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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(12): e005904, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted the first-of-its kind randomized stroke trial in Africa to test whether a THRIVES (Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke) intervention improved blood pressure (BP) control among patients with stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intervention comprised a patient global risk factor control report card, personalized phone text-messaging, and educational video. Four hundred patients recruited from 4 distinct medical facilities in Nigeria, aged ≥18 years with stroke-onset within one-year, were randomized to THRIVES intervention and control group. The control group also received text messages, and both groups received modest financial incentives. The primary outcome was mean change in systolic BP (SBP) at 12 months. There were 36.5% females, 72.3% with ischemic stroke; mean age was 57.2±11.7 years; 93.5% had hypertension and mean SBP was 138.33 (23.64) mm Hg. At 12 months, there was no significant difference in SBP reduction from baseline in the THRIVES versus control group (2.32 versus 2.01 mm Hg, P=0.82). In an exploratory analysis of subjects with baseline BP >140/90 mm Hg (n=168), THRIVES showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.7 (7.0) mm Hg while control group showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.2 (7.9) mm Hg at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: THRIVES intervention did not significantly reduce SBP compared with controls. However, there was similar significant decrease in mean BP in both treatment arms in the subgroup with baseline hypertension. As text-messaging and a modest financial incentive were the common elements between both treatment arms, further research is required to establish whether these measures alone can improve BP control among stroke survivors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01900756.

2.
Neurology ; 93(24): e2257-e2271, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardized approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the Stroke and Cognition Consortium (STROKOG) consortium. METHODS: We harmonized data from 13 studies based in 8 countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardized cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile cutoffs from normative groups, and associations between domain scores and risk factors were examined with 1-stage IPD meta-analysis. RESULTS: In a combined sample of 3,146 participants admitted to hospital for stroke (97%) or TIA (3%), 44% were impaired in global cognition and 30% to 35% were impaired in individual domains 2 to 6 months after the index event. Diabetes mellitus and a history of stroke were strongly associated with poorer cognitive function after covariate adjustments; hypertension, smoking, and atrial fibrillation had weaker domain-specific associations. While there were no significant differences in domain impairment among ethnoracial groups, some interethnic differences were found in the effects of risk factors on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the high prevalence of PSCI in diverse populations, highlights common risk factors, in particular diabetes mellitus, and points to ethnoracial differences that warrant attention in the development of prevention strategies.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 145: 97-108, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807146

RESUMO

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2-3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10-20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30-40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

4.
Int J Stroke ; 14(1): 69-79, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96). CONCLUSION: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.

5.
Brain Res Bull ; 145: 136-141, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149197

RESUMO

Brain banks are biorepositories of central nervous system (CNS) tissue including fixed and frozen whole brains, brain biopsies and spinal cord, as well as body fluids comprising the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood stored for research purposes. Though several independent brain banks exist in high income countries, only five low- and middle - income countries (LMIC) have brain banks. The African continent is yet to establish a formalized brain bank despite its huge human genomic diversity, ageing of her populations with concomitant increases in ageing - associated brain disorders and differential phenotypic expression and outcomes of brain disorders. Cellular and molecular clinicopathological studies are vital to shaping our understanding of the interaction between racial (genetic) and geographical (environmental) factors in the natural history and mechanisms of disease, and unravelling frameworks of diagnostic biomarkers, and new therapeutic and preventative interventions. The Ibadan Brain Ageing, Dementia And Neurodegeneration (IBADAN) Brain Bank, the first organized brain tissue biorepository in sub - Saharan Africa, is set up to accrue, process and store unique brain tissues for future research into a broad spectrum of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The potential unique discoveries and research breakthroughs will benefit people of African ancestry and other ancestral populations.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 379(25): 2429-2437, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older. Estimates of the lifetime risks in the years 1990 and 2016 were compared. Countries were categorized into quintiles of the sociodemographic index (SDI) used in the GBD Study, and the risks were compared across quintiles. Comparisons were made with the use of point estimates and uncertainty intervals representing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles around the estimate. RESULTS: The estimated global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was 24.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.5 to 26.2); the risk among men was 24.7% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.3 to 26.0), and the risk among women was 25.1% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.7 to 26.5). The risk of ischemic stroke was 18.3%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 8.2%. In high-SDI, high-middle-SDI, and low-SDI countries, the estimated lifetime risk of stroke was 23.5%, 31.1% (highest risk), and 13.2% (lowest risk), respectively; the 95% uncertainty intervals did not overlap between these categories. The highest estimated lifetime risks of stroke according to GBD region were in East Asia (38.8%), Central Europe (31.7%), and Eastern Europe (31.6%), and the lowest risk was in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (11.8%). The mean global lifetime risk of stroke increased from 22.8% in 1990 to 24.9% in 2016, a relative increase of 8.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 6.2 to 11.5); the competing risk of death from any cause other than stroke was considered in this calculation. CONCLUSIONS: In 2016, the global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was approximately 25% among both men and women. There was geographic variation in the lifetime risk of stroke, with the highest risks in East Asia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Lancet ; 392(10154): 1269-1278, 2018 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319114

