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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125479, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505418

RESUMO

1-o-Galloylglycerol (GG) was synthesized by the enzymatic glycerolysis of propyl gallate (PG) using a food-grade lipase (Lipozyme® 435). The reaction conditions affecting the yield of GG were optimized and a yield of 76.9% ±â€¯1.2% was obtained. GG was characterized by various techniques after being separated from the reaction mixture using liquid-liquid extraction. The water solubility and hydrophilicity of GG were significantly higher than those of gallic acid (GA) and PG. The antioxidant properties, measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assays, showed that GG exhibited the highest scavenging capacity (GG > GA > PG). From the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) assays, GG and GA exhibited greater scavenging capacity than PG (GG = GA > PG). These results suggest that GG may be used as a water-soluble antioxidant alternative to GA for food and cosmetic applications.

2.
Food Chem ; : 125868, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767484

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of herring roe phospholipids (PLs) on the oxidative stability of cod liver oil during storage. The effect of PLs on the oxidative stability of cod liver oil was assessed in terms of peroxide value, free fatty acids, secondary oxidation products and pyrrolisation. The results show that the PV was lower in cod liver oil containing PLs (P < 0.05) than in the control without PLs. Benzaldehyde, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-methyl-2-pentenal, 1-penten-3-ol and 3-methylbutanal were the main volatiles. In addition, significant pyrrolisation was observed after 28 days when PLs were added to cod liver oil. The results suggested that cod liver oil with dispersed PLs was oxidized during storage followed by non-enzymatic browning reactions. The findings indicated that the ratio between pyrroles formed and α-tocopherol may influence the formation of new peroxides and secondary oxidation products.

3.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1390-1399, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107548

RESUMO

Oleogels were produced using a phytosterol blend of ß-sitosterol/γ-oryzanol or a blend of sucrose stearate/ascorbyl palmitate (SSAP) as oleogelators. Four lipid phases were compared in oleogel formation for each oleogelator blend: menhaden oil, structured lipid (SL) of menhaden oil and 30 mol% caprylic acid (SL-C), SL of menhaden oil and 20 mol% stearic acid (SL-S), and SL of menhaden oil and 14 mol% each of caprylic and stearic acid (SL-CS). All SLs were produced enzymatically using a recombinant lipase from Candida antarctica as the biocatalyst. Menhaden oil, SL, phytosterol, or SSAP oleogels were evaluated as alternatives to shortening in the preparation of yellow cake in terms of batter and cake physicochemical properties. The shortening, phytosterol, and SSAP oleogel batters exhibited statistically similar specific gravities (0.85). The shortening, and menhaden oil phytosterol and SSAP oleogel batters, exhibited similar Power-Law values (n: 0.78, k: 31 Pa sn ), while all SL (and respective oleogels) batters typically had lower flow index values (n: 0.68 to 0.72), and higher consistency index values (k: 45 to 79 Pa sn ). All SL (and respective oleogels) cakes exhibited lower hardness (5 to 8 N) and chewiness (4 to 6 N) than the shortening cake (12 N, 9 N). Menhaden oil and SL-S phytosterol oleogel cakes, and SL-CS SSAP oleogel cake, showed similar textural properties to the shortening cake. Both phytosterol and SSAP oleogels were acceptable as zero trans-fat substitutes for shortening in yellow cake. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The oleogels in this study may be a suitable replacement for shortening in yellow cake. These oleogels, which contain health beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have the potential to lower consumer consumption of total saturated fat when used in foods.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Substitutos da Gordura , Ácidos Graxos , Óleos de Peixe , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fitosteróis , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Caprilatos , Análise de Alimentos , Géis , Compostos Orgânicos , Fenilpropionatos , Sitosteroides , Ácidos Esteáricos
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(6): 559-566, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092793

