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1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-24, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992372

RESUMO

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids have shown to regulate lipid metabolism and reduce fat accumulation in the liver. This trial investigated the effect of flaxseed oil, as a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, on fatty liver and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed on 68 NAFLD patients who divided into flaxseed (n=34) and sunflower (n=34) oil groups. Patients were given a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d) and 20 g/d of the corresponding oil for 12 weeks. Fatty liver grade, liver enzymes, and cardiometabolic parameters were determined. The intention-to-treat approach was used for data analysis. Fatty liver grade significantly decreased in both groups (-0.68 in flaxseed vs. -0.29 in sunflower, P=0.002). ALT and AST decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Also, significant reduction was observed in blood glucose (P=0.005) and fat mass (P=0.01) of flaxseed and muscle mass (P=0.01) of sunflower group. However, none of these alterations was significantly different between the groups. Weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure significantly decreased in both groups but only weight change was significantly different between groups (P=0.01). Interleukin-6 did not significantly change in either group but showed a significant between-group difference (P=0.03). Overall, the results showed that in the context of a low-calorie diet and moderate physical activity, flaxseed oil may benefit NAFLD patients to improve fatty liver grade, weight, and interleukin-6 compared to sunflower oil.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 846-854, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate has antioxidant, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. We designed a crossover study aimed at determining if consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) improves lipid profile and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of hemodialysis patients. Forty-one hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: PJ-treated group receiving 100 mL of natural PJ immediately after their dialysis session three times a week and the control group receiving the usual care. After 8 weeks, a 4-week washout period was established and then the role of the groups was exchanged. Lipid profile, blood pressure and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were measured before and after each sequence. RESULTS: Based on the results of intention-to-treat analysis, triglycerides were decreased in PJ condition and increased in the controls. Conversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased in PJ and decreased in the control group. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not significantly change in either condition. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased in PJ condition. Total antioxidant capacity increased in PJ condition (P < 0.001) and decreased in the controls (P < 0.001). Conversely, malondialdehyde and interleukin-6 decreased in PJ (P < 0.001) and increased in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). The changes of these biomarkers were significantly different between the two conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Eight-week PJ consumption showed beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidative stress and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-15, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290343

RESUMO

Background: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass resulting from continuous bone resorption. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched to find published trials on the effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, C-telopeptide, and N-telopeptide). Random-effects inverse-variance model was used to calculate the pooled effects. Results: A total of 5313 articles were found, screened, and assessed for eligibility, and finally 52 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Consumption of soy isoflavones caused significant improvement in BMD of lumbar spine (mean difference (MD) = 0.76%; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.42%; p = 0.03), hip (MD = 0.22%; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42%; p = 0.04), and femoral neck (MD = 2.27%; 95% CI: 1.22, 3.31%; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that in all 3 sites, the improvement was significant in normal weight subjects and interventions longer than a year, although trial location and dosage were also factors influencing isoflavones' impact on BMD. Among markers of bone turnover, osteoprotegerin (MD = 5.79; 95% CI: 3.08, 8.51 pg/ml; p < 0.001), pyridinoline (MD = -5.13; 95% CI: -7.76, -2.50 nmol/mmol; p < 0.001), and C-telopeptides (MD = -0.08; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.00 ng/ml; p = 0.04) were favorably affected by isoflavones while osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase did not change. Subgroup analysis of bone markers showed that in overweight/obese individuals and dosages <90 mg/day, isoflavones are more effective. Conclusions: Soy isoflavones prevent osteoporosis-related bone loss in any weight status or treatment duration. They increase BMD in normal weight subjects and diminish bone resorption in overweight/obese individuals. Although bone resorption may be decelerated over short-term isoflavone consumption, periods longer than a year are probably needed to affect BMD. Isoflavones also appear benefits on bone in any dose or subjects' ethnicity.

