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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marathon running is associated with transient risk of sudden cardiac death and high cardiac troponin levels are common after race. There is limited data whether coronary atherosclerosis or skeletal muscle injury are related to troponin release caused by strenuous exercise. We aimed to assess whether coronary artery calcification (CAC), plaque vulnerability or skeletal muscle injury relate to cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevations after marathon race. METHODS: In this observational study, 40 male runners participating in Paavo Nurmi 2018 Marathon were recruited with an open email invitation to evaluate the prevalence of post-race cTnT elevations and their predictors. In addition to baseline and post-race laboratory investigations, 28 runners aged >44 years underwent CAC measurement with computed tomography. Coronary plaque vulnerability was evaluated by free pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (fPAPP-A) concentration and skeletal muscle injury by skeletal troponin I (skTnI) measurement. RESULTS: The post-marathon cTnT concentrations rose above the normal reference limit in 38 (95%) participants. A 10-fold increase in skTnI concentrations was observed and elevated post-race values were seen in all participants. The correlation between the post-race cTnT and post-race skTnI (rs = -0.26, p = 0.11) was non-significant. CAC was detected (Agatston score > 0) in 15 (53.6%) participants, with a median score of 2.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 80). There was no correlation between cTnT with CAC score or post-race fPAPP-A levels. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic cardiac troponin elevations are common after prolonged strenuous exercise, but are not related to markers of coronary atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability or skeletal muscle injury.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

6.
Ann Med ; : 1-7, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207497

RESUMO

Cardioversion is an essential component of rhythm control strategy for atrial fibrillation. The thromboembolic risk of cardioversion is well established and the mechanisms behind the phenomenon have been comprehensively described. There are several clinical aspects that are important to take into consideration when assessing the safety of cardioversion. Before proceeding to cardioversion, the probability of early treatment failure and antiarrhythmic treatment options to prevent recurrences should be carefully evaluated to avoid the risks of repeated futile cardioversions. Effective periprocedural anticoagulation is the mainstay in thromboembolic complication prevention and the first week after rhythm conversion is the most vulnerable period in this respect. Early timing of cardioversion appears to be another important measure to decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications. Transoesophageal echocardiography is useful in clinical scenarios where early cardioversion is desirable due to debilitating clinical symptoms and a short duration of arrhythmia or the adequacy of preceding anticoagulation is uncertain. However, it does not lessen the need for effective anticoagulation after cardioversion. This review summarizes the recent scientific discoveries to improve the safety of cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. Key messages Cardioversion for atrial fibrillation entails a significant risk of thromboembolic complications, especially during the first week after the procedure. The intensity of periprocedural anticoagulation and the timing of cardioversion appear to be significant determinants of the risk of thromboembolism. Awareness of the clinical aspects influencing cardioversion safety should be raised.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a frequent complication occurring early and late after surgical aortic valve replacement. There is an unmet clinical need for simple tools to assess postoperative stroke risk. We sought to assess the predictive performance of Congestive heart failure; Hypertension; Age ≥75 (doubled); Diabetes mellitus; prior Stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism (doubled); Vascular disease; Age 65 to 74; Sex category (female) (CHA2DS2-VASc) score in patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. METHODS: Seven hundred fourteen patients undergoing isolated surgical aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis at 4 university hospitals were included. Data were collected retrospectively from patient records and monitored by an independent party. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.1 ± 1.6. Low (scores, 0-1), high (scores, 2-4), and very high (scores, 5-9) CHA2DS2-VASc scores were observed in 39 (5.5%), 400 (56.0%), and 262 (38.5%) patients, respectively. Incidences of stroke or transient ischemic attack at 1 year were 2.6%, 4.8%, and 10.7%; at 5 years incidences were 5.2%, 14.0%, and 21.9%; and at 10 years incidence were 5.2%, 20.7%, and 37.9% for patients in low, high, and very high scores, respectively. Incidences of major bleeds at 1 year were 0%, 1.8%, and 2.7%; at 5 years incidences were 0%, 5.4%, and 8.7%; and at 10 years incidences were 0%, 9.0%, and 27.1%, respectively. Competing risk analysis showed that patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 5 through 9 had a significantly increased risk of stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 4.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-20.6; P = .037) irrespective of preoperative or new-onset in-hospital atrial fibrillation compared with low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: CHA2DS2-VASc is a valuable tool to identify patients with increased risk of stroke and major bleeding, and for whom alternative strategies for prevention of late neurologic complications should be adopted.

