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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112409, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751648

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thai traditional medicine (TTM) has been used widely in cancer management in Thailand. Although several Thai medicinal plants were screened for pharmacological activities related to cancer treatment, such evidence still suffers from the lack of linking with TTM knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document knowledge and species used in cancer prevention in TTM and to preliminary investigate pharmacological activities related to the documented knowledge of twenty-six herbal drugs used in cancer/mareng prevention. METHODS: Fieldwork gathering data on TTM concept and herbal medicines used in cancer prevention was performed with TTM practitioners across Thailand. Later, water and ethanol extracts from twenty-six herbal drugs mentioned as being used in cancer prevention were screened for their protective effect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Then active extracts were investigated for their effects on NQO1 activity, glutathione level, and safety in normal rat hepatocytes. RESULTS: The fieldwork helped in the development of TTM cancer prevention strategy and possible experimental models to test the pharmacological activities of selected medicinal plants. Fifteen plant extracts showed significant protective effect by restoring the cell viability to 40-59.3%, which were comparable or better than the positive control EGCG. Among them, ethanol extracts from S. rugata and T. laurifolia showed the most promising chemopreventive properties by significantly increased NQO1 activity, restored GSH level from oxidative damage, as well as showed non-toxic effect in normal rat hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: TTM knowledge in cancer prevention was documented and used in the planning of pharmacological experiment to study herbal medicines, especially in cancer, inflammation, and other chronic diseases. The proposed strategy should be applied to in vivo and clinical studies in order to further confirm the validity of such a strategy. Other traditional medical systems that use integrated approaches could also apply our strategy to develop evidence that supports a more rational uses in traditional medicine.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174700

RESUMO

Background. Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been used in Thai traditional medicine to treat various infections, including the common cold and fever. Its bioactive compound, andrographolide, has shown antiplatelet activities in an in vitro study model. Since clinical studies of the effects of AP on the human platelet function have never been reported, we investigated its effect on platelet activity in ten healthy volunteers. Methods. Two grams of AP was taken 3 times within one day. The blood was withdrawn by venipuncture before and 2 and 24 hours after the AP administration to analyze the effects of AP on platelet aggregation, the expression of enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA and protein, and TXB2, including P-selectin. Result. Even though there was no significant change in the studied parameters, this study exhibited patient-to-patient variability in platelet function. It was found that ADP-induced platelet aggregation tended to decrease after AP administration, while epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation in females tended to be higher than that in males for the entire study period. Moreover, COX-1 mRNA levels tended to decrease while P-selectin levels tended to rise after AP administration. Conclusion. These controversial results are possibly due to the multifactorial mechanisms of platelet aggregation as well as the multichemical composition of AP. Further study, probably at the molecular level, is needed to unveil the underlying mechanisms of action of AP.

3.
Phytother Res ; 32(8): 1546-1554, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672960

RESUMO

Thai herbal antipyretic 22 formula (APF22), a polyherbal formula, has been traditionally used to treat dermatologic problems including hyperpigmentation. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet A (UVA) causes abnormal melanin production induced by photooxidative stress. This study thus aimed to investigate the protective effects of APF22 extracts and phenolic compounds, ferulic acid (FA), and gallic acid (GA; used as positive control and reference compounds), on melanogenesis through modulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and antioxidant defenses in mouse melanoma (B16F10) cells exposed to UVA. Our results revealed that the APF22 extracts, FA, and GA reduced melanin synthesis as well as activity and protein levels of tyrosinase in UVA-irradiated B16F10 cells. Moreover, APF22 extracts and both FA and GA were able to activate Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling and promote antioxidant defenses including glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the glutathione-S-transferase at both mRNA and enzyme activity levels in irradiated cells. In conclusion, APF22 extracts suppressed UVA-mediated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells possibly via redox mechanisms involving activation of Nrf2 signaling and upregulation of antioxidant defenses. Moreover, pharmacological action of the APF22 extracts may be attributed to the phenolic compounds, FA, and GA, probably serving as the APF22's active compounds.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 216: 259-273, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409982