RESUMO

Along with the rising global burden of disability attributed to stroke, costs of stroke care are rising, providing the impetus to direct our research focus towards effective measures of stroke prevention. In this Series paper, we discuss strategies for reducing the risk of the emergence of disease (primordial prevention), preventing the onset of disease (primary prevention), and preventing the recurrence of disease (secondary prevention). Our focus includes global strategies and campaigns, and measurements of the effectiveness of worldwide preventive interventions, with an emphasis on low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings reveal that effective tobacco control, adequate nutrition, and development of healthy cities are important strategies for primordial prevention, whereas polypill strategies, use of mobile technology (mHealth), along with salt reduction and other dietary interventions, are effective in the primary prevention of stroke. An effective collaboration between various health-care sectors, government policies, and campaigns can successfully implement secondary prevention strategies, through surveillance and registries, such as the WHO's non-communicable diseases programmes, across high-income and low-income countries.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733683

RESUMO

Africa was previously insufficiently represented in the emerging discipline of biobanking despite commendable early efforts. However, with the Human, Heredity, and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, biorepository science has been bolstered, regional biobanks are springing up, and awareness about biobanks is growing on the continent. The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) project is a transnational, multicenter, hospital and community-based study involving over 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 16 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. SIREN aims to explore and unravel the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the peculiar phenotypic and clinical characteristics of stroke as seen in people of African ancestry and facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventative strategies. The aim of this article is to describe our experience with the development of the procedure for collection, processing, storage, and shipment of biological samples (blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, red cell concentrates, and DNA) and brain imaging across coordinating and participating sites within the SIREN Project. The SIREN network was initiated in 2014 with support and funding from the H3Africa Initiative. The SIREN Biobank currently has 3015 brain images, 92,950 blood fractions (serum, plasma, red cell concentrates, and buffy coat) accrued from 8450 recruited subjects, and quantified and aliquoted good-quality DNA extracts from 6150 study subjects. This represents an invaluable resource for future research with expanding genomic and trans-omic technologies. This will facilitate the involvement of indigenous African samples in cutting-edge stroke genomics and trans-omics research. It is, however, critical to effectively engage African stroke patients and community members who have contributed precious biological materials to the SIREN Biobank to generate appropriate evidence base for dealing with ethical, legal, and social issues of privacy, autonomy, identifiability, biorights, governance issues, and public understanding of stroke biobanking in the context of unique African culture, language, and belief systems.

10.
Int J Stroke ; 12(8): 858-868, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28350278

RESUMO

Background Specialist training provides skilled workforce for service delivery. Stroke medicine has evolved rapidly in the past years. No prior information exists on background or training of stroke doctors globally. Aims To describe the specialties that represent stroke doctors, their training requirements, and the scientific organizations ensuring continuous medical education. Methods The World Stroke Organization conducted an expert survey between June and November 2014 using e-mailed questionnaires. All Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries with >1 million population and other countries with >50 million population were included ( n = 49, total 5.6 billion inhabitants, 85% of global strokes). Two stroke experts from each selected country were surveyed, discrepancies resolved, and further information on identified stroke-specific curricula sought. Results We received responses from 48 (98%) countries. Of ischemic stroke patients, 64% were reportedly treated by neurologists, ranging from 5% in Ireland to 95% in the Netherlands. Per thousand annual strokes there were average six neurologists, ranging from 0.3 in Ethiopia to 33 in Israel. Of intracerebral hemorrhage patients, 29% were reportedly treated by neurosurgeons, ranging from 5% in Sweden to 79% in Japan, with three neurosurgeons per thousand strokes, ranging from 0.1 in Ethiopia to 24 in South Korea. Most countries had a stroke society (86%) while only 10 (21%) had a degree or subspecialty for stroke medicine. Conclusions Stroke doctor numbers, background specialties, and opportunities to specialize in stroke vary across the globe. Most countries have a scientific society to pursue advancement of stroke medicine, but few have stroke curricula.


