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1.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 34(1): 16-24, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620378

RESUMO

Purpose: To systematically review the role of antioxidants in management of patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). Methods: A literature search of the electronic databases was performed without restrictions on the date of publication till the end of March 2021, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Clinical trials, case-control studies, cohorts, case series, case reports, and experimental (including in vitro) studies in the English language were included. The primary outcome in human studies was improvement in severity, activity scores, and/or quality of life scores. There was a decrease in the level of H2O2-dependent oxidative stress, Hyaluronic acid release, reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation, or antifibrotic/antiproliferative actions in the in vitro studies. Results: Out of 374 initially screened articles, 157 studies were selected, the full texts of 82 were reviewed, and 14 papers were finally included. There were 4 clinical and 10 in vitro studies from 1993 to 2018. While ß-carotene, retinol, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, melatonin, resveratrol, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, and quercetin showed some efficacy in in vitro studies; allopurinol, nicotinamide, pentoxifylline, and selenium (Se) were effective in both clinical and experimental reports. Se was the only recommended antioxidant based on one high-level randomized controlled trial. Conclusion: While different antioxidants could potentially be effective in the management of TED, no strong recommendation for any or combination of antioxidants could be made to be implemented in the daily practice.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593713

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the retinal peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density (VD) between 5 groups of patients on the spectrum of thyroid eye disease (TED). METHOD: This is a prospective comparative study looking at 5 groups of patients who were consecutively included from January 2018 to March 2021. They were composed of: Healthy volunteers (39 eyes and 20 subjects), patients with Graves' disease without TED (26 eyes and 13 patients), mild TED (28 eyes and 14 patients), moderate-severe TED (30 eyes and 17 patients), and TED with dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) (21 eyes and 12 patients). Ocular and periocular examination, visual field indices, RPC-VD (with optical coherence tomography angiography), and retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular ganglion cell complex thickness were recorded. RESULT: An initial insignificant (0.5 < p < 0.9) rise in the peripapillary-VD (pp-VD) and whole image-VD (wi-VD) from the healthy subject to the Graves' disease without TED was followed by a significant (p = 0.001) fall in RPC-VD in different severity grades of the TED. Paired comparison between the 5 groups showed that the statistically significant fall from the Graves' disease group occurred in the moderate-severe and DON groups (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.04). No variable significantly affected the VD (0.08 ≤ p ≤ 0.9). A lower wi-VD and pp-VD were significantly (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.009) correlated with the impaired optic nerve functional and structural tests. The sensitivity and specificity of wi-VD (81% and 76%) and pp-VD (69% and 71%) for detecting the DON were statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Despite an insignificant rise in the wi- and pp-VD from the healthy volunteers to the patients with Graves' disease without TED, VD showed a declining trend in the course of patients with TED, which was statistically significant in the moderate-severe TED and DON groups.

3.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 38(4): 390-394, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311337

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the safety of subconjunctival injection of doxycycline in rabbit eyes. Methods: Eight white New Zealand rabbits were selected. Different concentrations of 250 micrograms (µg), 500 µg, 1000 µg, and 2000 µg in 0.1 ml were prepared for subconjunctival injection. Each concentration was injected into the two eyes of each rabbit. For each dose, dextrose was injected in one contralateral eye and the other fellow eye remained non-injected. All rabbits underwent ocular examination in the 1st, 3rd, and 30th day after injection. The rabbits were sacrificed 30 days after injections and the histopathological examination was performed. Results: No obvious change was detected in all four groups from the 1st day to the 3rd day after injection in terms of tearing, hyperaemia, and chemosis. There was no visible sign of inflammation or necrosis, and also no histological change in both clinical and histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Subconjunctival injection of doxycycline with different dosages of 250 to 2000 ug in 0.1cc in rabbit eyes was safe and no clinical or histological changes were observed after one month.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Injeções Intraoculares , Masculino , Coelhos
4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(7): 922-927, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150280

