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2.
Hum Genet ; 137(6-7): 553-567, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019117

RESUMO

With the recent advance in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) have been extensively reported. Accordingly, the issue of incorrect identification of recombination events that can induce the distortion of multi-allelic or hemizygous variants has received more attention. However, the potential distorted calculation bias or significance of a detected association in a GWAS due to the coexistence of CNVs and SNPs in the same genomic region may remain under-recognized. Here we performed the association study within a congenital scoliosis (CS) cohort whose genetic etiology was recently elucidated as a compound inheritance model, including mostly one rare variant deletion CNV null allele and one common variant non-coding hypomorphic haplotype of the TBX6 gene. We demonstrated that the existence of a deletion in TBX6 led to an overestimation of the contribution of the SNPs on the hypomorphic allele. Furthermore, we generalized a model to explain the calculation bias, or distorted significance calculation for an association study, that can be 'induced' by CNVs at a locus. Meanwhile, overlapping between the disease-associated SNPs from published GWAS and common CNVs (overlap 10%) and pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (overlap 99.69%) was significantly higher than the random distribution (p < 1 × 10-6 and p = 0.034, respectively), indicating that such co-existence of CNV and SNV alleles might generally influence data interpretation and potential outcomes of a GWAS. We also verified and assessed the influence of colocalizing CNVs to the detection sensitivity of disease-associated SNP variant alleles in another adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) genome-wide association study. We proposed that detecting co-existent CNVs when evaluating the association signals between SNPs and disease traits could improve genetic model analyses and better integrate GWAS with robust Mendelian principles.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1294-1305, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748569

RESUMO

The NAA10-NAA15 complex (NatA) is an N-terminal acetyltransferase that catalyzes N-terminal acetylation of ~40% of all human proteins. N-terminal acetylation has several different roles in the cell, including altering protein stability and degradation, protein localization and protein-protein interactions. In recent years several X-linked NAA10 variants have been associated with genetic disorders. We have identified a previously undescribed NAA10 c.215T>C p.(Ile72Thr) variant in three boys from two unrelated families with a milder phenotypic spectrum in comparison to most of the previously described patients with NAA10 variants. These boys have development delay, intellectual disability, and cardiac abnormalities as overlapping phenotypes. Functional studies reveal that NAA10 Ile72Thr is destabilized, while binding to NAA15 most likely is intact. Surprisingly, the NatA activity of NAA10 Ile72Thr appears normal while its monomeric activity is decreased. This study further broadens the phenotypic spectrum associated with NAA10 deficiency, and adds to the evidence that genotype-phenotype correlations for NAA10 variants are much more complex than initially anticipated.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 985-994, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656860

RESUMO

N-alpha-acetylation is a common co-translational protein modification that is essential for normal cell function in humans. We previously identified the genetic basis of an X-linked infantile lethal Mendelian disorder involving a c.109T>C (p.Ser37Pro) missense variant in NAA10, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NatA) complex. The auxiliary subunit of the NatA complex, NAA15, is the dimeric binding partner for NAA10. Through a genotype-first approach with whole-exome or genome sequencing (WES/WGS) and targeted sequencing analysis, we identified and phenotypically characterized 38 individuals from 33 unrelated families with 25 different de novo or inherited, dominantly acting likely gene disrupting (LGD) variants in NAA15. Clinical features of affected individuals with LGD variants in NAA15 include variable levels of intellectual disability, delayed speech and motor milestones, and autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, mild craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital cardiac anomalies, and seizures are present in some subjects. RNA analysis in cell lines from two individuals showed degradation of the transcripts with LGD variants, probably as a result of nonsense-mediated decay. Functional assays in yeast confirmed a deleterious effect for two of the LGD variants in NAA15. Further supporting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency, individuals with copy-number variant (CNV) deletions involving NAA15 and surrounding genes can present with mild intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic features, motor delays, and decreased growth. We propose that defects in NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation (NTA) lead to variable levels of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, supporting the importance of the NatA complex in normal human development.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239602

