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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 64, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of dementia is growing rapidly and has become a medical and social problem in Japan. Prospective cohort studies have been considered an effective methodology to clarify the risk factors and the etiology of dementia. We aimed to perform a large-scale dementia cohort study to elucidate environmental and genetic risk factors for dementia, as well as their interaction. METHODS: The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD) is a multisite, population-based prospective cohort study of dementia, which was designed to enroll approximately 10,000 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years or older from 8 sites in Japan and to follow them up prospectively for at least 5 years. Baseline exposure data, including lifestyles, medical information, diets, physical activities, blood pressure, cognitive function, blood test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DNA samples, were collected with a pre-specified protocol and standardized measurement methods. The primary outcome was the development of dementia and its subtypes. The diagnosis of dementia was adjudicated by an endpoint adjudication committee using standard criteria and clinical information according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Revised Edition. For brain MRI, three-dimensional acquisition of T1-weighted images was performed. Individual participant data were pooled for data analyses. RESULTS: The baseline survey was conducted from 2016 to 2018. The follow-up surveys are ongoing. A total of 11,410 individuals aged 65 years or older participated in the study. The mean age was 74.4 years, and 41.9% were male. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 8.5% in overall participants. However, it was 16.4% among three sites where additional home visit and/or nursing home visit surveys were performed. Approximately two-thirds of dementia cases at baseline were Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective cohort data from the JPSC-AD will provide valuable insights regarding the risk factors and etiology of dementia as well as for the development of predictive models and diagnostic markers for the future onset of dementia. The findings of this study will improve our understanding of dementia and provide helpful information to establish effective preventive strategies for dementia in Japan.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Demência/etiologia , Demência/genética , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nat Genet ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199917

RESUMO

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.

3.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1169-1177, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020668

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112920

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes in metamorphopsia after administering the treat-and-extend regimen of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for branch retinal vein occlusion-associated macular edema. We retrospectively examined 27 patients (27 eyes) with macula edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion who received intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents using the treat-and-extend regimen for ≥18 months. We evaluated best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, macular edema recurrence, and amount of metamorphopsia quantified by M-CHARTS. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution) and central macular thickness significantly improved at 18 months compared to baseline, the median value (interquartile range [IQR]), 0.30 (0.15-0.52) and 459 (373-542) µm at baseline, and 0 (-0.08-0.16) and 267 (232-306) µm at 18 months. The M-CHARTS score (the mean of vertical and horizontal scores) significantly decreased at 1, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline, but worsened at 18 month, the median value (IQR), 0.45 (0.250-0.925), 0.4 (0.15-0.70), 0.4 (0.150-0.625), 0.4 (0.225-0.550) and 0.45 (0.225-0.750) at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months, respectively. The median cumulative number of macular edema recurrences was 2 (IQR, 0.5-3.0) at 18 months. Simple linear regression and multivariate analyses revealed that the change in the mean M-CHARTS score at 18 months was significantly correlated with the baseline score and the cumulative number of macular edema recurrences. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy using the treat-and-extend regimen improved metamorphopsia in branch retinal vein occlusion-related macular edema in the short to mid-term follow-up period, but not in the long term. Macular edema recurrence may be associated with persistent metamorphopsia.

5.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Japan has been known as a super-aged society, and ageing is a well-known risk factor for blinding eye diseases. However, epidemiological studies in ophthalmology are still scarce in Japan, and the sizes of the cohorts are relatively small. "Ganka-Ekigaku Network" (GEN, an acronym for the epidemiological network in ophthalmology in Japanese) is established to develop a capacity to boost each epidemiological study and enrich a potential inter-study collaboration to identify risk factors of visual impairment in aged society. METHODS: We reviewed cohort studies in Japan with the inclusion criteria as: (1) at least n = 1000 at baseline, (2) multiple modalities of ophthalmic data, and (3) diagnosis reviewed by ophthalmologist(s), and (4) ophthalmologists are involved in the investigators group. As of January 2020, GEN includes 4 individual Japanese epidemiological studies namely, Hisayama study, Yamagata Study (Funagata), Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort study, and the Nagahama Prospective Genome Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience. RESULTS: GEN includes approximately 25,000 Japanese participants. The baseline surveys started from 1998 to 2012, and since then the data has been prospectively collected approximately every 5 years. A variety of ophthalmic measurements and other factors have been collected in each study in GEN: ophthalmic measurements (fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, etc.), systemic conditions (laboratory data, etc.), and others (DNA, etc.). CONCLUSION: GEN is an open platform for observational ophthalmic epidemiological studies to share standardized methodologies. While each study in GEN pursues specific and original research questions, standardization of the methods will enable us to conduct reliable meta-analysis/pooled data analyses.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(11): 30, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936303