RESUMO

Click here to listen to the Podcast BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare the efficacy of combined intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and a Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil (intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB)/intravitreal fasudil (IVF)), with IVB alone for centre-involving diabetic macular oedema (DME). METHODS: In this prospective randomised clinical trial, 44 eyes with centre-involving DME were randomised into two groups. The combined group received three consecutive injections of IVB (1.25 mg) and IVF (50 µM/L) monthly, while the monotherapy group received only one IVB (1.25 mg) injection per month for 3 months. Changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared between the two groups at months 3 and 6. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in BCVA at month 6. RESULTS: Mean BCVA was significantly improved in both groups at month 3 (P<0.001), but it persisted up to month 6 only in the IVB/IVF group. Improvement of BCVA was greater in the IVB/IVF group at both time points (P=0.008, P<0.001). In the IVB/IVF and IVB groups, 54.5% versus 10% of the eyes gained≥15 ETDRS letters at month 6 (P=0.026). Between months 3 and 6, mean BCVA significantly decreased by 5±7 ETDRS letters in the IVB group (P=0.002), while no significant deterioration was observed in the IVB/IVF group. Corresponding with the BCVA changes, CMT was significantly reduced in both groups at month 3 (p=0.006, p<0.001) but this reduction sustained only in the IVB/IVF group up to month 6 (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Adjunctive intravitreal injection of a Rho-kinase inhibitor may enhance and prolong the therapeutic effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for centre- involving DME.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Macula Lutea/patologia , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Arch Iran Med ; 20(1): 43-48, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112531

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To assess the role of socio-economic inequality in visual impairment (VI) in Varamin district, Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using multistage cluster sampling method, 60 clusters (each with 50 subjects) were recruited and underwent clinical eye examinations. Socio-economic status (SES) was identified based on education, occupation, family assets and housing conditions that were measured at the participants' households using a semi-structured questionnaire and a two-step cluster analysis model. In addition, principal component analysis and the concentration index were used to identify the gap between high and low SES groups. RESULTS: Participants were categorized in high (522, 24.4%), moderate (974, 43.1%) and low (763, 33.7%) socio-economic levels. In these levels, the prevalence of VI was 5.9% (95% CI: 3.3 to 8.6), 10.4% (95% CI: 8.4 to 12.4), and 12.6% (95% CI: 10.1 to 15.1), respectively. The prevalence of VI in people with low SES was significantly greater than those in high SES level. The proportions of avoidable causes were relatively high in all SES levels (more than 80%) with no significant difference between different levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant inequality in VI prevalence in Varamin district. Avoidable causes are high in all SES groups. Therefore, community-based modalities and preventive programs with a specific notice to poorer SES groups are recommended to improve eye health in this district.


Assuntos
Classe Social , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 10(2): 123-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26425313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association of LTBP2 mutations with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). METHODS: We studied 54 unrelated patients with PACG and one individual with pseudoexfoliation accompanied with angle closure glaucoma; these consisted of 28 female and 27 male subjects aged 27 to 82 (mean, 63) years. The 36 exons and flanking intronic sequences of LTBP2 in all patients were amplified by PCR and sequenced by the Sanger protocol. The sequences were compared to LTBP2 reference sequences. A total of 100 to 400 controls aged at least 60 years old were screened for various variations. RESULTS: Out of 24 observed sequence variations, ten were in amino acid coding regions; of these four created synonymous codons while six caused amino acid changes. Based on allele frequencies, biochemical parameters, absence in control individuals, evolutionary conservation of affected amino acids, and bioinformatic predictions on the effects on protein function, it was concluded that only two mutations causing p. Gln1417Arg and p. Gly1660Trp may contribute to PACG. The p. Gly1660Trp mutation was observed in a patient with both PACG and PEX syndrome. P. Gln1417Arg had previously been reported only in a subject with POAG. CONCLUSION: LTBP2 may contribute to PACG. This finding emphasizes that there may be an overlap in the etiology of various forms of glaucoma and the overlaps likely contribute to common features in various forms of glaucoma.

