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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002901, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory contribution to type 2 diabetes (T2D) has suggested new therapeutic targets using biologic drugs designed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). On this basis, we aimed at investigating whether interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition with anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist, could improve both glycaemic and inflammatory parameters in participants with RA and T2D compared with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFis). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study, designed as a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial, enrolled participants, followed up for 6 months, with RA and T2D in 12 Italian rheumatologic units between 2013 and 2016. Participants were randomised to anakinra or to a TNFi (i.e., adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, infliximab, or golimumab), and the primary end point was the change in percentage of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%) (EudraCT: 2012-005370-62 ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02236481). In total, 41 participants with RA and T2D were randomised, and 39 eligible participants were treated (age 62.72 ± 9.97 years, 74.4% female sex). The majority of participants had seropositive RA disease (rheumatoid factor and/or anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody [ACPA] 70.2%) with active disease (Disease Activity Score-28 [DAS28]: 5.54 ± 1.03; C-reactive protein 11.84 ± 9.67 mg/L, respectively). All participants had T2D (HbA1c%: 7.77 ± 0.70, fasting plasma glucose: 139.13 ± 42.17 mg). When all the enrolled participants reached 6 months of follow-up, the important crude difference in the main end point, confirmed by an unplanned ad interim analysis showing the significant effects of anakinra, which were not observed in the other group, led to the study being stopped for early benefit. Participants in the anakinra group had a significant reduction of HbA1c%, in an unadjusted linear mixed model, after 3 months (ß: -0.85, p < 0.001, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.42) and 6 months (ß: -1.05, p < 0.001, 95% CI -1.50 to -0.59). Similar results were observed adjusting the model for relevant RA and T2D clinical confounders (male sex, age, ACPA positivity, use of corticosteroids, RA duration, T2D duration, use of oral antidiabetic drug, body mass index [BMI]) after 3 months (ß: -1.04, p < 0.001, 95% CI -1.52 to -0.55) and 6 months (ß: -1.24, p < 0.001, 95% CI -1.75 to -0.72). Participants in the TNFi group had a nonsignificant slight decrease of HbA1c%. Assuming the success threshold to be HbA1c% ≤ 7, we considered an absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 0.42 (experimental event rate = 0.54, control event rate = 0.12); thus, we estimated, rounding up, a number needed to treat (NNT) = 3. Concerning RA, a progressive reduction of disease activity was observed in both groups. No severe adverse events, hypoglycaemic episodes, or deaths were observed. Urticarial lesions at the injection site led to discontinuation in 4 (18%) anakinra-treated participants. Additionally, we observed nonsevere infections, including influenza, nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and diarrhoea in both groups. Our study has some limitations, including open-label design and previously unplanned ad interim analysis, small size, lack of some laboratory evaluations, and ongoing use of other drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed an apparent benefit of IL-1 inhibition in participants with RA and T2D, reaching the therapeutic targets of both diseases. Our results suggest the concept that IL-1 inhibition may be considered a targeted treatment for RA and T2D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with EU Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT Number: 2012-005370-62 and with ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT02236481.