8.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 8(4): 311-317, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140582

RESUMO

Background: Intracranial hemorrhage is the most devastating complication in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulation (OAC). It can be either spontaneous or caused by head trauma. We sought to address the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of traumatic and spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in AF patients on OAC. Methods: Multicenter FibStroke registry of 5,629 patients identified 592 intracranial hemorrhages during warfarin treatment between 2003 and 2012. Results: A large proportion (40%) of intracranial hemorrhages were traumatic. Of these, 64% were subdural hemorrhages (SDHs) and 20% intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs). With respect to the spontaneous hemorrhages, 25% were SDHs and 67% ICHs. Patients with traumatic hemorrhage were older (81 vs 78 years, p = 0.01) and more often had congestive heart failure (30% vs 16%, p < 0.01) and anemia (7% vs 3%, p = 0.03) compared to patients with spontaneous hemorrhage. Admission international normalized ratio (INR) values (2.7 vs 2.7, p = 0.79), as well as CHA2DS2-VASc (median 4 vs 4, p = 0.08) and HAS-BLED (median 2 vs 2, p = 0.05) scores, were similar between the groups. The 30-day mortality after traumatic hemorrhage was significantly lower than after spontaneous hemorrhage (25% vs 36%, p < 0.01). Conclusions: A significant proportion of intracranial hemorrhages in anticoagulated AF patients were traumatic. Traumatic hemorrhages were predominantly SDHs and less often fatal when compared to spontaneous hemorrhages, which were mainly ICHs. Admission INR values as well as CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores were similar in patients with spontaneous and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Clinicaltrialsgov identifier: NCT02146040.

9.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(5): 608-614, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases risk of ischemic stroke, and oral anticoagulation (OAC) increases risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study aimed to compare OAC-treated AF patients with an ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) or spontaneous ICH as their first lifetime cerebrovascular event, especially focusing on patients with therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). HYPOTHESIS: We assumed that in AF patients suffering ischemic stroke/TIA or ICH, patient characteristics could be different in patients with therapeutic INR than in patients with warfarin. METHODS: FibStroke is a multicenter, retrospective registry collating details of AF patients with ischemic stroke/TIA or intracranial hemorrhage in 2003-2012. This substudy included AF patients on OAC with first lifetime ischemic stroke/TIA or spontaneous ICH. RESULTS: A total of 1457 patients with 1290 ischemic strokes/TIAs and 167 ICHs were identified. Of these, 553 (42.9%) strokes/TIAs and 96 (57.5%) ICHs occurred in patients with INR within therapeutic range. During OAC with therapeutic INR, congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR]: 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-4.58) and hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.51-4.19) were more common in patients with ischemic stroke/TIA, whereas a history of bleeding (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.82) was less common when compared with patients with ICH. In the whole cohort, renal impairment (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.23-2.80) and mechanical valve prosthesis (OR: 4.41, 95% CI: 1.32-14.7) were overrepresented in patients with stroke/TIA, whereas aspirin use (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and high INR (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.33-0.48) were overrepresented in patients with ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In anticoagulated AF patients with therapeutic INR and first lifetime cerebrovascular event, congestive heart failure and hypercholesterolemia were associated with ischemic stroke/TIA and history of bleeding with ICH.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(10): 1182-1186, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526276

RESUMO

CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores stratify the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events respectively in patients with atrial fibrillation. There is only little information on how they differentiate which of the 2 clinically most important complications (ischemic stroke [IS] or an intracranial bleeding [IB]) the patient is more prone to suffer. We evaluated both scores in patients with either of these major complications. The FibStroke Study collected data on all patients with atrial fibrillation with either an IS or an IB event between 2003 and 2012 in 4 Finnish hospital districts. Individual electronic patient records were manually reviewed to collect the study data. To assess the relative risk of IS and IB, an IS/IB-ratio was calculated by dividing the absolute number of ISs with the absolute number of IBs within each score category. A total of 3,816 (82.7%) ISs and 798 (17.3%) IBs were detected in 3,909 patients. In general, ISs occurred more often than IBs in patients on oral anticoagulation in each score category (ratio 1.6 to 5.1). The ratio decreased below 1, however, only with very high HAS-BLED scores (>4). Moreover, 221 ISs and 53 IBs occurred in patients with HAS-BLED > CHA2DS2-VASc, of whom only 19.7% were on anticoagulation. In conclusion, IS was the predominant intracranial event irrespective of CHA2DS2-VASc score, HAS-BLED score ≤4, or use of oral anticoagulation, also in patients with low estimated thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc 0 to 1). Furthermore, the HAS-BLED score predicted the excess of IBs over ISs only at very high-risk levels.