RESUMO

The effects of four different frying oils and three emulsifiers on oil absorption by steam-and-fried instant noodles were evaluated. The blended oil (high oleic sunflower oil/soybean oil/palm oil = 24:25:1 (v/v/v)) containing approximately 50% oleic acid was chosen as the proper frying oil due to lower oil absorption by instant noodle compared to palm, soybean, and high oleic sunflower oils. Among the four oils, the interfacial tension between high oleic sunflower oil and instant noodle was the lowest (0.073 mN/m), resulting in the highest oil uptake (15.47%), while the lowest interfacial tension (0.30 mN/m) between blended oil and instant noodle resulted in the lowest oil uptake by the fried product (12.63%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to observe surface properties and oil distribution. The instant noodle fried in blended oil was found to have uniform oil distribution and smooth surface. After selecting the proper frying oil, three emulsifiers (soybean lecithin, Tween-80, Span-80, at 0.2% (v/v)) were added to the blended frying oil. Adding emulsifier into frying oil significantly decreased the interfacial tension between frying oil and instant noodle. Among the three emulsifiers, addition of soybean lecithin resulted in the lowest interfacial tension (0.010 mN/m) and the highest oil uptake (18.36%). Therefore, from this study, we do not recommend adding emulsifier into frying oil.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Emulsificantes , Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Palmeira , Óleo de Soja , Óleo de Girassol , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Hexoses/efeitos adversos , Lecitinas/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Polissorbatos/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensão Superficial
5.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 10: 541-568, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673506

RESUMO

Driven by a general demand for clean labels on food and cosmetic products, these industries are currently searching for efficient natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants. Seaweed contains several compounds with antioxidative properties (phlorotannins, pigments, tocopherols, and polysaccharides). It is possible to extract these compounds via different extraction techniques, which are discussed in this review. Among the abovementioned compounds, phlorotannins are probably the most important in terms of the antioxidative potential of seaweed extracts. We review how the different antioxidative compounds can be characterized. We discuss the current knowledge of the relationship between phlorotannin's structure and antioxidant properties in in vitro studies as well as in food systems. Concerning food systems, most studies on the antioxidative effect of seaweed extracts have been performed with extracts prepared from Fucus vesiculosus, despite the fact that this species is less available than other species, such as Ascophyllum nodosum, which also has high phlorotannin content.

6.
Food Chem ; 276: 110-118, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409573

RESUMO

The physical and oxidative stability of high-fat omega-3 delivery systems such as fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (CAS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was optimized. The influence of fish oil content (50, 60 and 70%, w/w), amount of total emulsifier CAS + PC (1.4, 2.1 and 2.8%, w/w) and ratio between CAS and PC (0.4, 1.2 and 2) on physical and oxidative parameters was investigated. Creaming and droplet size significantly decreased when the amount of fish oil, total emulsifier and ratio of CAS to PC were increased. Viscosity decreased significantly with decreasing fish oil content, whereas the ratio of CAS to PC did not have a significant influence. Decreasing the ratio of CAS to PC led to emulsions with a significantly lower concentration of 1-penten-3-ol, while no significant effect was found for other volatiles such as (E)-2-pentenal, (E)-2-hexenal and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Emulsificantes , Emulsões/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Fosfatidilcolinas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Oxirredução , Viscosidade , Água/química
7.
Food Funct ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516201

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to produce organogels using two different organogelator blends and two different oil substrates and compare their physicochemical properties. A medium-long-medium (MLM)-type structured lipid (SL) containing 37.44 mol% MLM-type triacylglycerols (TAG) was produced by enzymatic modification of menhaden oil with ethyl caprate. Menhaden oil and SL were used as oil substrates to form organogels. One organogel was formed using a phytosterol blend of ß-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol (molar ratios of 2 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 2 at 4, 6, and 8% (w/w) in oil), and another was formed with a blend of sucrose stearate (HLB value: 2) and ascorbyl palmitate (SSAP) (molar ratios of 3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3 at 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) in oil). Organogels were formed for all ratios except 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 for the phytosterol and SSAP blend, respectively. For both organogels, the 1 : 1 molar ratio was optimal. This ratio produced organogels with higher melting completion temperatures than menhaden oil and SL (13.6 and 14.3 °C). The SSAP blend had higher melting completion temperatures (72.3 and 72.4 °C) than the phytosterol blend (69.2 and 68.4 °C) for organogels formed using menhaden oil and SL, respectively. All 1 : 1 molar ratio blends exhibited ß' polymorphic form with short spacing peaks at 4.20, 3.97, and 3.71 Å. All organogels improved the oxidative stability of the menhaden oil and SL. These organogels have the potential for use as nutraceuticals or health beneficial low saturated fat alternatives to saturated and/or trans-fats.

