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Food Chem ; 304: 125403, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479993


Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.

Food Chem ; 283: 566-578, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722913


Although Nordic wild edible mushrooms offer a wide range of different odors their scientific examination has been scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the aroma compounds of four Finnish wild mushroom species with trained assessors using gas chromatography-olfactometry as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Headspace volatiles were extracted from sous vide cooked mushroom samples (Boletus edulis, Lactarius camphoratus, Cantharellus cibarius and Craterellus tubaeformis) using solid-phase microextraction. Odor-contributing compounds were measured with two columns of differing polarity using the detection frequency method. Compounds were identified based on reference compounds, linear retention indices, odor descriptions, and mass spectrometry. Both the volatile compound profiles and the aromagrams were distinct with characteristic compounds for each species. The results demonstrate that especially saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and ketones contribute to the odor of the studied wild mushrooms. This thorough comparison also indicates compounds linked to the sensory properties of mushrooms.

Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Olfatometria , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
Foods ; 7(9)2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231463


The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males (p = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects (p = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations.

Food Res Int ; 109: 526-536, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803480


Edible mushrooms are a global food with a history of consumption spanning several millennia. However, studies utilizing modern sensory methods on mushrooms are still scarce. In this study, the sensory properties of Nordic edible mushrooms were analyzed by two methods. In the sensory profile, sous vide processed wild mushroom species Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis, Boletus edulis, and Lactarius camphoratus were studied with cultivated Agaricus bisporus as a control species. The sensory profile consisted of 18 descriptors, and the 5 mushrooms differed from each other in all of them. Only B. edulis and A. bisporus were linked to typical mushroom-like odor. In projective mapping, consumers evaluated blanched wild C. cibarius, C. tubaeformis and Suillus variegatus as well as cultivated Lentinula edodes and both blanched and fresh A. bisporus based on odor and on flavor. The consumers intuitively grouped the samples into three groups: wild, fresh cultivated and processed cultivated mushrooms. Wild mushrooms had a high odor intensity and various odor descriptions but a low flavor intensity. Cultivated mushrooms had opposite descriptions. Both tests showed differences in the sensory descriptors between the cultivated and wild mushrooms with the former linked to typical 'mushroom', indicating the importance and need for descriptive profiles for different mushroom types.

Food Chem ; 247: 23-28, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277224


Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species.

Agaricales/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Nucleosídeos/análise , Basidiomycota/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Finlândia , Análise de Alimentos , Florestas , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Nucleotídeos/análise , Paladar
Talanta ; 161: 245-252, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27769403


A direct quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy method was developed for the measurement of saccharides, organic acids and amino acids in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber filaments, a complex gel-like food matrix. The method requires minimal sample preparation. It is thus a faster alternative compared to liquid sample matrices, as well as an extension to methods analyzing only selected metabolites in the sample. The samples in this study were either raw or steamed potato strips that were either measured as D2O extracts or directly without extraction or derivatization steps (in situ technique). A total of 22 compounds were identified in extracts and 18 in potato strips. Of these, 20 compounds were quantifiable in potato extracts and 13 compounds in potato strips. The effect of thermal processing was reflected in the profile of analyzed compounds. One example was fumaric acid, which was completely lost in steamed samples in both measurement techniques. Additionally, the content of γ-aminobutyric acid in steamed potato strips was lower. In potato extracts, the contents of additional 7 compounds were statistically different. The raw and steamed samples separated into two groups with multivariate models both in extracts and potato strips, and these groups were linked to changes in aforementioned compounds. These results demonstrated that the in situ quantitative 1H NMR technique is a useful tool to analyze potato metabolites. This technique could be further applied to any gel-like complex matrix, meaning that lengthy sample pretreatment could be skipped.

Culinária , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Ácidos Acíclicos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Frutose/análise , Glucose/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sacarose/análise