12.
Ann Med ; 50(2): 164-171, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe warfarin overanticoagulation is a risk factor for bleeding, but there is little information on its manifestations, prognosis and factors affecting the outcome. We describe the manifestations and clinical outcomes of severe warfarin overanticoagulation in a large group of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All international normalized ratio (INR) samples (n = 961,431) in the Turku University Hospital region between 2003 and 2015 were screened. A total of 412 AF patients with INR ≥9 were compared to 405 patients with stable warfarin anticoagulation for AF. Electronic patient records were manually reviewed to collect comprehensive data. RESULTS: Of the 412 patients with INR ≥9, bleeding was the primary manifestation in 105 (25.5%). Non-bleeding symptoms were recorded in 165 (40.0%) patients and 142 (34.5%) had no symptoms. A total of 17 (16.2%) patients with a bleed and 67 (21.8%) without bleeding died within 30 days after the event. Intracranial haemorrhage strongly predicted death within 30 days. Other significant predictors were non-bleeding symptoms, active malignancies, recent bleed, history of myocardial infarction, older age, renal dysfunction and a recent treatment episode. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeds are not the major determinant of the poor prognosis in severe overanticoagulation, as coincidental INR ≥9 findings also associate with high mortality. KEY MESSAGES Only a quarter of AF patients with INR ≥9 suffered a bleeding event and the clinical manifestation of INR ≥9 had a significant impact on patient outcome. The 30-day mortality rate in patients with INR ≥9 was high ranging from 9.2 to 32.7%. Several significant predictors of 30-day mortality after INR ≥9 were identified.