8.
J Food Sci ; 83(11): 2692-2696, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412306
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 67(10): 1299-1306, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210074

RESUMO

This study used a rice bran oil solid fat fraction (RBOSF) to produce cocoa butter alternatives via interesterification reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme® RM IM) in hexane. Effects of reaction time (6, 12, and 18 h), temperature (55, 60, and 65°C), mole ratios of 3 substrates [RBOSF:palm olein:C18:0 donors (1:1:2, 1:2:3, and 1:2:6)] were determined. The substrate system was dissolved in 3 mL of hexane and 10% of lipase was added. Two sources of C18:0 donors, stearic acid (SAd) and ethyl stearate (ESd) were used. Pancreatic lipase - catalyzed sn-2 positional analysis was also performed on both substrates and structured lipids (interesterification products). Structured lipids (SL) were analyzed by gas - liquid chromatography (G40.35LC) for fatty acid composition. Major fatty acids of RBOSF were C18:1, oleic acid (OA, 41.15±0.01%), C18:2, linoleic acid (LA, 30.05±0.01%) and C16:0, palmitic acid (PA, 22.64±0.01%), respectively. A commercial raw cocoa butter (CB) contained C18:0, stearic acid (SA, 33.13±0.04%), OA (32.52±0.03%), and PA (28.90±0.01%), respectively. Fatty acids at sn-2 position of RBOSF were OA (46.52±0.63%) and LA (42.98±1.1%), while major fatty acid at sn-2 position of CB was OA (85.24±1.22%). The RBOSF had low SA (2.40±0.01%) compared to CB (33.13±0.04%). The content of OA (46.52±0.63%) at sn-2 position in RBOSF was half of that found in CB (85.24±1.22%). Optimal reaction was 1:2:6 mole ratio of the substrate (RBOSF:PO:SAd), at 65°C for 12 h. Fatty acid compositions of the SL were 31.72±0.99% SA, 30.91±0.53% LA, 23.18±0.32% OA, and 13.26±0.34% PA, respectively. Fatty acids at sn-2 position of the SL were 53.72±4.21% OA, 25.11±3.69% LA, 14.18±1.58% PA, and 6.99±0.02% SA, respectively. DSC curves showed the melting point of CB at 20.94°C, while those of the SL were 14.15 and 40.35°C, respectively. The melting completion temperature (Tmc) of CB was 25.5°C while that of SL was 43.9°C, respectively.


Assuntos
Lipase/química , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Catálise , Esterificação , Hexanos/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Lipídeos/química , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Estearatos/química , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura de Transição
10.
Food Funct ; 9(3): 1747-1754, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497729

RESUMO

Breast milk consumption reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants compared to formula. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are present in breast milk but not in most formulas intended for preterm infants. We aimed to determine the composition of BCFAs in the breast milk of mothers with preterm infants, and to understand the impact of gestational age at birth and stage of lactation on BCFA content. The main BCFAs in preterm breast milk were iso-14:0, iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0, and anteiso-17:0. Breast milk BCFAs as a percent of total fatty acids (g per 100 g, %) were significantly different across lactation stages, with the highest concentration in colostrum, followed by transitional and mature breast milk (median: 0.41, 0.31, and 0.28%, respectively, p < 0.05). Lower BCFAs in preterm breast milk compared to term breast milk may have been related to maternal intake, or the ability of the mammary gland to extract BCFA from plasma, or differences in mammary gland BCFA synthesis. BCFAs were mainly in the sn-2 position (52-65%), similar to palmitic acid. Overall, preterm and term breast milk BCFAs were similar and showed specific concentration patterns, resembling 16:0 with respect to sn-2 positional distribution. BCFAs were reduced with lactation stage, similar to highly unsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/metabolismo , Lactação , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Gravidez
11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-8, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337601

RESUMO

Mango kernel fat (MKF) has been reported to have high functional and nutritional potential. However, its application in food industry has not been fully explored or developed. In this review, the chemical compositions, physical properties and potential health benefits of MKF are described. MKF is a unique fat consisting of 28.9-65.0% of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol with excellent oxidative stability index (58.8-85.2 h at 110 °C), making the fat and its fractions suitable for use as high-value added food ingredients such as cocoa butter alternatives, trans-free shortenings, and a source of natural antioxidants (e.g., sterol, tocopherol and squalene). Unfortunately, the long period of dehydration of mango kernels at hot temperature results in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols. The high levels of hydrolysates (mainly free fatty acids and diacylglycerols) limit the application of MKF in manufacturing these food ingredients. It is suggested that the physico-chemical and functional properties of MKF could be further improved through moderated refining (e.g., degumming and physical deacidification), fractionation, and interesterification.