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thai traditional medicine (TTM) is widely practiced in Thailand and continues to gain importance in cancer management, but little is known about the TTM practitioners' emic concepts and practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: With this study we firstly aim to document the practice of cancer treatment and prevention by TTM practitioners and, secondly, to evaluate how such traditional concepts and practices are correlated with biomedical ones. This in turn can form the basis for developing novel strategies for designing pharmacological experiments and longer term strategies to develop TTM practice. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 33 TTM practitioners were performed in five provinces in different regions of Thailand. The following information were recorded; basic information of informants, descriptions of cancer (mareng in Thai), causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Plants used in the treatment and prevention of mareng were also collected. RESULTS: Using an in depth ethnographic approach four representative case studies to assist in a better understanding of the characteristics of mareng, its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are reported here. Five characteristics of mareng - waste accumulation (khong sia), chronic illnesses (krasai), inflammation (kan aksep), bad blood (luead) and lymph (namlueang), and the imbalance of four basic elements (dhatu si) - have been identified. Explanatory models of cancer in TTM were linked with biomedical concepts and relevant pharmacological actions. Traditional uses and available scientific evidence of medicinal plants mentioned in the case studies for the treatment or prevention of mareng are presented and discussed. CONCLUSION: Here for the first time five main characteristics of cancer based on Thai traditional medical concepts are analysed. Our findings are relevant not only for the planning of clinical studies or pharmacological experiment in the search for novel compounds for cancer treatment and prevention, but also for the integration of Thai traditional medicine in cancer care.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Tailândia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234444

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the modulated effects of HRF on cyclooxygenase isoform expression and its activity, using the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model induced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Methods: Cells were treated with indomethacin (positive control), HRF, and its components at various concentrations prior to treatment with IL-1ß at 24 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of HRF and its components through mRNA and protein expression were established using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. COX activity was identified via exogenous and endogenous PGE2 productions using the EIA. Result: There was no cytotoxicity in HUVECs treated with HRF. None of the experimental conditions used in the study affected the expression of COX-1, but COX-2 protein expression was inhibited at concentrations under 10 µg/mL. Despite the significantly increased levels of exogenous PGE2, HRF had no effect on COX-2 mRNA expression. However, the production of PGE2 was lower at a concentration of 100 µg/mL HRF than at a concentration below 10 µg/mL. Interestingly, each component of HRF revealed different effects of the Ha-Rak formula. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that HRF and its components provide diverse modulation of COX-2 and PGE2 at the in vitro level.

6.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(9): 1506-1514, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867733

RESUMO

Gastric motility disturbance is commonly found in long-standing hyperglycemia. Both delayed and rapid gastric emptying has been reported in diabetes. However, very few studies have followed the changes in gastric emptying during disease progression in diabetes because of technical limitations. 13C-Acetic acid breath test is a validated method which is non-invasive and can be used repeatedly or serially to evaluate gastric emptying changes in animal. We investigated the gastric emptying changes in different stages of diabetes using 13C-acetic acid breath test, as well as its related mechanisms involving interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), and stem cell factor (SCF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results showed that gastric emptying was accelerated at the early stage (12 weeks of diabetes) whereas intramuscular ICCs (ICC-IM) networks were not different from normal group. At long-term stage (28 weeks of diabetes), gastric emptying had returned to normal pattern with no delayed. ICC-IM networks were decreased in the diabetic group compared to 12th weeks, and were lower than in the normal group at the same time point. SCF levels were constantly high in the diabetic group than in the normal group. This result indicated that 13C-acetic acid breath test is useful to track the alteration in gastric emptying during disease progression. The change of gastric emptying was not found to be significantly associated with ICC-IM. Elevated SCF may help to preserve ICC-IM, especially in the early phase of diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Contagem de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/patologia , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Células-Tronco/biossíntese
7.
Neuroreport ; 28(16): 1031-1035, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885486

RESUMO

Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a memory enhancer for a long time; however, its direct effect on synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the effect of B. monnieri on long-term synaptic potentiation in acute hippocampal slices. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered either sterile water or the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri for 60 days. The extracellular recording was performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic potential in the acute hippocampal slices of these rats. Our results showed that B. monnieri extract significantly increased long-term potentiation magnitude compared with the control group, whereas there was no change in basal synaptic transmission. The data support the beneficial mnemonic effect of B. monnieri, and suggest that this effect might be because of the increase of learning-associated synaptic machinery, resulting in the long-term potentiation enhancement and strengthening of hippocampal synapses, which plays a critical role in learning and memory formation.