RESUMO

Purpose: Retinal degeneration involves neuroinflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines are markedly increased in the eyes of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In this study, we investigated the changes of serum cytokines/chemokines in RP, and their relationships with visual parameters. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with typical RP aged 20 to -39 years and 28 age-matched and gender-matched controls were included. Fifteen cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, 1L-15, IL-17, IL-23, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, TNF-ß) and 9 chemokines (eotaxin, growth-related oncogene [GRO]-α, I-309, IL-8, IFN-γ-inducible protein [IP]-10, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, MCP-2, regulated activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], and thymus and activated regulated chemokine [TARC]) in the serum were simultaneously measured by a multiplexed immunoarray (Q-Plex). Relationships between these cytokines/chemokines and indices of central vision, such as visual acuity (VA), the values of static perimetry tests (Humphrey Field analyzer, the central 10-2 program), and optical coherence tomography measures were analyzed in the patients with RP. Results: Among the 15 cytokines and 9 chemokines, serum IL-8 and RANTES levels were significantly increased in patients with RP compared with controls (IL-8: P < 0.0001; RANTES: P < 0.0001). Among the elevated cytokines/chemokines, the levels of IL-8 were negatively correlated with VA (ρ = 0.3596 and P = 0.0165), and the average retinal sensitivity of four central points (ρ = -0.3691 and P = 0.0291), and 12 central points (ρ = -0.3491 and P = 0.0398), as well as the central subfield thickness (ρ = -0.3961 and P = 0.0094), and ellipsoid zone width (ρ = -0.3841 and P = 0.0120). Conclusions: Peripheral inflammatory response may be activated and serum IL-8 levels are associated with central vision in patients with RP.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948838

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with complex traits, including a wide variety of diseases. Despite the successful identification of associated loci, interpreting GWAS findings remains challenging and requires other biological resources. Omics, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics, are increasingly used in a broad range of research fields. Integrative analyses applying GWAS with these omics data are expected to expand our knowledge of complex traits and provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex diseases and their causative factors. Recently, associations between genetic variants and omics data have been comprehensively evaluated, providing new information on the influence of genetic variants on omics. Furthermore, recent advances in analytic methods, including single-cell technologies, have revealed previously unknown disease mechanisms. To advance our understanding of complex traits, integrative analysis using GWAS with multi-omics data is needed. In this review, I describe successful examples of integrative analyses based on omics and GWAS, discuss the limitations of current multi-omics analyses, and provide a perspective on future integrative studies.

8.
Cell ; 182(5): 1198-1213.e14, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888493

RESUMO

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10-9, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.

9.
Cell ; 182(5): 1214-1231.e11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888494

RESUMO

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.

10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(10): 6, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749464

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the relationship between the macular curvature and the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: We examined the medical records of the right eyes of 65 cases with RP (31 men and 34 women; average age, 47.6 years). There were 31 cases with the EYS variants, 11 cases with the USH2A variants, six cases with the RPGR variants, 13 cases with the RP1 variants, and four cases with the RP1L1 variants. The mean curvature of Bruch's membrane was calculated within 6 mm of the fovea as the mean macular curvature index (MMCI, 1/µm). We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine the independence of the causative genes contributing to the MMCIs after adjustments for age, sex, axial length, and width of the ellipsoid zone. Results: The median MMCI was -31.2 × 10-5/µm for the RPGR eyes, -16.5 × 10-5/µm for the RP1L1 eyes, -13.0 × 10-5/µm for the RP1 eyes, -9.8 × 10-5/µm for the EYS eyes, and -9.0 × 10-5/µm for the USH2A eyes. Compared with the EYS gene as the reference gene, the RPGR gene was significantly related to the MMCI values after adjusting for the other parameters (P = 5.30 × 10-6). In contrast, the effects of the other genes, USH2A, RP1, and RP1L1, were not significantly different from that of the EYS gene (P = 0.26, P = 0.49, and P = 0.92, respectively). Conclusions: The RPGR gene had a stronger effect on the steep macular curvature than the other ciliopathy-related genes.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3175, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581250

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10-9), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 60-71, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533944