Assuntos
Neurologia , Neurocirurgia , Especialização , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral/terapia , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Sociedades Médicas
11.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 7: 11-23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138511

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Stroke and Cognition consortium (STROKOG) aims to facilitate a better understanding of the determinants of vascular contributions to cognitive disorders and help improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). METHODS: Longitudinal studies with ≥75 participants who had suffered or were at risk of stroke or TIA and which evaluated cognitive function were invited to join STROKOG. The consortium will facilitate projects investigating rates and patterns of cognitive decline, risk factors for VCD, and biomarkers of vascular dementia. RESULTS: Currently, STROKOG includes 25 (21 published) studies, with 12,092 participants from five continents. The duration of follow-up ranges from 3 months to 21 years. DISCUSSION: Although data harmonization will be a key challenge, STROKOG is in a unique position to reuse and combine international cohort data and fully explore patient level characteristics and outcomes. STROKOG could potentially transform our understanding of VCD and have a worldwide impact on promoting better vascular cognitive outcomes.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 11: 717, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311794

RESUMO

Neuroimaging evidence from older stroke survivors in Nigeria and Northeast England showed medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA) to be independently associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the hypothesis ascribing MTLA to neurodegenerative processes, we assessed Alzheimer pathology in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex of autopsied brains from of post-stroke demented and non-demented subjects in comparison with controls and other dementias. We quantified markers of amyloid ß (total Aß, Aß-40, Aß-42, and soluble Aß) and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex of 94 subjects consisting of normal controls (n = 12), vascular dementia, VaD (17), post-stroke demented, PSD (n = 15), and post-stroke non-demented, PSND (n = 23), Alzheimer's disease, AD (n = 14), and mixed AD and vascular dementia, AD_VAD (n = 13) using immunohistochemical techniques. We found differential expression of amyloid and tau across the disease groups, and across hippocampal sub-regions. Among amyloid markers, the pattern of Aß-42 immunoreactivity was similar to that of total Aß. Tau immunoreactivity showed highest expression in the AD and mixed AD and vascular dementia, AD_VaD, which was higher than in control, post - stroke and VaD groups (p < 0.05). APOE ε4 allele positivity was associated with higher expression of amyloid and tau pathology in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of post-stroke cases (p < 0.05). Comparison between PSND and PSD revealed higher total Aß immunoreactivity in PSND compared to PSD in the CA1, subiculum and entorhinal cortex (p < 0.05) but no differences between PSND and PSD in Aß-42, Aß-40, soluble Aß or tau immunoreactivities (p > 0.05). Correlation of MMSE and CAMCOG scores with AD pathological measures showed lack of correlation with amyloid species although tau immunoreactivity demonstrated correlation with memory scores (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest hippocampal AD pathology does not necessarily differ between demented and non-demented post-stroke subjects. The dissociation of cognitive performance with hippocampal AD pathological burden suggests more dominant roles for non-Alzheimer neurodegenerative and / or other non-neurodegenerative substrates for dementia following stroke.

13.
eNeurologicalSci ; 4: 10-14, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27331144

RESUMO

The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol) and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily) and nurses (secondarily) with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task Force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.