Assuntos
Bacopa , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 474, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769804

RESUMO

In recent years, interest in studies of traditional medicine in Asian and African countries has gradually increased due to its potential to complement modern medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) current development, and ongoing research activities of TTM related to metabolomics. This review will also focus on three important elements of systems biology analysis of TTM including analytical techniques, statistical approaches and bioinformatics tools for handling and analyzing untargeted metabolomics data. The main objective of this data analysis is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the system wide effects that TTM has on individuals. Furthermore, potential applications of metabolomics and systems medicine in TTM will also be discussed.

9.
J Integr Med ; 15(2): 142-150, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between major signal points (MaSPs) of the lower extremities used in court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) and the corresponding underlying anatomical structures, as well as to determine the short-term changes in blood flow and skin temperature of volunteers experiencing CTTM. METHODS: MaSPs were identified and marked on cadavers before acrylic color was injected. The underlying structures marked with acrylic colors were observed and the anatomical structures were determined. Then, pressure was applied to each MaSP in human volunteers (lateral side of leg and medial side of leg) and blood flow on right dorsalis pedis artery was measured using duplex ultrasound while skin temperature changes were monitored using an infrared themographic camera. RESULTS: Short-term changes in the blood flow parameters, volume flow and average velocity, compared to baseline (P < 0.05), were observed on MaSP of the lower extremity, ML4. Changes in the peak systolic velocity of the area ML5 were also observed relative to baseline. The skin temperature of two different MaSPs on the lateral side of leg (LL4 and LL5) and four on the medial side of leg (ML2, ML3, ML4 and ML5) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 1 min after pressure application. CONCLUSION: This study established the clear correlation between the location of MaSP, as defined in CTTM, and the underlying anatomical structures. The effect of massage can stimulate skin blood flow because results showed increased skin temperature and blood flow characteristics. While these results were statistically significant, they may not be clinically relevant, as the present study focused on the immediate physiological effect of manipulation, rather than treatment effects. Thus, this study will serve as baseline data for further clinical studies in CTTM.