4.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-18, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358075

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders dominated by abdominal obesity, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure and high fasting glucose. Diet modification is a safe and effective way to treat the metabolic syndrome. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a dietary pattern rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and low in meats and sweets. DASH provides good amounts of fibre, K, Ca and Mg, and limited quantities of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and Na. Although DASH was initially designed for the prevention or control of hypertension, using a DASH diet has other metabolic benefits. In the present review, the effect of each dietary component of DASH on the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome is discussed. Due to limited fat and high fibre and Ca content, individuals on the DASH diet are less prone to overweight and obesity and possess lower concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol although changes in TAG and HDL-cholesterol have been less significant and available evidence in this regard is still inconclusive. Moreover, high amounts of fruit and vegetables in DASH provide great quantities of K, Mg and fibre, all of which have been shown to reduce blood pressure. K, Mg, fibre and antioxidants have also been effective in correcting glucose and insulin abnormalities. Evidence is provided from cross-sectional investigations, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials, and, where available, from published meta-analyses. Mechanisms are described according to human studies and, in the case of a lack of evidence, from animal and cell culture investigations.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020399

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Examining the association between adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and mental health in Iranian university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 240 university students (mean age 21.5 years; 86.7% female). Mental health was evaluated using validated Persian versions of the 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21). The lower the subjects' scores on these questionnaires, the better their mental health. Usual past-year dietary intakes were assessed by a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The DASH score was computed based on energy-adjusted intakes of eight major dietary components emphasized or minimized in the DASH pattern. The higher the DASH score of a subject, the greater his/her adherence to the DASH pattern. RESULTS: The Pearson's correlation coefficients of DASH score with GHQ-12 total score, DASS-21 total score, and DASS-21 depression, anxiety, and stress subscale scores were - 0.431, - 0.441, - 0.434, - 0.325, and - 0.408, respectively (all P < 0.001). Compared to those in the lowest tertile, subjects in the highest tertile of DASH score had lower means of GHQ-12 total score (mean difference - 4.6; P < 0.001), DASS-21 total score (mean difference - 9.1; P < 0.001), and DASS-21 depression, anxiety, and stress subscale scores (mean differences for depression, anxiety, and stress - 3.6, - 2.4, and - 3.2, respectively; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that greater adherence to the DASH dietary pattern is associated with better mental health in Iranian university students. However, prospective studies of sufficient methodological quality are needed to confirm these findings.

6.
Int J Prev Med ; 10: 3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774837

RESUMO

Background: Due to high content of fructose, honey has been introduced as a suitable natural sweetener for patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of honey consumption on glycemic control and anthropometric measures of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted on 53 patients with type 2 diabetes. The participants were randomly divided into groups of control (weight maintenance diet) or treatment (weight maintenance diet +50 g/day honey) for 8 weeks. After a 4-week washout, the second phase began, in which the role of the groups was interchanged. Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose, insulin, and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to test differences within- and between the two conditions. Results: Forty-two patients completed the study. HbA1c significantly decreased in control (-0.22%, P = 0.03) and nonsignificantly increased in honey condition (+0.17%, P = 0.22). There was a significant difference between the two conditions (P = 0.02). Fasting glucose did not significantly change in either honey or control condition but insulin concentrations (-0.85 µU/ml, P = 0.01) and insulin secretion (-10.7%, P = 0.01) decreased significantly in the control condition. There was no significant difference in any of these parameters between the two conditions. Waist circumference decreased by honey treatment with a significant difference between the two conditions (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Eight weeks consumption of 50 g/day honey increased HbA1c and decreased waist circumference of patients with type 2 diabetes.

7.
Nutrition ; 57: 154-161, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olive oil has health benefits for the correction of metabolic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of olive oil consumption on the severity of fatty liver and cardiometabolic markers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted on 66 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients were divided to receive either olive or sunflower oil, each 20 g/d for 12 wk. A hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d) was recommended to all participants. Fatty liver grade, liver enzymes, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and interleukin-6 were assessed pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: Fatty liver grade, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure significantly decreased in both groups. Sunflower oil significantly reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and olive oil only decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase. Fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass significantly reduced after the consumption of sunflower oil and serum triacylglycerols and fat mass significantly declined after the ingestion of olive oil. Among these variables, only changes in fatty liver grade (-0.29 ± 0.46 in sunflower oil versus -0.75 ± 0.45 in olive oil; P < 0.001), skeletal muscle mass (-0.71 ± 1.36 in sunflower oil versus +0.45 ± 2.8 in olive oil; P = 0.04), and body fat percentage (+0.38 ± 5.2% in sunflower oil versus -3.4 ± 5.5% in olive oil; P = 0.04) were significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Olive oil may alleviate the severity of fatty liver independent of correcting cardiometabolic risk factors. Low-calorie diets may benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease additionally through mitigation of obesity, blood pressure, and liver enzymes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Olea , Azeite de Oliva/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 650, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338393