2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations for vaccination against influenza virus and S. pneumoniae in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). METHODS: A Consensus Committee including physicians with expertise in rheumatic and infectious diseases was established by two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana di Reumatologia (SIR) and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (SIMIT). The experts were invited to develop evidence-based recommendations concerning vaccinations in ARDs patients, based on their clinical status before and after undergoing immunosuppressive treatments. Key clinical questions were formulated for the systematic literature reviews, based on the clinical pathway. A search was made in Medline (via PubMed) according to the original MeSH strategy from October 2009 and a keyword strategy from January 2016 up to December 2017, updating existing EULAR recommendations. Specific recommendations were separately voted and scored from 0 (no agreement with) to 100 (maximal agreement) and supporting evidence graded. The mean and standard deviation of the scores were calculated to determine the level of agreement among the experts' panel for each recommendation. Total cumulative agreement ≥70 defined consensus for each statement. RESULTS: Nine recommendations, based on 6 key clinical questions addressed by the expert committee, were proposed. The aim of this work is to integrate the 2011 EULAR recommendations on vaccination against influenza and S. pneumoniae in ARDs patients. An implementation plan was proposed to improve the vaccination status of these patients and their safety during immunosuppressive treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations are effective and safe in patients with ARDs. More efforts should be made to translate the accumulated evidence into practice.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) recently developed a preliminarily revised activity index (AI) that performed better than the European Scleroderma Study Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value for short-term disease severity accrual of the EUSTAR-AI, as compared with those of the EScSG-AI and of known adverse prognostic factors. METHODS: Patients with SSc from the EUSTAR database with a disease duration from the onset of the first non-Raynaud sign/symptom ≤5 years and a baseline visit between 2003 and 2014 were first extracted. To capture the disease activity variations over time, EUSTAR-AI and EScSG-AI adjusted means were calculated. The primary outcome was disease progression defined as a Δ≥1 in the Medsger's severity score and in distinct items at the 2-year follow-up visit. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: 549 patients were enrolled. At multivariate analysis, the EUSTAR-AI adjusted mean was the only predictor of any severity accrual and of that of lung and heart, skin and peripheral vascular disease over 2 years. CONCLUSION: The adjusted mean EUSTAR-AI has the best predictive value for disease progression and development of severe organ involvement over time in SSc.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 979-987, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of rituximab in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a prospective study including patients with SSc from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) network treated with rituximab and matched with untreated patients with SSc. The main outcomes measures were adverse events, skin fibrosis improvement, lung fibrosis worsening and steroids use among propensity score-matched patients treated or not with rituximab. RESULTS: 254 patients were treated with rituximab, in 58% for lung and in 32% for skin involvement. After a median follow-up of 2 years, about 70% of the patients had no side effect. Comparison of treated patients with 9575 propensity-score matched patients showed that patients treated with rituximab were more likely to have skin fibrosis improvement (22.7 vs 14.03 events per 100 person-years; OR: 2.79 [1.47-5.32]; p=0.002). Treated patients did not have significantly different rates of decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC)>10% (OR: 1.03 [0.55-1.94]; p=0.93) nor in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) decrease. Patients having received rituximab were more prone to stop or decrease steroids (OR: 2.34 [1.56-3.53], p<0.0001). Patients treated concomitantly with mycophenolate mofetil had a trend for better outcomes as compared with patients receiving rituximab alone (delta FVC: 5.22 [0.83-9.62]; p=0.019 as compared with controls vs 3 [0.66-5.35]; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Rituximab use was associated with a good safety profile in this large SSc-cohort. Significant change was observed on skin fibrosis, but not on lung. However, the limitation is the observational design. The potential stabilisation of lung fibrosis by rituximab has to be addressed by a randomised trial.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1553-1570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous connective tissue disease that is typically subdivided into limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) depending on the extent of skin involvement. This subclassification may not capture the entire variability of clinical phenotypes. The European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database includes data on a prospective cohort of SSc patients from 122 European referral centers. This study was undertaken to perform a cluster analysis of EUSTAR data to distinguish and characterize homogeneous phenotypes without any a priori assumptions, and to examine survival among the clusters obtained. METHODS: A total of 11,318 patients were registered in the EUSTAR database, and 6,927 were included in the study. Twenty-four clinical and serologic variables were used for clustering. RESULTS: Clustering analyses provided a first delineation of 2 clusters showing moderate stability. In an exploratory attempt, we further characterized 6 homogeneous groups that differed with regard to their clinical features, autoantibody profile, and mortality. Some groups resembled usual dcSSc or lcSSc prototypes, but others exhibited unique features, such as a majority of lcSSc patients with a high rate of visceral damage and antitopoisomerase antibodies. Prognosis varied among groups and the presence of organ damage markedly impacted survival regardless of cutaneous involvement. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that restricting subsets of SSc patients to only those based on cutaneous involvement may not capture the complete heterogeneity of the disease. Organ damage and antibody profile should be taken into consideration when individuating homogeneous groups of patients with a distinct prognosis.