Assuntos
Massagem/métodos , Temperatura Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Tailândia
10.
Phytomedicine ; 24: 148-156, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbal formula (Sahatsatara, STF), the Thai traditional poly-herbal recipe, has been used for treatment of muscle pain, anti-flatulence and numbness on hands and feet, with the caution when used in hypertensive patients. However, there is no scientific evidence to prove its effects on cardiovascular system. Piperine is the proposed major active compound in STF. It is shown to have antihypertensive effect in the L-NAME-induced endothelial dysfunction rats. PURPOSE: This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, as well as the hemodynamic and vasoactive effect and toxicity of STF and piperine using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normal Wistar rats (NWR). METHODS: The amount of piperine in STF was measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). SHR and NWR were gavaged with piperine (50mg/kg/day) or STF (100, 300, or 1000mg/kg/day) alone or together with L-NAME (in drinking water) for 28 days. Hemodynamic effects were monitored by noninvasive tail cuff every 7 days. Vasorelaxation effect on the thoracic aorta in organ chamber was observed through force transducer at the end of the experiment. Biochemical parameters for kidney and liver toxicity were measured. In addition, pharmacokinetic study was performed using non-compartment analysis. RESULTS: The amount of piperine in STF was 1.29%w/w. Both STF and piperine did not affect blood pressure and heart rate in both SHR and NWR. Interestingly, STF and piperine increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of isolated thoracic aorta and have vascoluprotective effect in nitric oxide (NO) impaired rats. No liver or kidney toxicity was found in this study. Non-compartment pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax) of plasma piperine after administration of piperine and STF were 3.9 and 1.7h, respectively. This result suggested that piperine in the recipe had better absorption than the pure standard piperine. CONCLUSIONS: STF had no effect on blood pressure in both SHR and NWR. However, it was able to relax isolated thoracic aorta and had the potential for vasculoprotective effect in hypertensive and NO impaired condition. The effects of STF were comparable to those of piperine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Wistar , Tailândia
11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 32, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28068976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is the main symptom of most musculoskeletal disorders and can be caused by inflammation in association with oxidative stress. Thai herbal Sahatsatara formula (STF), a polyherbal formula, has been traditionally used for relieving muscle pain and limb numbness. This study aimed to investigate biologically active compounds of STF and its pharmacological effects related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. METHODS: The identification of possibly active compounds of STF was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, this study also assessed the free radical scavenging activities of STF and its components using DPPH radical scavenging assay and their inhibitory effects on IL-1ß-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) using DCFDA-flow cytometry analysis. Modulation of human gene expression by STF and its active compounds was investigated by microarray analyzed through Gene Ontology (GO) classification and pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS: HPLC analysis has revealed the presence of gallic acid (GA) and piperine (PP) as the major compounds in STF extracts. Our finding discovered that STF and its active compounds (GA and PP) yielded free radical scavenging activities and abilities to inhibit IL-1ß-induced cellular ROS formation in NHDFs. Furthermore, microarray analysis demonstrated that a total of 84 genes (54 upregulated and 30 downregulated) were significantly affected by IL-1ß involved in inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, transcription factors, cell adhesion molecules and other immunomodulators participating in NF-κB signaling. The significantly upregulated genes in IL-1ß-treated in NHDFs participate in interleukin and cholecystokinin (CCRK) signaling pathways. The GO analysis of the target genes showed that all test compounds including indomethacin, STF and its active compounds, can downregulate the genes involved in NF-кB signaling pathway in IL-1ß-treated NHDFs compared to the cells treated with IL-1ß alone. CONCLUSIONS: STF and its active compounds possessing antioxidant actions can modulate the effects of IL-1ß-mediated alteration of gene expression profiles associated with inflammatory signaling in NHDFs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Tailândia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170360, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107420

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of insoluble amyloid-ß peptides produced from the ß-amyloid precursor protein (ßAPP). Because α-secretase cleavage by ADAM10 and ADAM17 takes place in the middle of Aß, its activation is considered as a promising anti-AD therapeutic track. Here we establish that the polyherbal Wattana formula (WNF) stimulates sAPPα production in cells of neuronal and non-neuronal origins through an increase of both ADAM10 and ADAM17 catalytic activities with no modification of BACE1 activity and expression. This effect is blocked by specific inhibition or genetic depletion of these disintegrins and we show that WNF up-regulates ADAM10 transcription and ADAM17 maturation. In addition, WNF reduces Aß40 and Aß42 generation in human cell lines. Altogether, WNF presents all the characteristics of a potent preventive anti-Alzheimer formula. Importantly, this natural recipe, currently prescribed to patients for the treatment of other symptoms without any secondary effect, can be tested immediately for further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Medicina Herbária , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos
13.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 360(3): 388-398, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011874

RESUMO

UVA irradiation plays a role in premature aging of the skin through triggering oxidative stress-associated stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) responsible for collagen degradation, a hallmark of photoaged skin. Compounds that can activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor regulating antioxidant gene expression, should therefore serve as effective antiphotoaging agents. We investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2 could relieve UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling using human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Antiphotoaging effects of hispidulin (HPD) and sulforaphane (SFN) were assessed on their abilities to activate Nrf2 in controlling MMP-1 and collagen expressions in association with phosphorylation of MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38), c-Jun, and c-Fos, using the skin of BALB/c mice subjected to repetitive UVA irradiation. Our findings suggested that depletion of Nrf2 promoted both mRNA expression and activity of MMP-1 in the UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells. Treatment of Nrf2 knocked-down HaCaT cells with MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed UVA-induced MMP-1 and AP-1 activities. Moreover, pretreatment of the mouse skin with HPD and SFN, which could activate Nrf2, provided protective effects against UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction and collagen depletion in correlation with the decreased levels of phosphorylated MAPKs, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the mouse skin. In conclusion, Nrf2 could influence UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation through the MAPK/AP-1 signaling cascades. HPD and SFN may therefore represent promising antiphotoaging candidates.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Flavonas/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Senilidade Prematura/etiologia , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos da radiação , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pele/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317895