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination of vegetables is a great public health concern. One hundred samples of spinach, dill, cilantro, and cress from the production sites of Shiraz, Iran, and its outskirts were, therefore, examined for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) content. The potential health risks of these metals to local residents via the consumption of leafy vegetables were also estimated. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co were 3.21, 0.28, 4.55, 40.44, 3.11, and 1.86 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The Pb level exceeded the permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg in 44.7% of vegetable samples. The other elements were, however, within FAO/WHO standards. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co from leafy vegetables was 0.10, 0.01, 0.14, 1.26, 0.10, and 0.06 µg/kg body weight/day, respectively. At the mean and 97.5 percentile levels, all health risk index (HRI) values were less than the safe limit (< 1). Thus, within the area this study was focused on, leafy vegetables did not make a major contribution to the dietary intake of the elements which could be mainly attributed to the low vegetable consumption by the study population (20 g/day). Nevertheless, the lead content of the vegetables should be viewed with some concern. Regular monitoring of heavy metal contamination of foodstuff is recommended to control the sources of contaminants in the food chain.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Verduras/química , Cádmio , Cobalto , Cobre , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Chumbo , Níquel , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo , Zinco
9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(8): 1083-1092, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effect of vitamin D on glycemic status of diabetes patients is controversial. The objective was to assess the effect of vitamin D3-fortified milk on cardiometabolic markers of patients with type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 102 patients (34 males and 68 females) aged 31-74 years with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either 250 ml unfortified or 250 ml 1000 IU vitamin D3-fortified milk daily for 9 weeks. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids were determined at baseline and after 9 weeks. RESULTS: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations improved in the fortified milk group compared to the control group (+14 ± 20 vs. +4 ± 17 ng/ml; P = 0.001). Both groups showed significant increases in serum calcium (P < 0.01) and decreases in total cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Also, there was a significant reduction in body mass index of fortified milk group (P < 0.001). None of these changes were statistically significant between the two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly decreased in both groups with a more remarkable reduction in the plain milk consumers, making a significant between-group difference (7.5% compared to 3.1%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, daily consumption of one cup of milk containing 1000 IU vitamin D3 for 9 weeks substantially improved vitamin D deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes but it did not affect cardiometabolic parameters over that of plain milk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Lipídeos/sangue , Leite , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
10.
Burns ; 44(1): 140-149, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to determine the effect of isolated soy protein (ISP) and flaxseed oil (FO) on inflammatory and oxidative stress indices, acute phase proteins, and wound healing of burn patients. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight patients were assessed for eligibility in this randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-three eligible patients (total burn surface area 20-50%) were randomly assigned to 3 isocaloric groups, labeled as control (wheat flour+corn oil (CO)), ISP+FO, and ISP+CO, to receive these nutrients for 3 weeks. We used intention to treat analysis to overcome bias. Because of the large perturbation in water compartments, patients received nutrients from 4th to 25th day of admission. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ferritin, albumin, and transferrin were measured. The wound area was evaluated by stereological test. RESULTS: During the 3-week intervention, hs-CRP (-19.4±5.6, -11.7±4.7µg/ml) and ferritin (-83.8±20.5, -80.1±19.6ng/ml) levels changes significantly reduced compared to the control group (P<0.05). MDA level (-0.05±0.21µmol/l) significantly decreased in group A (P<0/05) but was not significant in groups B and control (P>0.05). Albumin level (0.59±0.14, 0.30±0.12g/dl) significantly increased in group A compared to the control group (P<0.05), but no significant relationship was found between other groups (P>0.05). Transferrin level (4.9±3.6, 2.9±5.1g/dl) significantly increased in ISP groups compared to the control (P<0.05). SOD improved in all groups with no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The stereology examination showed significant improvement in wound healing in the ISP groups on days 22 and 25 compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Nutritional supplements with ISP may attenuate post-burn oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to improved wound healing in burn patients. Flaxseed oil may not exert a beneficial effect over the ISP.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Queimaduras/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Óleo de Semente do Linho/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(4): 1449-1458, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The dietary determinants of children blood pressure (BP) are poorly understood. We examined the association between adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 407) of healthy Shirazi students aged 6-12 years. Subjects' systolic and diastolic BP were measured by a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes over the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. A DASH score was calculated for each subject based on his/her energy-adjusted intakes of 8 major dietary components emphasized or minimized in the DASH dietary pattern. The higher the DASH score of a subject, the more his/her adherence to the DASH dietary pattern. RESULTS: After controlling for several potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable-adjusted means of systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of DASH score were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference -6.2 mmHg, P = 0.010; and for mean BP: mean difference -5.4 mmHg, P = 0.013). Furthermore, a similar but statistically insignificant difference was found in terms of multivariable-adjusted means of diastolic BP (mean difference -3.9 mmHg, P = 0.146). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that greater adherence to the DASH dietary pattern is associated with lower BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. However, future prospective studies of adequate methodological quality are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Adv Nutr ; 8(5): 705-717, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916571