6.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-8, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The recent introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) which can eliminate Hepatitis C virus (HCV) had revolutionized the treatment of HCV infections also in a complex clinical setting such as the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). HCV elimination is also opportune due to the availability of more efficient immunosuppressive drugs, whose effect on the course of HCV infection is largely unknown. METHODS: Consensus process was endorsed by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) to review the available evidence and produce practical, hospital-wide recommendations. The consensus panel consisted of 18 infectious diseases consultants, 20 rheumatologists and one clinical epidemiologist, who used the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of their recommendations. RESULTS: A core-set of statements about management of patients with RA and infection by HCV have been developed to help clinicians in their clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: A screening for HCV should be performed in all RA patients and it is mandatory before starting an immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, a DAA treatment should be considered in all HCV-infected patients. Significance and Innovations HCV antibodies should be investigated at the time of diagnosis of RA and, in any case, before starting immunosuppressive therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). HCV eradication with DAA should be attempted as soon as possible, depending on patient conditions allowing a continuous oral treatment lasting 8-12 weeks Conventional and biological DMARDs are allowed in patients with HCV infection, but they should be used cautiously in presence of advanced liver disease.

7.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000782, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402270

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan disease characterised by autoimmunity, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, and vasculopathy. SSc may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review we summarise the results of a systematic literature research, which was performed as part of the European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases project, aimed at evaluating existing clinical practice guidelines or recommendations. Only in the domains 'Vascular & Ulcers' (ie, non-pharmacological approach to digital ulcer), 'PAH' (ie, screening and treatment), 'Treatment' and 'Juveniles' (ie, evaluation of juveniles with Raynaud's phenomenon) evidence-based and consensus-based guidelines could be included. Hence there is a preponderance of unmet needs in SSc referring to the diagnosis and (non-)pharmacological treatment of several SSc-specific complications. Patients with SSc experience significant uncertainty concerning SSc-related taxonomy, management (both pharmacological and non-pharmacological) and education. Day-to-day impact of the disease (loss of self-esteem, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, and occupational, nutritional and relational problems) is underestimated and needs evaluation.

8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 113(4): 68-75, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in clinical presentation between men and women in a large group of patients with early (<3 years' duration) systemic sclerosis (SSc) according to disease subsets. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the prospective EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research database (EUSTAR) was performed. Patients fulfilling preliminary ACR 1980 classification criteria for SSc, with less than 3 years from the first non-Raynaud's symptom at first entry, were selected. A group of patients with less than 3 years from the first SSc symptom, including Raynaud's phenomenon, was also analysed. SSc related variables, including antibodies, SSc subsets, disease activity and organ involvement were included. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,027 patients were included, 90% Caucasian, 80% women, and 40% with diffuse cutaneous disease. In early stages of SSc, men showed more frequently than women active disease, diffuse cutaneous subset, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, elevated acute phase reactants, muscular and pulmonary involvement. Differences between men and women were confirmed in the limited, but not in the diffuse SSc subset. The results were similar when 650 patients with less than three years from the first SSc symptom, including Raynaud's phenomenon, were analysed. CONCLUSIONS: In early stages of SSc, men present signs and symptoms of more severe disease. In the limited disease subset, men might appear with clinical features and organ involvement similar to those of the diffuse subgroup. In clinical practice, the identification of such differences might help to select the appropriate management for each particular patient.