12.
Food Chem ; 245: 806-811, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287445

RESUMO

The research aims to study phospholipids (PL) classes and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Both gas chromatographymass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were utilized to analyze and identify the PLs fatty acids compositions and classes in the P. crocea roe, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) account for 35.0% and 6.9% of the PLs. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylinositols (PI) account for 76.36 ±â€¯0.62%, 12.30 ±â€¯0.55%, 9.12 ±â€¯0.02% and 1.09 ±â€¯0.01% of the total PLs, respectively. In addition, the PLs molecular species were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 92 PLs molecular species was identified, including 49 PCs, 13 PEs, 10 phosphatidic acids (PAs), 13 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 3 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), 2 sphingomyelins (SMs), and 2 PIs of the P. crocea roe.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ovos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Fosfatidilinositóis/análise , Fosfatidilserinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Esfingomielinas/análise
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 66(4): 337-344, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239058

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to discriminate the geographic origin of Korean, Chinese, and Indian sesame oils distributed in Korea using 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). 1H NMR spectra were obtained from 84 roasted oil samples prepared from 51 Korean, 19 Chinese, and 14 Indian sesame seeds. The integration values of 26 peaks observed in the NMR spectra were determined and normalized on the basis of the peak derived from the terminal CH3 of the fatty acids (0.7446-1.0445 ppm). The variables selected for the CDA include the integration value of one peak (2.7208-2.8533 ppm) that signifies the CH2 between two C=C bonds from linoleic acid and the integration values of three peaks (2.9811-3.1151 ppm, 3.5914-3.6819 ppm, and 5.9471-5.9625 ppm) attributed to the protons of sesamolin. The CDA results showed that 80 of the 84 oil samples and five of the six additional commercial sesame oil samples were correctly classified based on their production site. This study demonstrated that 1H NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool to simultaneously analyze the relative abundance of linoleic acid and sesamolin in the sesame oils and good discrimination between the three Asian sesame oils could be achieved when the 1H NMR analytical data were used in combination with CDA.


Assuntos
Óleo de Gergelim/análise , China , Dioxóis/análise , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Índia , Coreia (Geográfico) , Lignanas/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
14.
J Food Sci ; 81(12): C2923-C2931, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802575

RESUMO

A glucose-cysteine Maillard reaction product (MRP) was produced and its antioxidant effects on lipid oxidation were determined for a structured-lipid enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids in a complex emulsion. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) were determined for MRP heating intervals of 2, 4, and 6 h and were compared to α-tocopherol (TOC), MRP with TOC (TOC-MRP), and TOC with ascorbyl palmitate (TOC-AP). Emulsions were produced with total antioxidant additions of 0.02% of the oil, and lipid oxidation was monitored by peroxide and p-anisidine values over 56 d. Positive correlations between browning and heating time as well as TEAC were observed. Total TEAC values for the MRP at 6 h, TOC, TOC with the MRP at 6 h, and TOC-AP were 2.51, 3.87, 2.68, and 2.76 mg trolox eq/g, respectively. Oxidation results indicated a possible antioxidant effect for the MRP at 6 h on secondary oxidation for days 14 to 28. These results suggest that the MRP at 6 h could be useful in inhibiting secondary oxidation in complex emulsions.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Cromanos/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Emulsões , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Alimentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Peróxidos/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/química
15.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 7: 139-65, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26934172

RESUMO

Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Gorduras/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite Humano/química , Necessidades Nutricionais/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Gorduras/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Política Nutricional , Ácido Palmítico
16.
Food Chem ; 199: 524-32, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26776004