RESUMO

Background: Studies showed effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) on lowering blood sugar levels in animal and diabetes patients. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of MO leaf capsules on glucose control in therapy-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to evaluate its safety. Method: This was a prospective randomized placebo controlled study. Therapy-naïve T2DM was randomly assigned to receive either 8 grams per day of MO leaf capsules (MO leaf group) or placebo for 4 weeks. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded at screening and at the end of 4-week study. 9-point plasma glucose was obtained before and every week during the study. Results: Thirty-two T2DM patients were enrolled. The mean age was 55 years and the mean HbA1C was 7.0%. There was no significant difference in FPG and HbA1C between groups. MO leaf group had SBP reduction by 5 mmHg as compared to baseline but this difference had no statistical significance. There were no adverse effects of MO leaf. Conclusions: Moringa oleifera leaf had no effect on glycemic control and no adverse effects in T2DM. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that MO leaf had a tendency on blood pressure reduction in T2DM, and this result needs further investigation.

15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16(1): 489, 2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ayurved Siriraj Wattana recipe (AVS073), has been prescribed as tonic, to increase appetite, and for pain relief. It also exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and anti-cancer activities. However, the immunomodulatory effects on antigen-presenting cells and effector T cells remained elusive. We thus aimed to study the effects of AVS073 on differentiation, maturation, functions and proportions of CIK cells and monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS: CIK cells and monocyte-derived DCs were treated with AVS073, followed by the assessment of T-helper (Th) phenotypes using real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. RESULTS: AVS073 promoted Th1 phenotype in CD3+CD56+ subset of CIK cells through increasing STAT4, T-bet, and interferon-γ. AVS073 inhibited Th2 phenotype through decreasing STAT6. AVS073 inhibited Treg phenotype through decreasing STAT5A, STAT5B and IDO. AVS073 promoted Th17 phenotype through increasing STAT3, RORC and IL-17. AVS073 treatment of mDCs resulted in increasing Th1-prone cytokine (IL-12) and Th17-prone cytokines (IL-6 and IL-23). CONCLUSIONS: AVS073 upregulated Th1 and Th17, but downregulated Th2 and Treg phenotypes within CD3+CD56+ cells. The treatment of mDCs drove Th1 and Th17-polarizations.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Complexo CD3 , Antígeno CD56 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16: 363, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) has specific major signal points (MaSP) for treating musculoskeletal conditions. The objectives of this study are to investigate the anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSPs, and to examine blood flow (BF) and skin temperature (ST) changes after applying pressure on the MaSPs on neck, shoulder, and arm areas. METHODS: In the anatomical study, 83 cadavers were dissected and the anatomical surfaces and structures of the 15 MaSPs recorded. In human volunteers, BF, peak systolic velocity (PS), diameter of artery (DA), and ST changes were measured at baseline and after pressure application at 0, 30, 60, 180, and 300 s. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSP between the left and right side of the body. The 3 MaSPs on the neck were shown to be anatomically separated from the location of the common carotid arteries. The BF of MaSPs of the neck significantly and immediately increased after pressure application for 30 s and for 60 s in the arm (p < 0.001). ST increased significantly and immediately after pressure application for 300 s (p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between BF and ST at any of the MaSPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MaSP massages were mainly directed towards muscles. MaSPs can cause significant, but brief, increases in BF and ST. Further studies are suggested to identify changes in BF and ST for all of the MaSPs after actual massage treatment sessions as well as other physiological effects of massage.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Massagem/métodos , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 99(3): 308-13, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal medicine has long been used as an alternative medicine for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, Moringa oleifera (MO or ma-rum in Thai) leaf has been widely used in T2DM patients. Several studies in diabetes rat model have shown that MO had effect on glucose metabolism. However study in humans is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Examine effects of MO on plasma glucose and insulin secretion. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study (mean age 29 ± 5 years; BMI 20.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2; FPG 81 ± 5 mg/dl). After an overnight fast and every two weeks, subjects received an oral dose of MO at increasing dosages of 0, 1, 2, and 4 g. Plasma glucose (PG) and insulin were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 6 hours after each MO dosage administration. Insulin secretion rate was measured using area under the curve (AUC) of insulin and AUC of insulin/glucose ratio. RESULTS: After doses of 0, 1, 2, and 4 g MO, mean plasma insulin increased (2.3 ± 0.9, 2.7 ± 1.0, 3.3 ± 1.4, and 4.1 ± 1.7 µU/ml, respectively) despite there being no differences in mean PG (77 ± 6, 78 ± 5, 79 ± 6, and 79 ± 5 mg/dl, respectively). AUC of insulin was greater after high-dose MO (4 g) than after baseline or low-dose MO capsule (1 g) (24.0 ± 3.5 vs. 14.5 ± 1.8 or 16.1 ± 2.0, respectively; p = 0.03), while there was no difference in AUC of glucose. Accordingly, insulin secretion rate represented by AUC of insulin/glucose ratio after high-dose MO was significantly increased by 74% (P = 0.041), as compared with that of baseline. CONCLUSION: We concluded that high-dose (4 g) MO leaf powder capsules significantly increased insulin secretion in healthy subjects. These results suggest that MO leaf may be a potential agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Further studies of MO in patients with T2DM are needed.