14.
J Neurol Sci ; 366: 213-223, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27288810

RESUMO

The understanding of the genetic basis of neurological disorders has grown rapidly in the last two decades. Despite the genomic heterogeneity within African populations, large-scale candidate gene or linkage and exome studies are lacking. However, current knowledge on neurogenetics in African populations is limited and geographically very uneven. Isolated reports indicate the existence of autosomal dominant or recessive conditions incorporating cerebrovascular, movement, neuromuscular, seizure and motor neuron disorders in Africans. In addition, few African families with neurodegenerative disorders associated with dementia have been characterized in North, West and South Africa. The current insurgency in genomic research triggered by among others the Human Health and Heredity (H3) Africa Initiative indicates that there are unique opportunities to advance our knowledge and understanding of the influence of genomic variation on the pattern, presentations and prognosis of neurological disorders in Africa. These have enormous potential to unmask novel genes and molecular pathways germane to the neurobiology of brain disorders. It would facilitate the development of novel diagnostics, preventative and targeted treatments in the new paradigm of precision medicine. Nevertheless, it is crucial to strike a balance between effective traditional public health strategies and personalized genome based care. The translational barriers can be overcome through robust stakeholder engagement and sustainable multilevel, multigenerational and multidisciplinary capacity building and infrastructural development for genomic medicine in Africa.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etnologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , África , Fortalecimento Institucional , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia
15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 18(10): 1015-1021, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038071

RESUMO

Implementing complex clinical interventions is a key challenge in many global regions. Local communities play a necessary role in enhancing feasibility and strengthening adaptive issues in the design and implementation of stroke interventions in developing countries. Drawing on the knowledge of physicians, patients, and caregivers, the authors employed qualitative methods as a phase 1 strategy to explore the challenges of stroke management and improve the adaptability and efficient delivery of a multimodal preventive intervention for secondary stroke disease in Nigeria. A total of 22 individual interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals, as well as 12 focus groups with patients and caregivers. Findings revealed four operational domains to improve strategies for phase 2 implementation and intervention: (1) barriers influencing optimal adherence in stroke survivors, (2) patient health beliefs and perceptions of patient health beliefs by others, (3) adoption of the "patient report card," and (4) "medical action plan" and family management strategies.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Sobreviventes
16.
Brain ; 139(Pt 1): 242-58, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667280

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with disrupted end-feet juxtaposed to microvessels. To explore whether this was associated with the disrupted gliovascular interactions or blood-brain barrier damage, we assessed the co-localization of GFAP and AQP4 immunoreactivities in post-mortem brains from adult baboons with cerebral hypoperfusive injury, induced by occlusion of three major vessels supplying blood to the brain. Analysis of the frontal white matter in perfused brains from the animals surviving 1-28 days after occlusion revealed that the highest intensity of fibrinogen immunoreactivity was at 14 days. At this survival time point, we also noted strikingly similar redistribution of AQP4 and GFAP+ astrocytes transformed into clasmatodendrocytes. Our findings suggest novel associations between irreversible astrocyte injury and disruption of gliovascular interactions at the blood-brain barrier in the frontal white matter and cognitive impairment in elderly post-stroke survivors. We propose that clasmatodendrosis is another pathological substrate, linked to white matter hyperintensities and frontal white matter changes, which may contribute to post-stroke or small vessel disease dementia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Demência/complicações , Demência/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH , Papio anubis , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Substância Branca/irrigação sanguínea
17.
eNeurologicalSci ; 1(2): 38-45, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26640824

RESUMO

The economic and social costs of stroke to the society can be enormous. These costs can cause serious economic damage to both the individual and the nation. It is thus important to conduct a cost effectiveness analysis to indicate whether an intervention provides high value where its health benefits justify its costs. This study will provide evidence based on the costs of stroke with a view of improving intervention and treatments of stoke survivors in Nigeria. This study utilizes two types of economic evaluation methods - cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis - to determine the economic impact of Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) intervention. The study is conducted in four Nigerian hospitals where 400 patients are recruited to participate in the study. The cost-effectiveness of THRIVES post-discharge intervention is compared with the control Intervention scenario, which is the usual and customary care delivered at each health facility in terms of cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs). It is expected that successful implementation of the project would serve as a model of cost-effective quality stroke care for implementation.