RESUMO

Adult height is one of the earliest putative examples of polygenic adaptation in humans. However, this conclusion was recently challenged because residual uncorrected stratification from large-scale consortium studies was considered responsible for the previously noted genetic difference. It thus remains an open question whether height loci exhibit signals of polygenic adaptation in any human population. We re-examined this question, focusing on one of the shortest European populations, the Sardinians, in addition to mainland European populations. We utilized height-associated loci from the Biobank Japan (BBJ) dataset to further alleviate concerns of biased ascertainment of GWAS loci and showed that the Sardinians remain significantly shorter than expected under neutrality (∼0.22 standard deviation shorter than Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe [CEU] on the basis of polygenic height scores, p = 3.89 × 10-4). We also found the trajectory of polygenic height scores between the Sardinian and the British populations diverged over at least the last 10,000 years (p = 0.0082), consistent with a signature of polygenic adaptation driven primarily by the Sardinian population. Although the polygenic score-based analysis showed a much subtler signature in mainland European populations, we found a clear and robust adaptive signature in the UK population by using a haplotype-based statistic, the trait singleton density score (tSDS), driven by the height-increasing alleles (p = 9.1 × 10-4). In summary, by ascertaining height loci in a distant East Asian population, we further supported the evidence of polygenic adaptation at height-associated loci among the Sardinians. In mainland Europeans, the adaptive signature was detected in haplotype-based analysis but not in polygenic score-based analysis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Estatura/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Itália , Japão , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética/genética
13.
Nature ; 584(7819): 130-135, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581364

RESUMO

The extent to which the biology of oncogenesis and ageing are shaped by factors that distinguish human populations is unknown. Haematopoietic clones with acquired mutations become common with advancing age and can lead to blood cancers1-10. Here we describe shared and population-specific patterns of genomic mutations and clonal selection in haematopoietic cells on the basis of 33,250 autosomal mosaic chromosomal alterations that we detected in 179,417 Japanese participants in the BioBank Japan cohort and compared with analogous data from the UK Biobank. In this long-lived Japanese population, mosaic chromosomal alterations were detected in more than 35.0% (s.e.m., 1.4%) of individuals older than 90 years, which suggests that such clones trend towards inevitability with advancing age. Japanese and European individuals exhibited key differences in the genomic locations of mutations in their respective haematopoietic clones; these differences predicted the relative rates of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (which is more common among European individuals) and T cell leukaemia (which is more common among Japanese individuals) in these populations. Three different mutational precursors of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (including trisomy 12, loss of chromosomes 13q and 13q, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) were between two and six times less common among Japanese individuals, which suggests that the Japanese and European populations differ in selective pressures on clones long before the development of clinically apparent chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Japanese and British populations also exhibited very different rates of clones that arose from B and T cell lineages, which predicted the relative rates of B and T cell cancers in these populations. We identified six previously undescribed loci at which inherited variants predispose to mosaic chromosomal alterations that duplicate or remove the inherited risk alleles, including large-effect rare variants at NBN, MRE11 and CTU2 (odds ratio, 28-91). We suggest that selective pressures on clones are modulated by factors that are specific to human populations. Further genomic characterization of clonal selection and cancer in populations from around the world is therefore warranted.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Genoma Humano/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Mutação , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Linhagem da Célula , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Leucemia de Células T/genética , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reino Unido
14.
Nature ; 582(7811): 240-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499647

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 240 loci that are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D)1,2; however, most of these loci have been identified in analyses of individuals with European ancestry. Here, to examine T2D risk in East Asian individuals, we carried out a meta-analysis of GWAS data from 77,418 individuals with T2D and 356,122 healthy control individuals. In the main analysis, we identified 301 distinct association signals at 183 loci, and across T2D association models with and without consideration of body mass index and sex, we identified 61 loci that are newly implicated in predisposition to T2D. Common variants associated with T2D in both East Asian and European populations exhibited strongly correlated effect sizes. Previously undescribed associations include signals in or near GDAP1, PTF1A, SIX3, ALDH2, a microRNA cluster, and genes that affect the differentiation of muscle and adipose cells3. At another locus, expression quantitative trait loci at two overlapping T2D signals affect two genes-NKX6-3 and ANK1-in different tissues4-6. Association studies in diverse populations identify additional loci and elucidate disease-associated genes, biology, and pathways.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Alelos , Anquirinas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
15.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 669-679, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514122

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10-9). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Japão , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(3): e002670, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies provided many biological insights into coronary artery disease (CAD), but these studies were mainly performed in Europeans. Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations have the potential to advance our understanding of CAD. METHODS: We conducted 2 genome-wide association studies for CAD in the Japanese population, which included 12 494 cases and 28 879 controls and 2808 cases and 7261 controls, respectively. Then, we performed transethnic meta-analysis using the results of the coronary artery disease genome-wide replication and meta-analysis plus the coronary artery disease 1000 Genomes meta-analysis with UK Biobank. We then explored the pathophysiological significance of these novel loci and examined the differences in CAD-susceptibility loci between Japanese and Europeans. RESULTS: We identified 3 new loci on chromosome 1q21 (CTSS), 10q26 (WDR11-FGFR2), and 11q22 (RDX-FDX1). Quantitative trait locus analyses suggested the association of CTSS and RDX-FDX1 with atherosclerotic immune cells. Tissue/cell type enrichment analysis showed the involvement of arteries, adrenal glands, and fat tissues in the development of CAD. We next compared the odds ratios of lead variants for myocardial infarction at 76 genome-wide significant loci in the transethnic meta-analysis and a moderate correlation between Japanese and Europeans, where 8 loci showed a difference. Finally, we performed tissue/cell type enrichment analysis using East Asian-frequent and European-frequent variants according to the risk allele frequencies and identified significant enrichment of adrenal glands in the East Asian-frequent group while the enrichment of arteries and fat tissues was found in the European-frequent group. These findings indicate biological differences in CAD susceptibility between Japanese and Europeans. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 3 new loci for CAD and highlighted the genetic differences between the Japanese and European populations. Moreover, our transethnic analyses showed both shared and unique genetic architectures between the Japanese and Europeans. While most of the underlying genetic bases for CAD are shared, further analyses in diverse populations will be needed to elucidate variations fully.