Assuntos
Insulina/metabolismo , Moringa oleifera/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24171043

RESUMO

Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA) in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH) loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 159, 2013 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23826868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ayurved Siriraj Brand Wattana formula (AVS073), a Thai herbal formula, has traditionally been used for health promotion and prevention of age-related problems. Ultraviolet A (UVA) is recognized to play a vital role in stimulation of melanin synthesis responsible for abnormal skin pigmentation possibly mediated by photooxidative stress. We thus aimed to study the inhibitory effect of AVS073 extracts on UVA-induced melanogenesis via a redox mechanism involving glutathione (GSH) synthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) using human melanoma (G361) cell culture. METHODS: The standardization of AVS073 extracts was carried out by TLC and UHPLC to obtain fingerprinting profiles of the formula, which identified several phenolic compounds including gallic acid (GA) in the formula. Antimelanogenic actions of AVS073 (up to 60 µg/ml) and GA (up to 10 µg/ml) were investigated by measuring tyrosinase activity and mRNA as well as melanin level in G361 cells irradiated with UVA. Moreover, antioxidant actions of the herbal formula and GA were determined by evaluating oxidant formation and modulation of GSH-related antioxidant defenses including GSH content, GST activity and mRNA level of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (γ-GCLC) and modifier (γ-GCLM) subunit and GST. RESULTS: AVS073 extracts and GA, used as a reference compound, suppressed UVA-augmented tyrosinase activity and mRNA and melanin formation. In addition, pretreatment with AVS073 and GA was able to inhibit cellular oxidative stress, GSH depletion, GST inactivation and downregulation of γ-GCLC, γ-GCLM and GST mRNA in G361 cells exposed to UVA radiation. CONCLUSIONS: AVS073 formula exerted antimelanogenic effects possibly through improving the redox state by upregulation of GSH and GST. Moreover, pharmacological activity of the polyherbal formula would be attributed to combined action of different phenolic compounds present in the formula.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 12: 170, 2012 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23031193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. METHODS: HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction upon administration of ATC, HNK+ATC, HNK or AA-I. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ATC, HNK+ATC or HNK, at the animal dose equivalent to that used in human, do not cause the acute nephrotoxicity in rats and do not aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries even further.


Assuntos
Aristolochia/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/efeitos adversos , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Animais , Aristolochia/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/análise , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Medicina Ayurvédica , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ureia/sangue
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