RESUMO

Severe infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are commonly observed in patient with secondary immunodeficiency disorders. We report a two and a half years old boy previously healthy with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. Using whole exome sequencing, we found an indel mutation at the CD40LG gene, suggesting a diagnosis of hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, even in the absence of the usual features for the disease. Interestingly, the patient lives in a region endemic for histoplasmosis. The unusual infections in our case suggest that in children with severe histoplasmosis and resident in endemic areas, HIGM syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 343-351, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132692

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increasingly enabled new pathogenic gene variant identification for undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders and provided insights into both gene function and disease biology. Here, we describe seven children with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, profound developmental delays and/or intellectual disability, cataracts, severe epilepsy including infantile spasms, irritability, failure to thrive, and stereotypic hand movements. Brain imaging in these individuals reveals delay in myelination and cerebral atrophy. We observe an identical recurrent de novo heterozygous c.892C>T (p.Arg298Trp) variant in the nucleus accumbens associated 1 (NACC1) gene in seven affected individuals. One of the seven individuals is mosaic for this variant. NACC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in gene expression and has not previously been associated with germline disorders. The probability of finding the same missense NACC1 variant by chance in 7 out of 17,228 individuals who underwent WES for diagnoses of neurodevelopmental phenotypes is extremely small and achieves genome-wide significance (p = 1.25 × 10-14). Selective constraint against missense variants in NACC1 makes this excess of an identical missense variant in all seven individuals more remarkable. Our findings are consistent with a germline recurrent mutational hotspot associated with an allele-specific neurodevelopmental phenotype in NACC1.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Catarata/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
PLoS Genet ; 12(11): e1006446, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27880765

RESUMO

Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Translocação Genética
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(9): 2132-7, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25846457

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFDVI) is a rare ciliopathy in the spectrum of Joubert syndrome (JS) and distinguished from other oral-facial-digital syndromes by metacarpal abnormalities with central polydactyly and by a molar tooth sign on cranial MRI. Additional characteristic features include short stature, micrognathia, posteriorly rotated low-set ears, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, broad nasal tip, tongue hamartoma, upper lip notch, intraoral frenula, cleft lip/palate, and renal anomalies. Recently, novel mutations in C5orf42 were identified in 9 out of 11 OFDVI families. In a subsequent study C5orf42 was found to be mutated in only 2 out of 17 OFDVI probands while 28 patients with a pure JS phenotype also had pathogenic mutations of C5orf42. We report on two affected cousins diagnosed with OFDVI who were born from first degree cousin marriages. Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified a homozygous predicted damaging missense mutation (c.4034A > G; p.Gln1345Arg) in the C5orf42 gene. Our data contribute to the evidence that C5orf42 is one of the causative genes for OFDVI.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Criança , Fissura Palatina/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Hamartoma/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Retina/anormalidades , Turquia
10.
J Hepatol ; 62(2): 371-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25281858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aberrantly high expression of TRIM24 occurs in human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, TRIM24 in the mouse is reportedly a liver-specific tumour suppressor. To address this dichotomy and to uncover direct regulatory functions of TRIM24 in vivo, we developed a new mouse model that lacks expression of all Trim24 isoforms, as the previous model expressed normal levels of Trim24 lacking only exon 4. METHODS: To produce germline-deleted Trim24(dlE1) mice, deletion of the promoter and exon 1 of Trim24 was induced in Trim24(LoxP) mice by crossing with a zona pellucida 3-Cre line for global deletion. Liver-specific deletion (Trim24(hep)) was achieved by crossing with an albumin-Cre line. Phenotypic analyses were complemented by protein, gene-specific and global RNA expression analyses and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Global loss of Trim24 disrupted hepatic homeostasis in 100% of mice with highly significant, decreased expression of oxidation/reduction, steroid, fatty acid, and lipid metabolism genes, as well as increased expression of genes involved in unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell cycle pathways. Trim24(dlE1/dlE1) mice have markedly depleted visceral fat and, like Trim24(hep/hep) mice, spontaneously develop hepatic lipid-filled lesions, steatosis, hepatic injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: TRIM24, an epigenetic co-regulator of transcription, directly and indirectly represses hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and damage in the murine liver. Complete loss of Trim24 offers a model of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of high-fat diet or obesity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Lipídeos/análise , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese
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