9.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 25(4): 369-378, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists (incretin mimetics) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (incretin enhancers) have been recently introduced in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In particular, incretin mimetics seems to have ancillary antioxidant/antinflammatory properties that might be involved in endothelial protection. AIM: To investigate the effect of incretin mimetic therapy (liraglutide, exenatide) given to 11 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (bone marrow-derived cells possibly participating in neovascularization and endothelial protection and repair) and capillary density. METHODS: Four diabetic patients were treated with exenatide (5 µg twice daily for 4 weeks and then 10 µg twice daily for 3 weeks) and 7 with liraglutide (0.6 mg per day for 1 week and then 1.2 mg per day for 3 weeks). Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained before treatment (basal) and after 4 week in patients treated with liraglutide, and after 4 and 7 weeks in patients treated with exenatide, since drug titration is usually longer. EPCs were evaluated by flow cytometry as CD34+/KDR+ cells. Capillary density was evaluated by videomicroscopy, before and after venous congestion, in the dorsum of the 4th finger. RESULTS: Patients treated with liraglutide (6 males 1 female, age 54 ± 12 years) showed a decrease in body mass index and blood pressure during treatment, while patients treated with exenatide (3 males 1 female, age 57 ± 6 years) did not show any relevant change. EPCs were significantly increased after treatment with exenatide, but not after treatment with liraglutide. Capillary density was slightly increased only after 4 weeks of treatment with exenatide, however the increase was no longer present at the final evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with exenatide, but not with liraglutide, was able to increase the number of circulating EPCs, possibly through an antioxidative/antiinflammatory effect.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(11): 1829-1834, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on the role of tobacco exposure in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) severity and progression are scarce. We aimed to assess the effects of smoking on the evolution of pulmonary and skin manifestations, based on the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group database. METHODS: Adult SSc patients with data on smoking history and a 12-24-month follow-up visit were included. Associations of severity and progression of organ involvement with smoking history and the Comprehensive Smoking Index were assessed using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3,319 patients were included (mean age 57 years, 85% female); 66% were never smokers, 23% were ex-smokers, and 11% were current smokers. Current smokers had a lower percentage of antitopoisomerase autoantibodies than previous or never smokers (31% versus 40% and 45%, respectively). Never smokers had a higher baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) ratio than previous and current smokers (P < 0.001). The FEV1 /FVC ratio declined faster in current smokers than in never smokers (P = 0.05) or ex-smokers (P = 0.01). The baseline modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS) and the MRSS decline were comparable across smoking groups. Although heavy smoking (>25 pack-years) increased the odds of digital ulcers by almost 50%, there was no robust adverse association of smoking with digital ulcer development. CONCLUSION: The known adverse effect of smoking on bronchial airways and alveoli is also observed in SSc patients; however, robust adverse effects of smoking on the progression of SSc-specific pulmonary or cutaneous manifestations were not observed.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197178, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been previously demonstrated that T lymphocytes may be involved in the development of hypertension and microvascular remodeling, and that circulating T effector lymphocytes may be increased in hypertension. In particular, Th1 and Th 17 lymphocytes may contribute to the progression of hypertension and microvascular damage while T-regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes seem to be protective in this regard. However, no data is available about patients with severe obesity, in which pronounced microvascular alterations were observed. DESIGN AND METHODS: We have investigated 32 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, as well as 24 normotensive lean subjects and 12 hypertensive lean subjects undergoing an elective surgical intervention. A peripheral blood sample was obtained before surgery for assessment of CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry in order to assess T-effector and Treg lymphocytes. RESULTS: A marked reduction of several Treg subpopulations was observed in obese patients compared with controls, together with an increased in CD4+ effector memory T-effector cells. CONCLUSION: In severely obese patients, Treg lymphocytes are clearly reduced and CD4+ effector memory cells are increased. It may be hypothesized that they might contribute to the development of marked microvascular alterations previously observed in these patients.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Memória Imunológica , Obesidade Abdominal , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th17 , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/imunologia , Obesidade Abdominal/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo
13.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(8): 1218-1227, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in systemic sclerosis (SSc), to find specific risk factors, and to assess their impact on quality of life (QoL). METHODS: In a multicenter study, 334 patients completed a self-administered questionnaire on LUTS and QoL. LUTS were classified into 3 main categories: storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Digestive symptoms burden was captured by a visual analog scale, divided into 5 equal categories. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to test association between risk factors and LUTS categories. Linear regression adjusted the association between LUTS and QoL. RESULTS: LUTS were recorded in 311 SSc patients (96.0%) and classified as severe in 120 (38.0%). The storage category of LUTS was the most prevalent (91.9%), followed by voiding (72.2%) and then by post-micturition symptoms (49.8%). Risk factors identified in the multivariable models were higher than the median Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ DI; odds ratio [OR] 4.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-12.9]) in the storage category; higher than the median HAQ DI (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2-4.9]) for digestive symptoms burden (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.3-2.7]) and synovitis (OR 4.8 [95% CI 1.0-22.6) in the voiding category; and higher for digestive symptoms burden (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.0-1.5]) in the post-micturition category of symptoms. These factors also increased the odds of having further severe symptoms. QoL was affected by the 3 categories of LUTS and decreased progressively with increasing frequency of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Self-reported LUTS are among the most frequent symptoms in SSc and are associated with digestive symptoms. SSc patients with LUTS have lower QoL.