13.
Clin Cardiol ; 40(12): 1264-1270, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More evidence is needed on the optimal antithrombotic regimen in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). HYPOTHESIS: Octogenarian patients (aged ≥80 years) with AF who underwent PCI have worse 12-month clinical outcome, compared with younger patients. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from the prospective, multicenter AFCAS registry, which enrolled consecutive patients with AF who underwent PCI and stenting. Outcome measures included major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, stent thrombosis, or stroke/transient ischemic attack) and bleeding events at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 925 AF patients enrolled in AFCAS registry, 195 (21.1%) were ≥80 years. Mean age was 82.9 ± 2.6 years; 41.5% were women; 32.3% had diabetes mellitus. Compared with patients aged <80 years, there were more females among the octogenarians (P < 0.001). Compared with younger patients, octogenarians smoked and had dyslipidemia less often, and presented more frequently with acute coronary syndrome. The frequency and duration of antithrombotic regimens prescribed at discharge were comparable. At 12-month follow-up, overall MACCE rate was higher in octogenarians compared with younger patients (27.7% vs 20.1%, P = 0.02). The rate of acute myocardial infarction was higher in octogenarians (9.2% vs 4.9%, P = 0.02), but the rates of all bleeds and BARC >2 bleeds were similar (P = 0.13, P = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, patients aged ≥80 years had higher incidence of MACCE at 12-month follow-up compared with younger patients, although they received comparable antithrombotic treatment. The rates of bleeding events were similar.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Stents , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 17(1): 218, 2017 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often asymptomatic and undiagnosed until an ischaemic stroke occurs. An irregular pulse is a key manifestation of AF. We assessed whether pulse self-palpation is feasible in screening of AF. METHODS: Altogether 205 residents of Lieto municipality aged ≥75 years were randomized in 2012 to receive brief education on pulse palpation focusing on evaluating rhythm regularity. Self-detected pulse irregularity and new AF diagnoses were recorded, and the subjects' quality of life and use of health care services were assessed during a three-year follow-up. RESULTS: The subjects' median age was 78.2 [3.8] years, and 89 (43.4%) were men. Overall, 139 (68%) subjects had initial good motivation/capability for regular palpation. At four months, 112 (80.6%) subjects with good and 26 (39.4%) with inadequate motivation/capability palpated their pulse daily. At 12 months, 120 (58.5%) and at 36 months, 69 (33.7%) subjects palpated their pulse at least weekly. During the intervention, 67 (32.7%) subjects reported pulse irregularity. New AF was found in 10 (4.9%) subjects, 7 (70%) of whom had reported pulse irregularity. Pulse irregularity independently predicted new AF, but only one (0.5%) subject with new AF sought undelayed medical attention due to pulse irregularity. Quality of life and number of outpatient clinic visits remained unchanged during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Pulse palpation can be learned also by the elderly, but it is challenging to form a continuing habit. The low persistence of pulse self-palpation limits its value in the screening of AF, and strategies to promote persistence and research on alternative screening methods are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01721005. The trial was registered retrospectively on October 26, 2012.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca , Palpação/métodos , Autoexame/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autocuidado
15.
Am Heart J ; 190: 86-93, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination of oral anticoagulation (OAC) and antiplatelets is used in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and stent (PCI-S) procedure but is associated with increased bleeding when triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) is used. Our aim was to analyze the impact of time in therapeutic range (TTR) on outcomes, in patients prescribed with TAT. METHODS: Ancillary analysis from the AFCAS registry in patients assigned to TAT. TTR was calculated with Rosendaal method. Outcomes were analyzed according to TTR tertiles (T1 [≤56.8%] vs. T2 [56.9-93.8%] vs. T3 [≥93.9%]). Major bleeding was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Of 963 patients enrolled, 470(48.8%) were prescribed with TAT at discharge and qualified for this analysis. Median [IQR] TTR was 80.0% [45.3-100%]. After 359 [341-370] days, major bleeding rates were progressively lower with increasing TTR tertiles (T1 vs. T2 vs. T3: 10.3% vs. 4.7% vs. 2.3%, P=.006). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a progressively lower risk for major bleeding across tertiles (P=.006). Patients in the highest TTR tertile had a non-significant lower risk for major adverse coronary and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (log-rank: 4.905, P=.086). Cox regression analysis showed that T2 and T3 were inversely associated with major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR]:0.39, P=.050 and HR: 0.21, P=.005). Continuous TTR was inversely associated with major bleeding (HR: 0.98, P<.001). For MACCE, adjusted Cox analysis found a non-significant lower risk for T3 (HR: 0.64, P=.128). CONCLUSIONS: In AF patients undergoing PCI-S prescribed TAT, good quality anticoagulation control (as reflected by TTR) was closely related to bleeding outcomes during follow-up. Despite some suggestive trends for an inverse relationship between TTR and MACCE, no definitive conclusions can be drawn, and further large studies are needed.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Stents , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Thromb Res ; 156: 163-167, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective cardioversion (ECV) for atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a relatively low risk of thromboembolic complications. However, the optimal intensity of anticoagulation for ECV is unknown. We sought to assess the risk of thromboembolism in low (INR 2.0-2.4) vs. high (INR≥2.5) therapeutic range in a large retrospective cohort study. METHODS: This multi-centre "real world" study included 1424 ECVs in 1021 patients. The primary outcome was a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or a systemic embolus during the 30-day follow-up after ECV. RESULTS: Altogether 4 (0.3%) strokes, 2 (0.1%) TIAs and 2 (0.1%) bleeds were detected during the 30-day follow-up after ECV. No systemic emboli were detected. There were 2 deaths (0.1%), one associated with a stroke. Median time to stroke/TIA was 4 (IQR 9.5) days and the median CHA2DS2-VASc-score was 2 (IQR 1.25) among patients with thromboembolic events. Mean INR at ECV was 2.7 (SD 0.54) in the study cohort. Patients with INR 2.0-2.4 at ECV had more thromboembolic events compared with patients with INR≥2.5 (5/529 (0.9%) vs. 1/895 (0.1%), p=0.03). Comprehensive postprocedural INR data was available for 733 (71.8%) patients and 1007 cardioversions. At least one subtherapeutic (<2.0) INR value was detected within 21days after 230 (22.8%) ECVs and this drop in INR level was associated with a higher risk for thromboembolic events compared with continuous therapeutic post-cardioversion anticoagulation (1.7% vs 0.3%, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the intensity of periprocedural anticoagulation is associated with the risk of thromboembolic events after ECV.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175975, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426737

