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Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 49-58.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629918


Recent and ongoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) underscore the unpredictable nature of ebolavirus reemergence and the urgent need for antiviral treatments. Unfortunately, available experimental vaccines and immunotherapeutics are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against other ebolaviruses associated with EVD, including Sudan virus (SUDV) and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Here we show that MBP134AF, a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bNAbs), affords unprecedented effectiveness and potency as a therapeutic countermeasure to antigenically diverse ebolaviruses. MBP134AF could fully protect ferrets against lethal EBOV, SUDV, and BDBV infection, and a single 25-mg/kg dose was sufficient to protect NHPs against all three viruses. The development of MBP134AF provides a successful model for the rapid discovery and translational advancement of immunotherapeutics targeting emerging infectious diseases.

Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Furões/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Macaca , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Primatas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
Biochemistry ; 52(18): 3102-18, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23570341


Tyro3, a member of the Tyro3/Axl/Mer (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has emerged as a potential oncogene in melanoma. Here, we confirm that Tyro3 is specifically overexpressed in primary melanoma samples and show that Tyro3 is expressed at varying levels in numerous melanoma cell lines. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Tyro3 led to significant cell death via apoptotic mechanisms in nearly all melanoma cell lines tested, regardless of the BRAF or NRAS mutation status or co-expression of Axl and/or Mer. We generated soluble and monomeric versions of the human Tyro3 extracellular domain and human Gas6 for affinity measurements and correlated these values with the level of Gas6 required to induce Tyro3 signaling in cellular assays. Calcium was critical for the correct folding of Gas6 and its binding to Tyro3. In melanoma cell lines, Gas6 induced Tyro3 phosphorylation and downstream Akt phosphorylation without apparent effects on Erk. We generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Tyro3 to examine their effect on survival signaling in melanoma cell lines. The mAbs generated against Tyro3 included nonligand blockers, partial blockers, and competitive ligand blockers. A number of weak and partial ligand blockers (all recognizing the Tyro3 Ig domains) were the most effective at blocking ligand-mediated downstream signaling of Tyro3. Overall, these data indicate that Tyro3 may confer increased survival signals in melanoma cells and can be stymied using inhibitory mAbs. These mAbs may be useful for further investigations of the role of Tyro3 in melanoma.

Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/imunologia
J Biol Chem ; 284(15): 10254-67, 2009 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19211557


Therapeutic antibodies directed against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have recently gained significant momentum in the clinic because of preliminary data generated in human patients with cancer. These antibodies inhibit ligand-mediated activation of IGF-1R and the resulting down-stream signaling cascade. Here we generated a panel of antibodies against IGF-1R and screened them for their ability to block the binding of both IGF-1 and IGF-2 at escalating ligand concentrations (>1 microm) to investigate allosteric versus competitive blocking mechanisms. Four distinct inhibitory classes were found as follows: 1) allosteric IGF-1 blockers, 2) allosteric IGF-2 blockers, 3) allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers, and 4) competitive IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers. The epitopes of representative antibodies from each of these classes were mapped using a purified IGF-1R library containing 64 mutations. Most of these antibodies bound overlapping surfaces on the cysteine-rich repeat and L2 domains. One class of allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blocker was identified that bound a separate epitope on the outer surface of the FnIII-1 domain. Using various biophysical techniques, we show that the dual IGF blockers inhibit ligand binding using a spectrum of mechanisms ranging from highly allosteric to purely competitive. Binding of IGF-1 or the inhibitory antibodies was associated with conformational changes in IGF-1R, linked to the ordering of dynamic or unstructured regions of the receptor. These results suggest IGF-1R uses disorder/order within its polypeptide sequence to regulate its activity. Interestingly, the activity of representative allosteric and competitive inhibitors on H322M tumor cell growth in vitro was reflective of their individual ligand-blocking properties. Many of the antibodies in the clinic likely adopt one of the inhibitory mechanisms described here, and the outcome of future clinical studies may reveal whether a particular inhibitory mechanism leads to optimal clinical efficacy.

Epitopos/química , Receptores de Somatomedina/química , Sítio Alostérico , Animais , Células CHO , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/química , Cinética , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 97(4): 877-92, 2007 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17099908


Mammalian cells are used for the production of numerous biologics including monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, mammalian cells can lose viability at later stages in the cell culture process. In this study, the effects of expressing the anti-apoptosis genes, E1B-19K and Aven, separately and in combination on cell growth, survival, and monoclonal antibody (MAb) production were investigated for a commercial Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) mammalian cell line. CHO cells were observed to undergo apoptosis following a model insult, glucose deprivation, and at later stages of batch cell culture. The CHO cell line was then genetically modified to express the anti-apoptotic proteins E1B-19K and/or Aven using an ecdysone-inducible expression system. Stable transfected pools induced to express Aven or E1B-19K alone were found to survive 1-2 days longer than the parent cell line following glucose deprivation while the expression of both genes in concert increased cell survival by 3 days. In spinner flask batch studies, a clonal isolate engineered to express both anti-apoptosis genes exhibited a longer operating lifetime and higher final MAb titer as a result of higher viable cell densities and viabilities. Interestingly, survival was increased in the absence of an inducer, most likely as a result of leaky expression of the anti-apoptosis genes confirmed in subsequent PCR studies. In fed-batch bioreactors, the expression of both anti-apoptosis genes resulted in higher growth rates and cell densities in the exponential phase and significantly higher viable cell densities, viabilities, and extended survival during the post-exponential phase. As a result, the integral of viable cells (IVC) was between 40 and 100% higher for cell lines engineered to express both Aven and E1B-19K in concert, and the operational lifetime of the fed-batch bioreactors was increased from 2 to 5 days. The maximum titers of MAb were also increased by 40-55% for bioreactors containing cells expressing Aven and E1B-19K. These increases in volumetric productivity arose primarily from enhancements in viable cell density over the course of the fed-batch culture period since the specific productivities for the cells expressing anti-apoptosis genes were comparable or slightly lower than the parental hosts. These results demonstrate that expression of anti-apoptosis genes can enhance culture performance and increase MAb titers for mammalian CHO cell cultures especially under conditions such as extended fed-batch bioreactor operation.

Proteínas E1B de Adenovirus/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Apoptose/genética , Melhoramento Genético/métodos , Geum/genética , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Células CHO , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro , Glucose/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos