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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110445

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol, substance use, and mental health disorders constitute major public health issues worldwide, including in low income and lower middle-income countries, and early initiation of use is an important predictor for developing substance use disorders in later life. This study reports on the existence of childhood alcohol abuse and dependence in a sub-study of a trial cohort in Eastern Uganda. Methods: The project SeeTheChild-Mental Child Health in Uganda (STC) included a sub-study of the Ugandan site of the study PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso. PROMISE SB was a follow-up study of a trial birth cohort (PROMISE EBF) that estimated the effect that peer counselling for exclusive breast-feeding had on the children's cognitive functioning and mental health once they reached 5-8 years of age. The STC sub-study (N = 148) used the diagnostic tool MINI-KID to assess mental health conditions in children who scored medium and high (≥ 14) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the PROMISE SB cohort N = (119/148; 80.4%). Another 29/148 (19.6%) were recruited from the PROMISE SB cohort as a comparator with low SDQ scores (< 14). Additionally, the open-ended questions in the diagnostic history were analysed. The MINI-KID comprised diagnostic questions on alcohol abuse and dependence, and descriptive data from the sub-study are presented in this paper. Results: A total of 11/148 (7.4%) children scored positive for alcohol abuse and dependence in this study, 10 of whom had high SDQ scores (≥ 14). The 10 children with SDQ-scores ≥ 14 had a variety of mental health comorbidities of which suicidality 3/10 (30.0%) and separation anxiety disorder 5/10 (50.0%) were the most common. The one child with an SDQ score below 14 did not have any comorbidities. Access to homemade brew, carer's knowledge of the drinking, and difficult household circumstances were issues expressed in the children's diagnostic histories. Conclusions: The discovery of alcohol abuse and dependence among 5-8 year olds in clinical interviews from a community based trial cohort was unexpected, and we recommend continued research and increased awareness of these conditions in this age group.Trial registration Trial registration for PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01882335), 20 June 2013. Regrettably, there was a 1 month delay in the registration compared to the commenced re-inclusion in the follow-up study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01882335?term=saving+brains&draw=2&rank=1.

2.
Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 44(1): 11-18, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995628

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Short pregnancy intervals can contribute to maternal and child morbidity and mortality. No previous research has explored factors associated with short pregnancy intervals among young women in Uganda, where adolescent pregnancy and short birth intervals are common. METHODS: Data on 626 married or cohabiting women aged 15-22 with one or two previous pregnancies were drawn from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine characteristics associated with rapid repeat pregnancy, defined in two ways: a pregnancy occurring within 24 months or 12 months of a prior pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Among women, 74% and 37% had experienced a rapid repeat pregnancy within 24 months and 12 months, respectively. Rural women were more likely than urban women to have had a rapid repeat pregnancy within 24 months (odds ratio, 2.4). Women aged 15-17 and those 18 or older at first union were more likely than women younger than 15 to have had a rapid repeat pregnancy within 24 months (3.8 and 3.4); those whose partner had at least a secondary education had lower odds than others of the outcome (0.6). The odds of rapid repeat pregnancy increased with the number of months between marriage and first birth (1.05). Variables associated with rapid repeat pregnancy within 12 months included urban-rural residence, region, age at first union and marriage-to-birth interval. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to reduce rapid repeat pregnancy among young women in Uganda should focus on rural areas. Strategies to reach women during antenatal care and the postpartum period after their first birth should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/etnologia , Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/etnologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 258, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of mental illness in childhood and adolescence helps to avert debilitating mental illness in adulthood but the attention given to Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) has until recently been low. Traditional healers are often consulted by patients with mental illness and in Uganda, up to 60% of patients attending traditional healers have moderate to severe mental illness. Poor access to CAMH care in Uganda creates a treatment gap that could be met through enhanced collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems. The aim of this study was to explore traditional healers' views on their collaboration with biomedical health systems so as to inform the implementation of strategies to improve access to CAMH services in Uganda. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 20 purposively selected traditional healers were conducted in November 2015. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore: 1) The experiences of traditional healers with mental ill-health in children and adolescents; 2) their willingness to collaborate with the formal health system; and 3) their perception of clinicians' willingness to collaborate with them. Interviews were conducted in local languages and tape recorded. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Traditional healers described several experiences managing children and adolescents with mental illness, which they ascribed to spiritual and physical causes. The spiritual explanations were a consequence of unhappy ancestral spirits, modern religions and witchcraft, while physical causes mentioned included substance abuse and fevers. No traditional healer had received a patient referred to them from a medical clinic although all had referred patients to clinics for non-mental health reasons. Traditional healers expressed distrust in biomedical health systems and believed their treatments were superior to medical therapies in alleviating mental suffering. They expressed willingness to collaborate with biomedical providers. However, traditional healers believe clinicians disregard them and would not be willing to collaborate with them. CONCLUSION: Potential for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems for improving access to CAMH services in Uganda exists, but is undermined by mutual mistrust and competition between traditional healers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
4.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 11: 50, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre. We aim to describe an in-service CAMH training for NSHW in Uganda and assess cadre-differentiated learning outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-six clinical officers, nurses and midwives from 18 randomly selected PHC clinics in eastern Uganda were trained for 5 days on CAMH screening and referral using a curriculum based on the mhGAP-IG version 1.0 and PowerPoint slides from the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP). The residential training was evaluated through pre- and post- training tests of CAMH knowledge and attitudes using the participants' post-test scores; and the difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Two-tailed t-tests assessed differences in mean pre-test and post-test scores between the cadres; hierarchical linear regression tested the association between cadre and post test scores; and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between cadre and knowledge gain at three pre-determined cut off points. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants completed both pre-and post-tests. Improved mean scores from pre- to post-test were observed for both clinical officers (20% change) and nurse/midwives (18% change). Clinical officers had significantly higher mean test scores than nurses and midwives (p < 0.05) but cadre was not significantly associated with improvement in CAMH knowledge at the 10% (AOR 0.08; 95 CI [0.01, 1.19]; p = 0.066), 15% (AOR 0.16; 95% CI [0.01, 2.21]; p = 0.170), or 25% (AOR 0.13; 95% CI [0.01, 1.74]; p = 0.122) levels. CONCLUSION: We aimed to examine CAMH learning outcomes by NSHW cadre. NSHW cadre does not influence knowledge gain from in-service CAMH training. Thus, an option for integrating CAMH into PHC in Uganda using the mhGAP-IG and IACAPAP PowerPoint slides is to proceed without cadre differentiation.

5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 21(2): 73-80, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624942

RESUMO

Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized controlled design, we conducted a formative assessment in two districts in Uganda where community health workers, called VHTs, already offered FP. Thirty-six trained VHTs also provided HIV testing and counseling (HTC) during the intervention. We surveyed all 36 VHTs and 256 FP clients, and reviewed service statistics. In the intervention group, VHTs tested 80% of surveyed clients for HIV, including 76% they already saw for FP and 22% who first came to them for HTC before receiving FP. Comparing clients' experiences in the intervention and control groups, adding HTC does not appear to have negatively affected FP service quality. VHTs reported more monthly clients, but rated their workload as easy to manage. This integrated model seems feasible and beneficial for both VHTs and clients, while not resulting in any negative effects. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398].


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
6.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 4(4): 684-693, 2016 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. RESULTS: Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels. CONCLUSION: DCEs can be an appropriate approach with CHWs but require careful design and implementation.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Motivação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
7.
Health Policy Plan ; 31(8): 1050-7, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045002

RESUMO

Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398].


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust health systems are required for the promotion of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In low and middle income countries such as Uganda neuropsychiatric illness in childhood and adolescence represent 15-30 % of all loss in disability-adjusted life years. In spite of this burden, service systems in these countries are weak. The objective of our assessment was to explore strengths and weaknesses of CAMH systems at national and district level in Uganda from a management perspective. METHODS: Seven key informant interviews were conducted during July to October 2014 in Kampala and Mbale district, Eastern Uganda representing the national and district level, respectively. The key informants selected were all public officials responsible for supervision of CAMH services at the two levels. The interview guide included the following CAMH domains based on the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS): policy and legislation, financing, service delivery, health workforce, medicines and health information management. Inductive thematic analysis was applied in which the text in data transcripts was reduced to thematic codes. Patterns were then identified in the relations among the codes. RESULTS: Eleven themes emerged from the six domains of enquiry in the WHO-AIMS. A CAMH policy has been drafted to complement the national mental health policy, however district managers did not know about it. All managers at the district level cited inadequate national mental health policies. The existing laws were considered sufficient for the promotion of CAMH, however CAMH financing and services were noted by all as inadequate. CAMH services were noted to be absent at lower health centers and lacked integration with other health sector services. Insufficient CAMH workforce was widely reported, and was noted to affect medicines availability. Lastly, unlike national level managers, lower level managers considered the health management information system as being insufficient for service planning. CONCLUSION: Managers at national and district level agree that most components of the CAMH system in Uganda are weak; but perceptions about CAMH policy and health information systems were divergent.

9.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 14(2): 117-25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26223328

RESUMO

Long-distance truck drivers have been shown to be a critical population in the spread of HIV in Africa. In 2009, surveys with 385 Ugandan long-distance truck drivers measured concurrency point prevalence with two methods; it ranged from 37.4% (calendar-method) to 50.1% (direct question). The majority (84%) of relationships reported were long-term resulting in a long duration of overlap (average of 58 months) across concurrent partnerships. Only 7% of these men reported using any condoms with their spouses during the past month. Among all non-spousal relationships, duration of relationship was the factor most strongly associated with engaging in unprotected sex in the past month in a multivariable analyses controlling for partner and relationship characteristics. Innovative intervention programs for these men and their partners are needed that address the realities of truck drivers' lifestyles.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Viagem , Uganda , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 2(1): 103-16, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25276566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the face of global health worker shortages, community health workers (CHWs) are an important health care delivery strategy for underserved populations. In Uganda, community-based programs often use volunteer CHWs to extend services, including family planning, in rural areas. This study examined factors related to CHW motivation and level of activity in 3 family planning programs in Uganda. METHODS: Data were collected between July and August 2011, and sources comprised 183 surveys with active CHWs, in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 43 active CHWs and 5 former CHWs, and service statistics records. Surveys included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to elicit CHW preferences for selected program inputs. RESULTS: Service statistics indicated an average of 56 visits with family planning clients per surveyed CHW over the 3-month period prior to data collection. In the survey, new skills and knowledge, perceived impact on the community, and enhanced status were the main positive aspects of the job reported by CHWs; the main challenges related to transportation. Multivariate analyses identified 2 correlates of CHWs being highly vs. less active (in terms of number of client visits): experiencing problems with supplies and not collaborating with peers. DCE results showed that provision of a package including a T-shirt, badge, and bicycle was the program input CHWs preferred, followed by a mobile phone (without airtime). IDI data reinforced and supplemented these quantitative findings. Social prestige, social responsibility, and aspirations for other opportunities were important motivators, while main challenges related to transportation and commodity stockouts. CHWs had complex motivations for wanting better compensation, including offsetting time and transportation costs, providing for their families, and feeling appreciated for their efforts. CONCLUSION: Volunteer CHW programs in Uganda and elsewhere need to carefully consider appropriate combinations of financial and nonfinancial inputs for optimal results.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Motivação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
11.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 2(4): 472-81, 2014 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25611480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. METHODS: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. RESULTS: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31%). CONCLUSION: Drug shops can be a viable and convenient source of short-acting contraceptive methods, including DMPA, serving as a complement to government services. Family planning programs in Uganda and elsewhere should consider including drug shops in the network of community-based family planning providers.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Assistência Farmacêutica , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/educação , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Setor Privado , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
13.
Stud Fam Plann ; 42(2): 117-24, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21834413

RESUMO

This case study presents service monitoring data and programmatic lessons from scaling up Uganda's community-based distribution of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, marketed as Depo-Provera) to the public sector in two districts. We describe the process and identify implementation opportunities and challenges, including modifications to the service model. Analysis of monitoring data indicates that the number of women initiating DMPA with a community health worker (CHW) was 56 percent higher than the number of new DMPA acceptors served by clinics. Including continuing DMPA users, about three of every four DMPA clients chose CHWs as their service delivery point. CHW provision appears to be the preferred method of delivery for new DMPA users in this study, and may appeal even more to continuing clients. Lessons from scaling up in Uganda's public sector include recognizing the needs for ongoing assessment of support, a process to gain community "ownership," and spontaneous innovations to supplement CHW supervision.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/provisão & distribução , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/provisão & distribução , Setor Público/organização & administração , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gestão da Segurança , Uganda
14.
AIDS Care ; 23(12): 1578-85, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21732902

RESUMO

In the last decade, three randomized controlled trials in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda have shown that medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the sexual transmission of HIV from women to men. Objectives of this assessment were to measure acceptability of adult MMC and circumcision of children to inform policies regarding whether and how to promote MMC as an HIV prevention strategy. This mixed-method study, conducted across four Ugandan districts, included a two-stage household survey of 833 adult males and 842 adult females, focus group discussions, and a health provider survey. Respondents' acceptability of MMC was positive and substantial after being informed about the results of recent randomized trials. In uncircumcised men, between 40% and 62% across the districts would consider getting circumcised. Across the four districts between 60% and 86% of fathers and 49% and 95% of mothers were supportive of MMC for sons. Widespread support exists among men and women in this study for promoting MMC as part of Uganda's current 'ABC + ' HIV prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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