18.
J Neurol Sci ; 359(1-2): 112-6, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26671098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa far outstrips the availability of skilled human resource to provide timely and efficient acute, rehabilitative and preventive services. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a short-term task-shifting stroke training program on the stroke knowledge of a cohort of Nigerian non-neurologist health workers (NNHWs). METHODS: Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, NNHWs drawn from 53 local government areas of Ogun and Oyo states participated in an intensive, multicomponent one-day stroke workshop. Stroke knowledge was evaluated before and after the training using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of a total of 210 NNHWs who participated in the session, 116 (55.2%) completed the pre-workshop questionnaire survey of stroke knowledge while 191 (91.0%) completed the post-workshop questionnaire survey. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of the age, gender and professional categories of the two groups. The participants' knowledge was significantly increased at the end of the training about stroke risk factors (p<0.001), stroke symptoms (p<0.001) and how stroke develops (p=0.009). The proportion of respondents who understood the FAST mnemonic increased from 10.3% before the training to 90.6% at the end of the training (p<0.001). The professional category of participants was associated with knowledge gain about swallowing test and thrombolysis. CONCLUSION: Our data support the effectiveness of stroke-specific task-shifting training for non-neurologist health workers in a low resource setting. Interim studies with intermediate outcomes are needed to show that improved knowledge results in better care despite resource limitation. Randomized controlled trials will be useful to confirm findings and translate knowledge improvement into practical intervention.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Ensino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 625, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging features associated with vascular cognitive impairment have not been examined in sub-Saharan Africans. We determined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with cognitive impairment in a sample of Nigerian stroke survivors. METHODS: Stroke survivors underwent brain MRI with standardized assessment of brain volumes and visual rating of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) at 3 months post-stroke. Demographic, clinical and psychometric assessments of global cognitive function, executive function, mental speed and memory were related to changes in structural MRI. RESULTS: In our pilot sample of 58 stroke survivors (60.1 ± 10.7 years old) MTA correlated significantly with age (r = 0.525), WMH (r = 0.461), memory (r = -0.702), executive function (r = -0.369) and general cognitive performance (r = -0.378). On univariate analysis, age >60 years (p = 0.016), low educational attainment (p < 0.001 to p < 0.003), total brain volume (p < 0.024 and p < 0.025) and MTA (p < 0.003 to p < 0.007) but not total WMH (p < 0.073, p = 0.610) were associated with cognitive outcome. In a two-step multivariate regression analysis, MTA (p < 0.035 and p < 0.016) and low educational attainment (p < 0.012 and p < 0.019) were sustained as independent statistical predictors of cognitive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Medial temporal lobe atrophy was a significant neuroimaging predictor of early post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in the Nigerian African stroke survivors. These observations have implications for a vascular basis of MTA in older stroke survivors among sub-Saharan Africans.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Atrofia/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Sobreviventes
20.
J Neurol Sci ; 346(1-2): 241-9, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25238666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa faces a potential epidemic of non-communicable diseases including stroke and dementia but little is known about the burden of stroke-related cognitive dysfunction. We assessed the baseline profile and factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in stroke survivors participating in the Cognitive Function After STroke (CogFAST) Nigeria Study. METHODS: We recruited 217 subjects (>45 years old) comprising 143 stroke survivors and 74 demographically matched stroke-free healthy controls. We obtained demographic, clinical and lifestyle information and assessed the cognitive status of the subjects at baseline three months after stroke. Standard neuropsychological tests included the Vascular Neuropsychological Battery, which assessed executive function/mental speed, memory, language, and visuospatial/visuoconstructive functioning. Cognitive impairment and dementia were defined based on the AHA/ASA VCI guidelines and the DSM IV criteria. RESULTS: Among the stroke survivors (mean ag e= 60.4+9.5 years, 43.4% female, mean number of years of education = 9.4+5.6 years, median modified Rankin score = 2), 57 (39.9%) had cognitive impairment no dementia while 12 (8.4%) were demented at baseline. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age [OR = 1.05 (1.00-1.09)], low education [OR = 5.09 (2.17-11.95)], pre-stroke cognitive decline [OR = 4.51 (1.20-16.88)] and medial temporal lobe atrophy [OR = 2.25 (1.16-4.35)] were independently associated with cognitive dysfunction whereas pre-stroke daily intake of fish [p = 0.022, OR = 0.39 (0.15-0.89)] was inversely associated. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a high frequency of early VCI in older Nigerian stroke survivors. Apart from aging, associated neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, educational level and pre-stroke diet particularly fish consumption were identified as modifiable factors. This emphasizes the vital role of education and healthy nutrition in building reserves to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction after stroke.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Dieta , Educação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico , Demência Vascular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Sobreviventes
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