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1.
J Neurosci ; 42(45): 8508-8513, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351824

RESUMO

Understanding the unique functions of different subregions of primate prefrontal cortex has been a longstanding goal in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the anatomy and function of one of its largest subregions (the frontopolar cortex) remain enigmatic and underspecified. Our Society for Neuroscience minisymposium Primate Frontopolar Cortex: From Circuits to Complex Behaviors will comprise a range of new anatomic and functional approaches that have helped to clarify the basic circuit anatomy of the frontal pole, its functional involvement during performance of cognitively demanding behavioral paradigms in monkeys and humans, and its clinical potential as a target for noninvasive brain stimulation in patients with brain disorders. This review consolidates knowledge about the anatomy and connectivity of frontopolar cortex and provides an integrative summary of its function in primates. We aim to answer the question: what, if anything, does frontopolar cortex contribute to goal-directed cognition and action?


Assuntos
Cognição , Objetivos , Animais , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Primatas , Haplorrinos
2.
Prog Neurobiol ; 217: 102314, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798212

RESUMO

Primate frontopolar cortex (FPC), occupied by area 10, sits atop a functional hierarchy of prefrontal cortical regions, yet little is known about its involvement in wider cortical networks. Here we examined resting-state-functional-connectivity (rsfc) in rhesus monkeys with intact or lesioned FPC to identify cortical regions associated with FPC. We present a network of FPC-specific regions of interest (ROIs), whose connectivity was affected by lesion of FPC but not by lesion of neighbouring prefrontal cortex (principal sulcus). This network comprised 'core ROIs' with direct anatomical connections to FPC, located in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and superior temporal gyrus, and 'peripheral ROIs' well connected to the core network. We further show that the principle effect of a lesion to FPC was to cause a profound disturbance of the functional connectivity of posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We therefore suggest that FPC, posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex comprise a network of interacting cortical areas whose interactions may be critical for mediating the contribution of FPC to decision making.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Macaca mulatta , Vias Neurais , Córtex Pré-Frontal
3.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(11): 7918-7945, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796568

RESUMO

According to dual-process signal-detection (DPSD) theories, short- and long-term recognition memory draws upon both familiarity and recollection. It remains unclear how primate prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to these processes, but frequency-specific neuronal activities are considered to play a key role. In Experiment 1, nonhuman primate (NHP) local field potential (LFP) electrophysiological recordings in macaque left dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) revealed performance-related differences in a low-beta frequency range during the sample presentation phase of a visual object recognition memory task. Experiment 2 employed a similar task in humans and targeted left dlPFC (and vertex as a control) with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 12.5 Hz during occasional sample presentations. This low-beta frequency rTMS to dlPFC decreased DPSD derived indices of recollection, but not familiarity, in subsequent memory tests of the targeted samples after short delays. The same number of rTMS pulses over the same total duration albeit at a random frequency had no effect on either recollection or familiarity. Neither stimulation protocols had any causal effect upon behaviour when targeted to the control site (vertex). In this study, our hypotheses for our human TMS study were derived from our observations in NHPs; this approach might inspire further translational research through investigation of homologous brain regions and tasks across species using similar neuroscientific methodologies to advance the neural mechanism of recognition memory in primates.


Assuntos
Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Animais , Humanos , Macaca , Rememoração Mental , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Reconhecimento Psicológico
4.
J Neurosci ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099508

RESUMO

Social behaviour is coordinated by a network of brain regions, including those involved in the perception of social stimuli and those involved in complex functions like inferring perceptual and mental states and controlling social interactions. The properties and function of many of these regions in isolation is relatively well-understood, but less is known about how these regions interact whilst processing dynamic social interactions. To investigate whether the functional connectivity between brain regions is modulated by social context, we collected functional MRI (fMRI) data from male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) viewing videos of social interactions labelled as "affiliative", "aggressive", or "ambiguous". We show activation related to the perception of social interactions along both banks of the superior temporal sulcus, parietal cortex, medial and lateral frontal cortex, and the caudate nucleus. Within this network, we show that fronto-temporal functional connectivity is significantly modulated by social context. Crucially, we link the observation of specific behaviours to changes in functional connectivity within our network. Viewing aggressive behaviour was associated with a limited increase in temporo-temporal and a weak increase in cingulate-temporal connectivity. By contrast, viewing interactions where the outcome was uncertain was associated with a pronounced increase in temporo-temporal, and cingulate-temporal functional connectivity. We hypothesise that this widespread network synchronisation occurs when cingulate and temporal areas coordinate their activity when more difficult social inferences are being made.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:Processing social information from our environment requires the activation of several brain regions, which are concentrated within the frontal and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how these areas interact to facilitate the processing of different social interactions. Here we show that functional connectivity within and between the frontal and temporal lobes is modulated by social context. Specifically, we demonstrate that viewing social interactions where the outcome was unclear is associated with increased synchrony within and between the cingulate cortex and temporal cortices. These findings suggest that the coordination between the cingulate and temporal cortices is enhanced when more difficult social inferences are being made.