14.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(6): 1018-1028, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185961

RESUMO

Often life-threatening pulmonary fungal infections (PFIs) can occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Most of the data concerning PFIs in RA patients come from case reports and retrospective case series. Of the ve most widely described PFIs, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has rarely been seen outside Japan, pulmonary cryptococcosis has been diagnosed in only a small number of patients worldwide, pulmonary coccidioidomycosis has almost only been observed in endemic areas, the limited number of cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis have mainly occurred in the USA, and the rare cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis have only been encountered in leukopenic patients. Many aspects of the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of PFIs in RA patients remain to be defined, as does the role of each DMARD in increasing the risk of infection, and the possibility of resuming biological and non-biological DMARD treatment after the infection has been cured. The recommendations for the management of PFIs described in this paper are the product of a consensus procedure promoted by the Italian group for the Study and Management of Infections in Patients with Rheumatic Diseases (the ISMIR group).


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(11): 1874-1883, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977630

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the association between urinary incontinence (UI) and the main clinical and serological subsets of SSc, to assess risk factors for UI and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Methods: UI and QoL were assessed through self-administered questionnaires in 334 patients with SSc from five European tertiary centres. Logistic regressions were performed to test the association between clinical forms, serological status and UI and to adjust for confounders. Further independent predefined SSc risk factors for UI were tested through a multivariable logistic model. Results: The prevalence of UI was 63% (95% CI: 60, 68%). lcSSc and ACAs were both significantly associated with UI even after adjusting for age, sex, disability, diabetes, BMI, caffeine consumption, dyspnoea, faecal incontinence, abnormal bowel movement, presence of overlapping rheumatological disease and pulmonary hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.7]. ACA and lcSSc doubled the risk of frequent and heavy urinary leaks. Factors independently associated with UI were as follows: lcSSc (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.2), ACA (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.8), female sex (OR = 10.8; 95% CI: 2.8, 41.3), worsening of dyspnoea (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 36.7), higher HAQ-DI (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.7), BMI (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1) and active finger ulceration (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7). Patients suffering from UI had decreased QoL. Conclusion: Self-reported UI is frequent in SSc and disproportionally affects the limited cutaneous form of the disease and patients positive for ACA. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01971294.


