): 1409-1413, 2016 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27977645

RESUMO

In Colombia, approximately 105,000 suspected cases of Zika virus disease (diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, regardless of laboratory confirmation) were reported during August 9, 2015-November 12, 2016, including nearly 20,000 in pregnant women (1,2). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and serious congenital brain abnormalities and has been associated with other birth defects related to central nervous system damage (3). Colombia's Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) maintains national surveillance for birth defects, including microcephaly and other central nervous system defects. This report provides preliminary information on cases of congenital microcephaly identified in Colombia during epidemiologic weeks 5-45 (January 31-November 12) in 2016. During this period, 476 cases of microcephaly were reported, compared with 110 cases reported during the same period in 2015. The temporal association between reported Zika virus infections and the occurrence of microcephaly, with the peak number of reported microcephaly cases occurring approximately 24 weeks after the peak of the Zika virus disease outbreak, provides evidence suggesting that the period of highest risk is during the first trimester of pregnancy and early in the second trimester of pregnancy. Microcephaly prevalence increased more than fourfold overall during the study period, from 2.1 per 10,000 live births in 2015 to 9.6 in 2016. Ongoing population-based birth defects surveillance is essential for monitoring the impact of Zika virus infection during pregnancy on birth defects prevalence and measuring the success in preventing Zika virus infection and its consequences, including microcephaly.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
17.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(11): 927-934, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health insurance claims are a rich data source to examine medication use in pregnancy. Our objective was to identify pregnant women, their pregnancy outcomes, and date of their last menstrual period (LMP), and to estimate antidepressant dispensations in pregnancy. METHODS: From a literature search, we identified diagnosis and procedure codes indicating the end of a pregnancy. Using Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Databases, we identified all inpatient admissions and outpatient service claims with these codes. We developed an algorithm to assign: (1) pregnancy outcome (ectopic pregnancy, induced or spontaneous abortion, live birth, or stillbirth), and (2) estimated gestational age, to each inpatient or outpatient visit. For each pregnancy outcome, we estimated the LMP as the admission (for inpatient visits) or service (for outpatient visits) date minus the gestational age. To differentiate visits associated with separate pregnancies, we required ≥ 2 months between one pregnancy outcomes and the LMP of the next pregnancy. We used this algorithm to identify pregnancies in 2013 and to estimate the proportion of women who filled a prescription for an antidepressant from an outpatient pharmacy at various time points in pregnancy. RESULTS: We identified 488,887 pregnancies in 2013; 79% resulted in a live birth. A prescription for an antidepressant was filled in 6.2% of pregnancies. Dispensations varied throughout pregnancy and were lowest (3.1%) during the second trimester. CONCLUSION: This work will inform future efforts to estimate medication dispensations during critical periods of preconception, interconception, and pregnancy using health insurance claims data. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:927-934, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Nascimento Vivo , Visita a Consultório Médico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia
18.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(11): 940-949, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies noted associations between birth defects and some antibiotics (e.g., nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides) but not others (e.g., penicillins). It is unclear if previous findings were due to antibiotic use, infections, or chance. To control for potential confounding by indication, we examined associations between antibiotic use and birth defects, among women reporting urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a multi-site, population-based case-control study. Case infants/fetuses have any of over 30 major birth defects and controls are live-born infants without major birth defects. We analyzed pregnancies from 1997 to 2011 to estimate the association between maternally reported periconceptional (month before conception through the third month of pregnancy) use of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or cephalosporins and specific birth defects, among women with periconceptional UTIs. Women with periconceptional UTIs who reported penicillin use served as the comparator. RESULTS: Periconceptional UTIs were reported by 7.8% (2029/26,068) of case and 6.7% (686/10,198) of control mothers. Most (68.2% of case, 66.6% of control mothers) also reported antibiotic use. Among 608 case and 231 control mothers reporting at least one periconceptional UTI and certain antibiotic use, compared with penicillin, nitrofurantoin use was associated with oral clefts in the offspring (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97 [95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.53]), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use with esophageal atresia (5.31 [1.39-20.24]) and diaphragmatic hernia (5.09 [1.20-21.69]), and cephalosporin use with anorectal atresia/stenosis (5.01 [1.34-18.76]). CONCLUSION: Periconceptional exposure to some antibiotics might increase the risk for certain birth defects. However, because individual birth defects are rare, absolute risks should drive treatment decisions.Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:940-949, 2016.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Infecções Urinárias , Antibacterianos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(29): 739-44, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467820

RESUMO

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated <2 weeks after symptom onset should receive serum and urine Zika virus rRT-PCR testing. Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated 2-12 weeks after symptom onset should first receive a Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR testing should be performed. Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic pregnant women who live in areas without active Zika virus transmission and who are evaluated <2 weeks after last possible exposure, rRT-PCR testing should be performed. If the rRT-PCR result is negative, a Zika virus IgM antibody test should be performed 2-12 weeks after the exposure. Asymptomatic pregnant women who do not live in an area with active Zika virus transmission, who are first evaluated 2-12 weeks after their last possible exposure should first receive a Zika virus IgM antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR should be performed. Asymptomatic pregnant women with ongoing risk for exposure to Zika virus should receive Zika virus IgM antibody testing as part of routine obstetric care during the first and second trimesters; immediate rRT-PCR testing should be performed when IgM antibody test results are positive or equivocal. This guidance also provides updated recommendations for the clinical management of pregnant women with confirmed or possible Zika virus infection. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Gravidez , RNA Viral/sangue , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(3): 41-6, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821271

RESUMO

Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has been increasing in the United States (1). Many women require antidepressants on an ongoing basis, and a clear consensus on the safest medication options for both the mother and her fetus does not exist (2). Given that half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned (3), antidepressant use will occur during the first weeks of pregnancy, a critical period for fetal development. To understand trends among women of reproductive age, CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data* to estimate the number of antidepressant prescriptions filled by women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance. During 2008-2013, an average of 15.4% of women aged 15-44 years filled at least one prescription for an antidepressant in a single year. The most frequently filled antidepressants included sertraline, bupropion, and citalopram. Prescribing of antidepressants is common, and research on antidepressant safety during pregnancy needs to be accelerated to provide evidence-based information to health care providers and women about the potential risks for antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy and between pregnancies.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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