RESUMO

The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h. Relationships between the extent of browning, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the total oxidation (TOTOX) of encapsulated SDASO were fitted to quadratic models. The [GE-GA-MD] blends exhibited higher browning rates and TEAC values than corresponding [GE-GA] blends. Depending on the type of biopolymer blend and dry-heating time, TOTOX values of SDASO in MRP-derived microcapsules were 29-87% lower than that of the non-crosslinked control after 30 days of storage.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Antioxidantes , Cápsulas , Composição de Medicamentos , Reação de Maillard
17.
J Food Sci ; 80(11): H2578-84, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26408984

RESUMO

Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), and gamma-linolenic (GLA) acids were produced using refined olive oil, tripalmitin, and ethyl esters of DHA single cell oil and GLA ethyl esters. Immobilized Lipozyme TL IM lipase was used as the biocatalyst. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, solid fat content, oxidative stability index, and melting and crystallization profiles and compared to physical blend of substrates, extracted fat from commercial infant formula (IFF), and milk fat. 49.28 mol% of palmitic acid was found at the sn-2 position of SL TAG and total DHA and GLA composition were 0.73 and 5.00 mol%, respectively. The total oleic acid content was 36.13 mol% which was very close to the 30.49% present in commercial IFF. Comparable solid fat content profiles were also found between SLs and IFF. The SLs produced have potential for use in infant formulas.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise
18.
J Food Sci ; 80(8): C1713-24, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189491

RESUMO

Structured lipids (SLs) are lipids that have been chemically or enzymatically modified from their natural biosynthetic form. Because SLs are made to possess desired nutritional, physicochemical, or textural properties for various applications in the food industry, many research activities have been aimed at their commercialization. The production of SLs by enzymatic procedures has a great potential in the future market because of the specificity of lipases and phospholipases used as the biocatalysts. The aim of this review is to provide concise information on the recent research trends on the enzymatic synthesis of SLs of commercial interest, such as medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols, human milk fat substitutes, cocoa butter equivalents, trans-free or low-trans plastic fats (such as margarines and shortenings), low-calorie fats/oils, health-beneficial fatty acid-rich fats/oils, mono- or diacylglycerols, and structurally modified phospholipids. This limited review covers 108 research articles published between 2010 and 2014 which were searched in Web of Science.


Assuntos
Substitutos da Gordura/síntese química , Lipase/química , Fosfolipases/química , Cacau/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Gorduras na Dieta/síntese química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Margarina , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/síntese química , Triglicerídeos/química
19.
Food Chem ; 178: 1-9, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704676

RESUMO

The effect of permitted antioxidants, including α-tocopherol, ß-carotene, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and their combinations, on the lipid oxidation of structured lipid (SL)-based infant formula (IF) was evaluated. The 3.5% oil-in-water IF emulsion was formulated with a human milk fat analogue enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and stearidonic acid, and the antioxidants were added at 0.005% and 0.02% of the oil. The peroxide value, anisidine value, and hexanal concentration of emulsion samples were measured over a 28-day period. The results showed that whether a compound exhibited antioxidant behavior depended on its mechanism of action, polarity, concentration, and environmental conditions. The most effective antioxidant was ascorbyl palmitate at 0.005%, and a synergistic antioxidant effect was found between α-tocopherol and ß-carotene. A high correlation was observed between anisidine value and hexanal content. Our findings have important implications for the successful incorporation of SL into IF products for infant nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/metabolismo , Emulsões , Humanos , Lactente , Oxirredução
20.
Food Chem ; 168: 504-11, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25172741

RESUMO

The abilities of annatto and palm tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRFs), as natural antioxidants, to inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil and structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion, were evaluated and compared. The peroxide and anisidine values of the bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsion samples stored at 37°C were measured over a 28-day period. The results showed that annatto TRF was a more effective antioxidant than palm TRF and α-tocopherol in both food systems at 0.02% and 0.05%. Factors, including structural differences in chromanol head and isoprenoid tail, polarity, concentration, oxidation time, and the method used to monitor lipid oxidation, were responsible for the different behaviours of tocopherols and tocotrienols. In contrast to the reported findings in vivo, addition of α-tocopherol (0-75%) did not interfere with the antioxidant activity of tocopherol-free annatto TRF in foods. Our findings may lead to the development of new natural antioxidant products for food applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Bixaceae/química , Carotenoides/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Tocotrienóis/química , Cromanos/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Emulsões , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Oxirredução , Óleo de Palmeira , Tocoferóis/química
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