18.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 542-548, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251405

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are poised to be translated into clinical practice through prediction of inborn health risks1, a strategy to utilize genetics to prioritize modifiable risk factors driving heath outcome is warranted2. To this end, we investigated the association of the genetic susceptibility to complex traits with human lifespan in collaboration with three worldwide biobanks (ntotal = 675,898; BioBank Japan (n = 179,066), UK Biobank (n = 361,194) and FinnGen (n = 135,638)). In contrast to observational studies, in which discerning the cause-and-effect can be difficult, PRSs could help to identify the driver biomarkers affecting human lifespan. A high systolic blood pressure PRS was trans-ethnically associated with a shorter lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.03[1.02-1.04], Pmeta = 3.9 × 10-13) and parental lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.06[1.06-1.07], P = 2.0 × 10-86). The obesity PRS showed distinct effects on lifespan in Japanese and European individuals (Pheterogeneity = 9.5 × 10-8 for BMI). The causal effect of blood pressure and obesity on lifespan was further supported by Mendelian randomization studies. Beyond genotype-phenotype associations, our trans-biobank study offers a new value of PRSs in prioritization of risk factors that could be potential targets of medical treatment to improve population health.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Longevidade/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 215: 135-140, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the genetic variants associated with the onset and progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). DESIGN: Case-control genetic association study. METHODS: Japanese POAG patients (n = 505) and control subjects (n = 246) were genotyped for 22 genetic variants predisposing to POAG that can be classified into those associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation (IOP-related genetic variants) and optic nerve vulnerability independent of IOP (non-IOP-related genetic variants). The total number of risk alleles of the 17 IOP-related and 5 non-IOP-related genetic variants were calculated as the genetic risk score (GRS), and the associations between the GRS and family history of glaucoma as an indicator of POAG onset and age at the diagnosis of glaucoma as an indicator of POAG progression were evaluated. RESULTS: There was a significant association (P = .014; odds ratio 1.26 per GRS) between the non-IOP-related GRS, but not IOP-related GRS, and a family history of glaucoma in POAG. As the non-IOP-related GRS increased, the risk of a family history of glaucoma increased. In contrast, a significant association (P = .0014; ß = -0.14) was found between the IOP-related GRS, but not non-IOP-related GRS, and age at the diagnosis of glaucoma. As the IOP-related GRS increased, age at the diagnosis of glaucoma decreased. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that non-IOP-related (optic nerve vulnerability) rather than IOP-related (IOP elevation) genetic variants may play an important role in the onset of POAG (family history of glaucoma) and that IOP-related rather than non-IOP-related genetic variants may play an important role in its progression (age at the diagnosis of glaucoma).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Pressão Intraocular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in 18-month old (corrected age) preterm infants who received an intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection for the treatment of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: In this ten-year retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent ROP screening at Kyushu University Hospital. Among the patients who received IVB or laser photocoagulation (LPC) for the treatment of type 1 ROP, we included infants whose neurodevelopmental examination (the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development [KSPD]) results at 18 months corrected age were available. Then, the effect of IVB on the developmental quotient (DQ) in each KSPD domain (Postural-Movement, Cognitive-Adaptive, or Language-Social domain) or the overall DQ was investigated by performing linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Out of the 513 patients reviewed, 53 were included in the study. IVB and LPC were performed for 14 and 39 patients, respectively. Administration of IVB was significantly associated with neurodevelopmental delay in the Language-Social domain (p = 0.01). The observed association remained even after adjusting for gestational age and birth weight (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of IVB may introduce a risk of developmental impairment of interpersonal relationships, socializations, and/or verbal abilities of preterm children. We recommended that preterm infants who received IVB undergo a neurodevelopmental reassessment during their school years or in adulthood.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/patologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Injeções Intravítreas , Japão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Análise Multivariada , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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