Assuntos
Esclerodermia Limitada/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Esclerodermia Limitada/complicações , Esclerodermia Limitada/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Úlcera Cutânea/epidemiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(11): 1897-1905, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the causes of death and risk factors in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Between 2000 and 2011, we examined the death certificates of all French patients with SSc to determine causes of death. Then we examined causes of death and developed a score associated with all-cause mortality from the international European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. Candidate prognostic factors were tested by Cox proportional hazards regression model by single variable analysis, followed by a multiple variable model stratified by centres. The bootstrapping technique was used for internal validation. RESULTS: We identified 2719 French certificates of deaths related to SSc, mainly from cardiac (31%) and respiratory (18%) causes, and an increase in SSc-specific mortality over time. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 1072 (9.6%) of 11 193 patients from the EUSTAR sample died, from cardiac disease in 27% and respiratory causes in 17%. By multiple variable analysis, a risk score was developed, which accurately predicted the 3-year mortality, with an area under the curve of 0.82. The 3-year survival of patients in the upper quartile was 53%, in contrast with 98% in the first quartile. CONCLUSION: Combining two complementary and detailed databases enabled the collection of an unprecedented 3700 deaths, revealing the major contribution of the cardiopulmonary system to SSc mortality. We also developed a robust score to risk-stratify these patients and estimate their 3-year survival. With the emergence of new therapies, these important observations should help caregivers plan and refine the monitoring and management to prolong these patients' survival.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Rheumatol ; 44(10): 1453-1457, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic immune-mediated disease of unknown etiology. Among its clinical manifestations, pulmonary involvement is the leading cause of mortality in patients with SSc. However, the genetic factors involved in lung complication are not well defined. We aimed to review the association of the MIF gene, which encodes a cytokine implicated in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension among other diseases, with the susceptibility and clinical expression of SSc, in addition to testing the association of this polymorphism with SSc-related pulmonary involvement. METHODS: A total of 4392 patients with SSc and 16,591 unaffected controls from 6 cohorts of European origin were genotyped for the MIF promoter variant rs755622. An inverse variance method was used to metaanalyze the data. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase of the MIF rs755622*C allele frequency compared with controls was observed in the subgroups of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) and with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) independently (dcSSc: p = 3.20E-2, OR 1.13; PAH: p = 2.19E-02, OR 1.32). However, our data revealed a stronger effect size with the subset of patients with SSc showing both clinical manifestations (dcSSc with PAH: p = 6.91E-3, OR 2.05). CONCLUSION: We reviewed the association of the MIF rs755622*C allele with SSc and described a phenotype-specific association of this variant with the susceptibility to develop PAH in patients with dcSSc.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Esclerodermia Difusa/genética , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/complicações
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 106(4): 114-121, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence and clinical associations of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), measured by Transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography (TTE) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the prospective EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) database was performed. SSc patients with <3 years from the first non-Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) symptom at baseline EUSTAR visit, were selected. Elevated sPAP was defined as sPAP>40 mmHg on baseline TTE. First visit SSc related variables, including disease subsets, antibodies and visceral involvement, were examined. RESULTS: From 1,188 patients, 81% were women. Mean (SD) age at first non-RP symptom was 50 (14) years, 55% had limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and 42% active disease. Elevated sPAP was found in 17% of patients, both lcSSc and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). In lcSSc, older age at first non-RP symptom, ACA positivity, joint contractures, restrictive defect and lower DLCO, were independently associated with elevated sPAP. In dcSSc, older age at first non-RP symptom, longer time between RP onset and first non-RP symptom, digital ulcers, cardiac blocks, and proteinuria were associated with elevated sPAP. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elevated sPAP on TTE in early SSc patients is considerable. Association with cardiac, lung and renal involvement suggests that, although some patients might have pulmonary arterial hypertension, others may present pulmonary hypertension secondary to lung or heart involvement. Our findings emphasize the need to consider right heart catheterisation in selected early SSc patients with PH suspicion, to clearly determine the cause of PH.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Joint Bone Spine ; 84(5): 525-530, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection, which is prevalent worldwide, is also frequently seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) endorsed a national consensus process to review the available evidence on HBV management in RA patients and to produce practical, hospital-wide recommendations. METHODS: The consensus panel consisted of infectious disease consultants, rheumatologists and epidemiologists and used the criteria of the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of their recommendations. RESULTS: A core-set of statements has been developed to help clinicians in the management of patients with RA and HBV infection. Vaccination and prophylaxis of RA patients treated with biological drugs have been also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: HBV infection is not rare in clinical practice; a screening for HBV in all patients with early arthritis is not universally accepted, while it is considered mandatory before starting any immunosuppressive or hepatotoxic treatment. In fact, a specific risk, associated with the use of biologic treatments, exists for patients with HBV infection, although longitudinal studies of viral reactivation are generally reassuring. RA patients with HBV infection should be referred to the hepatologist and correctly classified into active or inactive carriers. Patients with active hepatitis B should undergo antiviral treatment before starting immunosuppressive treatments. Occult HBV carriers should be monitored or receive prophylaxis on the basis of the risk of reactivation associated with the administered treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapêutica
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(6): 1150-1158, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterised by skin and systemic fibrosis culminating in organ damage. Previous genetic studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 susceptibility loci satisfying genome-wide significance. Transethnic meta-analyses have successfully expanded the list of susceptibility genes and deepened biological insights for other autoimmune diseases. METHODS: We performed transethnic meta-analysis of GWAS in the Japanese and European populations, followed by a two-staged replication study comprising a total of 4436 cases and 14 751 controls. Associations between significant single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and neighbouring genes were evaluated. Enrichment analysis of H3K4Me3, a representative histone mark for active promoter was conducted with an expanded list of SSc susceptibility genes. RESULTS: We identified two significant SNP in two loci, GSDMA and PRDM1, both of which are related to immune functions and associated with other autoimmune diseases (p=1.4×10-10 and 6.6×10-10, respectively). GSDMA also showed a significant association with limited cutaneous SSc. We also replicated the associations of previously reported loci including a non-GWAS locus, TNFAIP3. PRDM1 encodes BLIMP1, a transcription factor regulating T-cell proliferation and plasma cell differentiation. The top SNP in GSDMA was a missense variant and correlated with gene expression of neighbouring genes, and this could explain the association in this locus. We found different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association patterns between the two populations. Enrichment analysis suggested the importance of CD4-naïve primary T cell. CONCLUSIONS: GSDMA and PRDM1 are associated with SSc. These findings provide enhanced insight into the genetic and biological basis of SSc.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia
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