7.
Optom Vis Sci ; 92(8): 879-83, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26099060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate intrasubject asymmetry in central corneal thickness (CCT) among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) as compared with that of normal subjects and to determine whether the eye with thinner cornea has more severe glaucomatous visual field damage. METHODS: In this case-control study, CCT of both eyes was measured using an ultrasonic pachymeter (UP-1000; Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) among POAG patients and normal subjects. The intrasubject difference in CCT was calculated and compared between the study groups; correlations between CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), and visual field defects were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients with bilateral POAG and 56 normal subjects were included. There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of age, sex, and ocular parameters except for visual acuity, IOP, and VCDR. The POAG patients demonstrated significantly greater intrasubject asymmetry in CCT (8 ± 7 µm vs. 5 ± 3 µm; p = 0.041) and a higher prevalence of significant (>10 µm) intrasubject CCT difference (30.6 vs. 5.4%; p < 0.001) as compared with normal subjects. Although each higher level of glaucomatous damage was associated with 4-µm thinner CCT, the correlation was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval, -8 to 1 µm; p = 0.117; GEE analysis). No significant correlation was observed between CCT and IOP or VCDR (p = 0.302 and 0.137, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with POAG demonstrate a larger amount of intrasubject difference in CCT as compared with normal subjects.


Assuntos
Córnea/patologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Paquimetria Corneana , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tonometria Ocular , Ultrassonografia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
8.
Optom Vis Sci ; 92(3): 343-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25945959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare ocular biometric parameters using low-coherence interferometry among siblings affected with different degrees of primary angle closure (PAC). METHODS: In this cross-sectional comparative study, a total of 170 eyes of 86 siblings from 47 families underwent low-coherence interferometry (LenStar 900; Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland) to determine central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), aqueous depth (AD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous depth, and axial length (AL). Regression coefficients were applied to show the trend of the measured variables in different stages of angle closure. To evaluate the discriminative power of the parameters, receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Best cutoff points were selected based on the Youden index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic accuracy were determined for each variable. RESULTS: All biometric parameters changed significantly from normal eyes to PAC suspects, PAC, and PAC glaucoma; there was a significant stepwise decrease in central corneal thickness, ACD, AD, vitreous depth, and AL, and an increase in LT and LT/AL. Anterior chamber depth and AD had the best diagnostic power for detecting angle closure; best levels of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with cutoff values of 3.11 mm for ACD and 2.57 mm for AD. CONCLUSIONS: Biometric parameters measured by low-coherence interferometry demonstrated a significant and stepwise change among eyes affected with various degrees of angle closure. Although the current classification scheme for angle closure is based on anatomical features, it has excellent correlation with biometric parameters.


Assuntos
Câmara Anterior/patologia , Humor Aquoso/fisiologia , Córnea/patologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/classificação , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Cristalino/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia , Biometria , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/cirurgia , Humanos , Interferometria , Pressão Intraocular , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Irmãos , Tonometria Ocular
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 15: 140, 2015 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent survey of avoidable blindness in Varamin District, Iran, identified moderately high levels of visual impairment (10%) and blindness (1.5%) in people >50 years. This study aimed to define current provision, identify gaps and suggest practical solutions for improving eye health services in this area. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) framework for analyzing health systems has several key components: service delivery, health workforce, information system, medical products and technologies, financing, and governance. We used this structure to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the eye health system in Varamin. All public and private eye care facilities and a random selection of primary health care (PHC) units were assessed using semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Varamin has 16 ophthalmic clinics, including two secondary hospitals that provide cataract surgery. There were ten ophthalmologists (1:68,000 population), two ophthalmic nurses and five optometrists working in Varamin district. There were no eye care social or community workers, ophthalmic counsellors, low vision rehabilitation staff. Although the Vision 2020 target for ophthalmologists has been met, numbers of other eye care staff were insufficient. The majority of patients travel to Tehran for surgery. The recent survey identified cataract as the leading cause of blindness, despite the availability of surgical services in the district and high health insurance coverage. Poor awareness is a major barrier. No units had a written blindness prevention plan, formal referral pathways or sufficient eye health promotion activities. Only one of the PHC units referred people with diabetes for retinal examination. There is partial integration between eye care services and the general health system particularly for prevention of childhood blindness: chemo-prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum, school vision tests, measles immunization and Vitamin A supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrated the need for better integration between eye care services and the general health system, local planning for prevention of blindness, an information system, a better staff mix and health education to increase community awareness and service uptake. There is the capacity to deliver far more surgery locally. All aspects of a health system need to be developed to deliver comprehensive and efficient eye care.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Cegueira , Catarata , Extração de Catarata/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 10(4): 408-16, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27051485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study included 2,410 randomly selected students. Visual acuity was tested using an E-chart on Yang vision tester. Refractive errors were measured by photorefractometry and cycloautorefraction. Strabismus was checked using cover test. Direct ophthalmoscopy was used to assess the anterior segment, lens opacities, red reflex and fundus. Functional amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in one or both eyes with no anatomical problems. RESULTS: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9%) of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004). Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D) was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001), that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007), but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9) and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87) and hyperopia (OR=11.87), were important amblyogenic risk factors. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