RESUMO

Soy may be a suitable food for anti-obesity efforts because of its high protein and isoflavone content. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate potential effects of soy and soy isoflavones on weight, waist circumference, and fat mass. PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Twenty-four trials with soy and 17 trials with isoflavones passed the eligibility stage. According to the results, soy showed no overall statistically significant effect on weight, waist circumference, or fat mass, but a significant increasing effect on weight was observed in some circumstances: for instance, in obese subjects [mean difference (MD): 0.80 kg; 95% CI: 0.15, 1.45 kg; P = 0.02], with ingestions of ≥40 g soy protein/d (MD: 0.94 kg; 95% CI: 0.11, 1.77 kg; P = 0.03), with short-term applications (1-3 mo) (MD: 0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86 kg; P = 0.03), and when soy was compared with meat (MD: 0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.64 kg; P = 0.03) and whey protein (MD: 1.53 kg; 95% CI: 0.10, 2.96 kg; P = 0.04). In contrast to the effects of soy on weight, soy significantly decreased waist circumference in older ages (MD: -0.36 cm; 95% CI: -0.71, -0.01 cm; P = 0.04), in women (MD: -0.32 cm; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.08 cm; P = 0.01), and at doses of <40 g soy protein/d (MD: -0.31 cm; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.05 cm; P = 0.02). Isoflavone studies, conducted only in women, showed that isoflavones may reduce body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (MD: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.55, 0.04; P = 0.085), especially in dosages <100 mg/d (MD: -0.48; 95% CI: -0.90, -0.06; P = 0.02) and in intervention periods of 2-6 mo (MD: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.56, 0.00; P = 0.053), but no effect was observed in higher doses or longer intervention periods. Also, a trend for reduced BMI after consumption of isoflavones was observed in Caucasians (MD: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.74, 0.04; P = 0.08). Overall, results showed that, although soy is the major source of isoflavones, soy and isoflavones may have different impacts on weight status.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Soja/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 244(Pt 1): 473-483, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803097

RESUMO

Batch factorial experiments were performed on cheese whey+wastewater sludge mixtures to evaluate the influence of pH and the inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR) on fermentative H2 production and build a related predictive model. ISR and pH affected H2 potential and rate, and the fermentation pathways. The specific H2 yield varied from 61 (ISR=0, pH=7.0) to 371L H2/kg TOCwhey (ISR=1.44gVS/g TOC, pH=5.5). The process duration range was 5.3 (ISR=1.44gVS/g TOC, pH=7.5) - 183h (ISR=0, pH=5.5). The metabolic products included mainly acetate and butyrate followed by ethanol, while propionate was only observed once H2 production had significantly decreased. The multiple metabolic products suggested that the process was governed by several fermentation pathways, presumably overlapping and mutually competing, reducing the conversion yield into H2 compared to that expected with clostridial fermentation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Queijo , Fermentação , Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Soro do Leite
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(1): 399-408, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26534856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The dietary determinants of adolescent blood pressure (BP) are not well understood. We determined the association between major dietary patterns and BP in a sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 557) of Shirazi adolescents aged 12-19 years. Participants' systolic and diastolic BP was measured using a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes during the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Principal component factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns based on a set of 25 predefined food groups. RESULTS: Overall, three major dietary patterns were identified, among which only the Western pattern (abundant in soft drinks, sweets and desserts, salt, mayonnaise, tea and coffee, salty snacks, high-fat dairy products, French fries, and red or processed meats) had a significant association with BP. After adjusting for potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable adjusted means of the systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score were significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; and for mean BP: mean difference 4.2 mmHg, P = 0.003). A similar but statistically insignificant difference was observed in terms of diastolic BP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that a Western dietary pattern is associated with higher BP in Iranian adolescents. However, additional large-scale prospective studies with adequate methodological quality are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Phytother Res ; 30(10): 1559-1571, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27307131

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
16.
Int J Prev Med ; 7: 68, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20-50-year-old. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20-50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20-29, 30-39, and 40-50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. RESULTS: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors.