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonist warfarin is widely used in clinical practice and excessive anticoagulation is a well-known complication of this therapy. Little is known about permanent and temporary predictors for severe overanticoagulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and predicting factors for episodes with very high (≥9) international normalized ratio (INR) values in warfarin treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Excessive Warfarin Anticoagulation (EWA) study screened all patients (n = 13618) in the Turku University Hospital region with an INR ≥2 between years 2003-2015. Patients using warfarin anticoagulation for AF with very high (≥9) INR values (EWA Group) were identified (n = 412 patients) and their characteristics were compared to a control group (n = 405) of AF patients with stable INR during long-term follow-up. Over 20% (n = 92) of the EWA patients had more than one event of very high INR and in 105 (25.5%) patients EWA led to a bleeding event. Of the several temporary and permanent EWA risk factors observed, strongest were excessive alcohol consumption in 9.6% of patients (OR 24.4, 95% CI 9.9-50.4, p<0.0001) and reduced renal function (OR 15.2, 95% CI 5.67-40.7, p<0.0001). Recent antibiotic or antifungal medication, recent hospitalization or outpatient clinic visit and the first 6 months of warfarin use were the most significant temporary risk factors for EWA. Excessive warfarin anticoagulation can be predicted with several permanent and temporary clinical risk factors, many of which are modifiable.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(6): 420-427, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), quality of oral anticoagulation control as well as impaired renal function are associated with adverse outcomes. Our objective was to analyze if there was a synergistic impact of these factors in determining adverse outcomes in AF patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and stent (PCI-S). METHODS: Post-hoc analysis from the Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting (AFCAS) registry. Poor oral anticoagulation control was defined as time in therapeutic range (TTR) <65%, while impaired renal function as creatinine clearance (CrCl) <60 ml/min. RESULTS: Of the whole cohort, 448 were eligible for this post-hoc analysis. Of these, 27.9% had TTR <65%only (Group I), 19.2% had CrCl <60 ml/min only (Group II), while 13.8% had both conditions (Group III). At follow-up, patients in Group III had a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (p = 0.007), while patients in Groups I and III had higher rates of major bleeding. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients in Group III had higher risk for MACCE (LogRank: 14.406, p = 0.003), while Group I and Group III patients had higher risk for major bleeding (LogRank: 12.290, p = 0.006). On Cox regression, presence of both conditions independently increased MACCE risk (p = 0.001), while TTR <65% alone and the presence of both conditions were independently associated with major bleeding (p = 0.004 and p = 0.028, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a synergic impact of oral anticoagulation control and renal function in determining major adverse events in AF patients undergoing PCI-S. Use of poor anticoagulation control and impaired renal function in combination would help identify AF patients undergoing PCI-S at risk for MACCE and/or major bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Ann Med ; 49(3): 254-259, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex, old age, and time to cardioversion increase the risk of thromboembolic complications (TEC) after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) < 48 h. The interaction of these variables is not known. We investigated the interaction of sex, age, and time to electrical cardioversion (ECV) on TEC in anticoagulant-naive patients with acute AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome was a TEC within 30 days following ECV. Patients were divided into three age groups and time to cardioversion into <12 h and ≥12 h in 4715 ECVs. TEC occurred in 40 (0.8%) patients. In multivariate analysis, female sex, time to ECV, and vascular disease were independent predictors of TEC. For patients ≤75 cardioverted within 12 h, the incidence of TEC was low. In patients >75 TEC increased in both sexes and particularly in women (1.4% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.03). When ECVs exceeded 12 h, the risk of TEC was two- to four-fold higher in women in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of TEC increases substantially in patients >75 and ECVs ≥12 h, particularly in women. Time to cardioversion should be added to risk-stratification of ECVs of acute AF. Key messages The ideal timing of cardioversion is still unknown and not based on solid evidence. Delay to cardioversion ≥12 h should be added to the risk stratification of atrial fibrillation cardioversion. Female sex increases the risk of complications and failure of cardioversion after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation <48 h, especially with age >75 years and time to cardioversion exceeding 12 h.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais , Tempo para o Tratamento , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 33, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective cardioversion (ECV) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is a standard procedure to restore sinus rhythm. However, predictors for ineffective ECV (failure of ECV or recurrence of AF within 30 days) are unknown. METHODS: We investigated 1998 ECVs performed for AF lasting >48 h in 1,342 patients in a retrospective multi-center study. Follow-up data were collected from 30 days after ECV. RESULTS: Median number of cardioversions was one per patient with a range of 1-10. Altogether 303/1998 (15.2%) ECVs failed. Long (>5 years) AF history and over 30 days duration of the index AF episode were independent predictors for ECV failure and low (<60/min) ventricular rate of AF predicted success of ECV. In patients with successful ECVs an early recurrence of AF was detected in 549 (32.4%) cases. Female gender, high (>60/min) ventricular rate, renal failure and antiarrhythmic agents at discharge were the independent predictors for recurrence. In total ECV was ineffective in 852 (42.6%) cases. Female gender (OR 1.44, CI95% 1.15-1.80, p < 0.01), young (<65 years) age (OR 1.31, CI95% 1.07-1.62, p = 0.01), ventricular rate >60/min (OR 1.92, CI95% 1.08-3.41, p = 0.03), antiarrhythmic medication at discharge (OR 1.48, CI95% 1.14-1.93, p < 0.01) and low (<60/ml/min) estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 1.59, CI95% 1.08-2.33, p = 0.02) were predictors of ineffective ECV. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender, use of antiarrhythmic drug therapy and renal failure predicted both recurrence of AF and the composite end point. For the first time in a large real-life study several clinical predictors for clinically ineffective ECV were identified.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Frequência Cardíaca , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Finlândia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Recidiva , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
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