11.
J Glaucoma ; 24(2): 149-53, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25055212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of angle closure in siblings of patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, siblings of consecutive patients with PACG underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, measurement of intraocular pressure, stereoscopic optic nerve head examination, and dynamic gonioscopy. Ultrasonic pachymetry was obtained in all subjects; peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography and standard achromatic perimetry were performed in subjects with angle closure, categorized as primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and PACG, or any suspicion of glaucoma in the presence of open angles. RESULTS: Overall, 95 siblings from 47 families with at least 1 subject affected with PACG participated in the evaluations; 55 (57.9%) individuals were categorized within the spectrum of angle closure, including 34 (35.8%) subjects with PACS, 7 (7.4%)individuals with PAC, and 14 (14.7%) cases of PACG. Nine (9.5%) individuals with open angles demonstrated other abnormal features, these included 3 (3.2%) subjects with suspicious discs, 5 (5.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma, and 1 patient (1.1%) with normal-tension glaucoma. The remaining 31 individuals (32.6%) had no evidence of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate familial segregation of angle closure. Siblings of PACG patients are at high risk for the condition, such that two thirds of them demonstrate clinical findings related to glaucoma. These observations suggest a hereditary basis for angle closure; therefore, siblings of patients affected with angle closure should undergo targeted screening for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/genética , Gonioscopia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tonometria Ocular , Testes de Campo Visual
12.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 9(4): 427-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25709766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the visual outcomes and complications of three different types of phakic intraocular lenses (PIOLs), for correction of moderate to high myopia. METHODS: We reviewed 112 myopic eyes undergoing PIOL implantation using Artisan (40 eyes), Artiflex (36 eyes), and implantable collamer lens (ICL, 36 eyes). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), pachymetry, corneal endothelial cell (CEC) loss, and higher order aberrations (HOA) were compared. RESULTS: Mean follow-up period was 30 ± 11 months. Preoperatively, spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was -11.6 ± 3.7, -9.59 ± 1.97, and -12.3 ± 4.8 D in the Artisan, Artiflex and ICL groups, respectively. SE was comparable among the study groups at final follow-up (P = 0.237). Mean astigmatic reduction was 0.31 ± 0.72, 0.45 ± 0.62, and 0.0 ± 0.57 in the Artisan, Artiflex and ICL groups, respectively (P = 0.007). Emmetropia (±1 D) was achieved in 60%, 91.7% and 77.8% of eyes in the Artisan, Artiflex and ICL groups, respectively, the difference was significant between the Artisan and Artiflex groups (P = 0.017). BCVA improvement more than one line occurred in 25%, 19.4% and 38.9% of eyes (P = 0.158); pachymetric changes were minimal with no difference among the three groups (P = 0.754), and mean CEC loss was 10 ± 9%, 9 ± 6% and 9 ± 10% in the Artisan, Artiflex and ICL groups, respectively (P = 0.694). HOAs (P = 0.039), vertical trefoil (P = 0.032) and spherical aberration (P = 0.001) were higher with Artisan group as compared to ICL. Total aberrations (P = 0.028) and spherical aberration (P = 0.001) was also higher with Artisan group as compared to Artiflex. CONCLUSION: Visual and refractive outcomes were comparable with Artisan, Artiflex and ICL. In terms of HOAs and quality of vision, ICL and Artiflex seem to be better choices in highly myopic eyes.

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