17.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 17(4): 394-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24618453

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the impact of gender on expression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a cohort of 2355 SLE patients as one of the largest series of cases among the present reports. METHOD: In this retrospective study we used medical records of all patients (239 male and 2116 female) of the SLE registry of Rheumatology Research Center (RRC), Tehran University of Medical science (TUMS), Iran. Both clinical and paraclinical manifestations of SLE patients have been registered in this database since 1976 and updated during their follow-up. Chi-square test was used to compare the clinical and paraclinical manifestations in men and women at disease onset and during the disease course. We used logistic regression to compute odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean age at disease onset was 25 ± 11.8 and 24.5 ± 10.3 years in men and women, respectively (P = 0.48). Comparison of clinical and immunological manifestations showed that male patients had a higher prevalence of mucocutaneous (43.5% vs. 33.7%, P = 0.005) and a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (44% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.003) as the initial manifestation. During the disease course, discoid rash (25.9% vs. 13%, P = 0.000) and type IV lupus nephritis (23.4% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.03) were significantly more common, whereas arthritis (61.1% vs. 71.7%, P = 0.01) and leukopenia (28.5% vs. 35.8%, P = 0.024) were significantly less common in men. CONCLUSION: This study reveals gender influence on some manifestations of SLE. Considering sex differences is recommended in diagnostic and therapeutic features of the disease.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 28: 93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25664294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in an urban area of Tehran. METHODS: A total of 50 clusters were randomly selected in Tehran and 10291 subjects completed the COPCORD Core Questionnaire during 2004 and 2005. Patients with rheumatic complaints were examined and diagnosed by subspecialty fellows in rheumatology. Laboratory and radiology tests were also performed if required. RESULTS: A total of 35 subjects (5 men and 30 women) were diagnosed with RA, with a prevalence of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.22-0.46). Our results demonstrated that RA was six times more common in women than men. The mean age (± SD) of patients was 52.3 (± 17.6) years. Morning stiffness > 1 hour was reported in 37.1% of patients. Rheumatic signs were commonly found in wrist (60%), knee (60%), metacarpophalangeal (48.6%) and proximal interphalangeals of hand (40%). Approximately 46% of patients had difficulty carrying out daily activities. CONCLUSION: According to our study, the prevalence of RA in Iran seems to be lower than western countries. However, the prevalence of RA in Iran seems to be approximately in the middle point comparing the APLAR region (from 0.7% in Australia (rural) to 0.12% in Thailand).

19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2012: 782321, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22829963

RESUMO

While flavonoids can reportedly protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, the relative effectiveness of different flavonoids and the mechanisms involved are unclear. We compared protection by different flavonoids using rat embryonic ventricular H9c2 cells subjected to simulated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-buOOH). Characterization of the IR model showed the relative contributions of glucose, serum, and oxygen deprivation to cell death. With long-term (2-3 day) pretreatment before IR the best protection was given by catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins, and ascorbate, which protected at all doses. Quercetin protected (34%) at 5 µM but was cytotoxic at higher doses. Cyanidin protected mildly (10-15%) at 5 and 20 µM, while delphinidin had no effect at 5 µM and was cytotoxic at higher doses. Comparing long-term and acute protection by catechin, a higher concentration was needed for benefit with acute (1 hr) pretreatment. With a pure oxidative stress (t-buOOH) only quercetin significantly protected with 3-day pretreatment, while with short-term (1 h) pretreatments protection was best with quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate. The results suggest catechins to be especially useful as IR preconditioning agents, while quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate may be the most protective acutely in situations of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Glucose/farmacologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/toxicidade
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 32(9): 2833-6, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21879377

RESUMO

Apoptosis signals are essential for establishing homeostasis and adequate immune response. Dysregulation of apoptosis-related genes in the immune system, which could be due to gene polymorphisms, conduct to autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. In the current study, the apoptosis-related gene Fas_-670A>G, FasL_844C>T, and FasLIVS2nt_124A>G polymorphisms were genotyped in 120 Iranian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 112 unrelated healthy controls using PCR-RFLP method. Among the 120 RA patients being heterozygous in the promoter region of Fas_-670A/G (OR 1.42,CI 0.92-1.52, P = 0.18) and FasL_-844C/T (OR 1.42, CI 0.92-1.52, P = 0.18) and homozygous in the minor allele for FasLIVS2nt_124G/G (OR 1.43, CI 0.76-1.81, P = 0.7), the frequency of these polymorphisms is higher in the cases than in controls and the elevated risk of RA were observed when the patient compared with controls, although this is not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/etnologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor fas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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