5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(10): e19044, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midlife women are at an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality. Those who have additional risk conditions such as obesity or hypertension report specific barriers to engaging in cardioprotective behaviors such as physical activity (PA). Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding PA determinants and designing interventions for midlife women, although with suboptimal success, as increasing PA could meaningfully attenuate CVD risk. An updated approach to understanding PA among midlife women could improve upon existing resources by focusing on novel psychosocial influences on PA in this population (ie, body satisfaction, social interactions, social comparisons, mood state) and within-person relations between these influences and PA in the natural environment. OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of Project WHADE (Women's Health And Daily Experiences) is to use an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approach to capture ecologically valid relations between midlife women's psychosocial experiences and PA as they engage in their normal daily activities. The primary aim of the study is to identify within-person psychosocial predictors of variability in PA (ie, experiences associated with higher vs lower PA for a given individual). METHODS: Midlife women (aged 40-60 years) with one or more additional risk markers for CVD (eg, hypertension) will be recruited from primary care clinics and the general community (target n=100). Eligible women will complete an initial survey and a face-to-face baseline session before engaging in a 10-day EMA protocol. Psychosocial experiences will be assessed using a brief self-report via a smartphone 5 times per day, and PA will be assessed throughout waking hours using a research-grade monitor. Participants will return for a brief exit interview at the end of 10 days. Multilevel models that address the nested structure of EMA data will be used to evaluate the study aims. RESULTS: Recruitment and enrollment are ongoing, and a total of 75 women have completed the protocol to date. Data collection is expected to be completed in Fall 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Project WHADE is designed to identify naturally occurring psychosocial experiences that predict short-term variability in midlife women's PA. As such, the results of this study should advance the current understanding of PA among midlife women by providing further insight into within-person psychosocial influences on PA in this group. In the future, this information could help inform the design of interventions for this population. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/19044.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7485, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366956

RESUMO

Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) typically employs the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism. In non-human primates (NHP), contrast enhancement is possible using monocrystalline iron-oxide nanoparticles (MION) contrast agent, which has a more temporally extended response function. However, using BOLD fMRI in NHP is desirable for interspecies comparison, and the BOLD signal's faster response function promises to be beneficial for rapid event-related (rER) designs. Here, we used rER BOLD fMRI in macaque monkeys while viewing real-world images, and found visual responses and category selectivity consistent with previous studies. However, activity estimates were very noisy, suggesting that the lower contrast-to-noise ratio of BOLD, suboptimal behavioural performance, and motion artefacts, in combination, render rER BOLD fMRI challenging in NHP. Previous studies have shown that rER fMRI is possible in macaques with MION, despite MION's prolonged response function. To understand this, we conducted simulations of the BOLD and MION response during rER, and found that no matter how fast the design, the greater amplitude of the MION response outweighs the contrast loss caused by greater temporal smoothing. We conclude that although any two of the three elements (rER, BOLD, NHP) have been shown to work well, the combination of all three is particularly challenging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Potenciais Evocados , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/farmacologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Nanopartículas
7.
Elife ; 82019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120417

RESUMO

Lesions of primary visual cortex (V1) lead to loss of conscious visual perception with significant impact on human patients. Understanding the neural consequences of such damage may aid the development of rehabilitation methods. In this rare case of a Rhesus macaque (monkey S), likely born without V1, the animal's in-group behaviour was unremarkable, but visual task training was impaired. With multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging, visual structures outside of the lesion appeared normal. Visual stimulation under anaesthesia with checkerboards activated lateral geniculate nucleus of monkey S, while full-field moving dots activated pulvinar. Visual cortical activation was sparse but included face patches. Consistently across lesion and control monkeys, functional connectivity analysis revealed an intact network of bilateral dorsal visual areas temporally correlated with V5/MT activation, even without V1. Despite robust subcortical responses to visual stimulation, we found little evidence for strengthened subcortical input to V5/MT supporting residual visual function or blindsight-like phenomena.


Assuntos
Cegueira Cortical/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/congênito , Córtex Visual/patologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Macaca mulatta
8.
Neuropsychologia ; 119: 382-391, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218841

RESUMO

Damage following traumatic brain injury or stroke can often extend beyond the boundaries of the initial insult and can lead to maladaptive cortical reorganisation. On the other hand, beneficial cortical reorganisation leading to recovery of function can also occur. We used resting state FMRI to investigate how cortical networks in the macaque brain change across time in response to lesions to the prefrontal cortex, and how this reorganisation correlated with changes in behavioural performance in cognitive tasks. After prelesion testing and scanning, two monkeys received a lesion to regions surrounding the left principal sulcus followed by periodic testing and scanning. Later, the animals received another lesion to the opposite hemisphere and additional testing and scanning. Following the first lesion, we observed both a behavioural impairment and decrease in functional connectivity, predominantly in frontal-frontal networks. Approximately 8 weeks later, performance and connectivity patterns both improved. Following the second lesion, we observed a further behavioural deficit and decrease in connectivity that showed little recovery. We discuss how different mechanisms including alternate behavioural strategies and reorganisation of specific prefrontal networks may have led to improvements in behaviour. Further work will be needed to confirm these mechanisms.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/lesões , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Macaca mulatta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/lesões , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Dados Preliminares , Descanso , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
9.
JMIR Cancer ; 4(1): e9, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile technology allow innovative data collection techniques such as measuring time use (ie, how individuals structure their time) for the purpose of improving health behavior change interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability of a 5-day trial of the Life in a Day mobile phone app measuring time use in breast cancer survivors to advance technology-based measurement of time use. METHODS: Acceptability data were collected from participants (N=40; 100% response rate) using a self-administered survey after 5 days of Life in a Day use. RESULTS: Overall, participants had a mean age of 55 years (SD 8) and completed 16 years of school (SD 2). Participants generally agreed that learning to use Life in a Day was easy (83%, 33/40) and would prefer to log activities using Life in a Day over paper-and-pencil diary (73%, 29/40). A slight majority felt that completing Life in a Day for 5 consecutive days was not too much (60%, 24/40) or overly time-consuming (68%, 27/40). Life in a Day was rated as easy to read (88%, 35/40) and navigate (70%, 32/40). Participants also agreed that it was easy to log activities using the activity timer at the start and end of an activity (90%, 35/39). Only 13% (5/40) downloaded the app on their personal phone, whereas 63% (19/30) of the remaining participants would have preferred to use their personal phone. Overall, 77% (30/39) of participants felt that the Life in a Day app was good or very good. Those who agreed that it was easy to edit activities were significantly more likely to be younger when compared with those who disagreed (mean 53 vs 58 years, P=.04). Similarly, those who agreed that it was easy to remember to log activities were more likely to be younger (mean 52 vs 60 years, P<.001). Qualitative coding of 2 open-ended survey items yielded 3 common themes for Life in a Day improvement (ie, convenience, user interface, and reminders). CONCLUSIONS: A mobile phone app is an acceptable time-use measurement modality. Improving convenience, user interface, and memory prompts while addressing the needs of older participants is needed to enhance app utility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00929617; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00929617 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6z2bZ4P7X).

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(19): E2721-9, 2016 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118845

RESUMO

Repeated presentations of sensory stimuli generate transient gamma-frequency (30-80 Hz) responses in neocortex that show plasticity in a task-dependent manner. Complex relationships between individual neuronal outputs and the mean, local field potential (population activity) accompany these changes, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible. Here we show that transient stimulation of input layer 4 sufficient to generate gamma oscillations induced two different, lamina-specific plastic processes that correlated with lamina-specific changes in responses to further, repeated stimulation: Unit rates and recruitment showed overall enhancement in supragranular layers and suppression in infragranular layers associated with excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentiation onto principal cells, respectively. Both synaptic processes were critically dependent on activation of GABAB receptors and, together, appeared to temporally segregate the cortical representation. These data suggest that adaptation to repetitive sensory input dramatically alters the spatiotemporal properties of the neocortical response in a manner that may both refine and minimize cortical output simultaneously.


Assuntos
Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
J Neurosci ; 31(47): 17040-51, 2011 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22114273

RESUMO

Rhythmic activity in populations of cortical neurons accompanies, and may underlie, many aspects of primary sensory processing and short-term memory. Activity in the gamma band (30 Hz up to >100 Hz) is associated with such cognitive tasks and is thought to provide a substrate for temporal coupling of spatially separate regions of the brain. However, such coupling requires close matching of frequencies in co-active areas, and because the nominal gamma band is so spectrally broad, it may not constitute a single underlying process. Here we show that, for inhibition-based gamma rhythms in vitro in rat neocortical slices, mechanistically distinct local circuit generators exist in different laminae of rat primary auditory cortex. A persistent, 30-45 Hz, gap-junction-dependent gamma rhythm dominates rhythmic activity in supragranular layers 2/3, whereas a tonic depolarization-dependent, 50-80 Hz, pyramidal/interneuron gamma rhythm is expressed in granular layer 4 with strong glutamatergic excitation. As a consequence, altering the degree of excitation of the auditory cortex causes bifurcation in the gamma frequency spectrum and can effectively switch temporal control of layer 5 from supragranular to granular layers. Computational modeling predicts the pattern of interlaminar connections may help to stabilize this bifurcation. The data suggest that different strategies are used by primary auditory cortex to represent weak and strong inputs, with principal cell firing rate becoming increasingly important as excitation strength increases.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Animais , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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