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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943000

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Dox) is known to cause heart failure in some cancer patients. Despite extensive studies over the past half century, the subcellular basis of Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC) is still elusive. Earlier, we suggested that Dox causes a delayed activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) which may promote mitochondrial Bax activity leading to cardiomyocyte death. As a follow up, using NO donor, S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), and/or NOS inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we now show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes inflammation through iNOS/NO-induced TLR2 activation. In vivo Dox treatment increased mitochondrial iNOS to promote ER stress as there was an increase in Bip (Grp78) response, proapoptotic CHOP (DDIT3) and ER-mediated Caspase 12 activation. Increased iNOS activity is associated with an increase in TLR2 and TNF-α receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2). These two together with NF-κB p105/50 expression and a synergistic support through ER stress, promote inflammatory response in the myocardium leading to cell death and ultimately fostering DIC conditions. In the presence of NOS inhibitor, such detrimental effects of Dox were inhibited, suggesting iNOS/NO as key mediators of Dox-induced inflammatory as well as apoptotic responses.

2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(7): 119039, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857568

RESUMO

Although a high cumulative dose of Doxorubicin (Dox) is known to cause cardiotoxicity, there is still a lack of understanding of the subcellular basis of this drug-induced cardiomyopathy. Differential effects of Dox on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were examined in cardiomyocytes, tumor cells, implanted tumors and hearts of normal as well as tumor-bearing animals. Dox increased mitochondrial (Mito) Bax activation at 3 h in the cardiomyocyte without change in the DNA damage inducible transcriptor-3 (DDIT3) expression in the ER. Increased DDIT3 in these Dox-treated cardiomyocytes at 24 h suggested that increased MitoBax may have promoted ER stress related changes in DDIT3. Dissociation of immunoglobulin-binding protein (Bip) from activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)-Bip complex in the ER was observed as an adaptive response to Dox. In contrast, breast cancer MCF7 cells showed an ER stress response to Dox with increased DDIT3 as early as 3 h which may have triggered a positive feedback activation of ATF6 at 12 and 24 h and promoted Calnexin. At these later time points, increased Bax activation in cancer cells suggested that MitoBax may be controlled by DDIT3 or by Calnexin. DDIT3 response in tumors was evoked by Dox, however this response was inversely correlated with increased Bip and Bax expression in hearts from tumor bearing animals. It is suggested that in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity both mitochondrial and ER stresses play an integral role through a mutual interaction where an inhibition of DDIT3 or Calnexin may also be crucial to achieve Dox resistance in cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo
4.
Heart Fail Rev ; 26(3): 699-709, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033908

RESUMO

Vitamin C (Vit C) is an ideal antioxidant as it is easily available, water soluble, very potent, least toxic, regenerates other antioxidants particularly Vit E, and acts as a cofactor for different enzymes. It has received much attention due to its ability in limiting reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and nitrosative stress, as well as it helps to maintain some of the normal metabolic functions of the cell. However, over 140 clinical trials using Vit C in different pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction, gastritis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Such a divergence calls for new strategies to establish practical significance of Vit C in heart failure or even in its prevention. For a better understanding of Vit C functioning, it is important to revisit its transport across the cell membrane and subcellular interactions. In this review, we have highlighted some historical details of Vit C and its transporters in the heart with a particular focus on heart failure in cancer chemotherapy.

5.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1104-1112, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673499

RESUMO

The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined. In this multicentered retrospective study, we enrolled 3219 patients with diagnosed COVID-19 admitted to 9 hospitals from December 31, 2019 to March 4, 2020, to estimate the associations and prognostic power of circulating cardiac injury markers with the poor outcomes of COVID-19. In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001). The cutoffs of those cardiac biomarkers for effective prognosis of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 were found to be much lower than for regular heart disease at about 19%-50% of the currently recommended thresholds. Patients with elevated cardiac injury markers above the newly established cutoffs were associated with significantly increased risk of COVID-19 death. In conclusion, cardiac biomarker elevations are significantly associated with 28-day death in patients with COVID-19. The prognostic cutoff values of these biomarkers might be much lower than the current reference standards. These findings can assist in better management of COVID-19 patients to improve outcomes. Importantly, the newly established cutoff levels of COVID-19-associated cardiac biomarkers may serve as useful criteria for the future prospective studies and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Cardiopatias , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pandemias , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pneumonia Viral , Troponina I/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 313(4): H795-H809, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710069

RESUMO

Increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress is one of the mechanisms associated with the development of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (Dox), a potent chemotherapy drug. Previously, we reported mitigation of Dox-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress and apoptosis by vitamin C (Vit C) in isolated cardiomyocytes. In the present in vivo study in rats, we investigated the effect of prophylactic treatment with Vit C on Dox-induced apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, cardiac dysfunction, and Vit C transporter proteins. Dox (cumulative dose: 15 mg/kg) in rats reduced systolic and diastolic cardiac function and caused structural damage. These changes were associated with a myocardial increase in reactive oxygen species, reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities, increased expression of apoptotic proteins, and inflammation. Dox also caused an increase in the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bnip-3, Bak, and caspase-3. An increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress attributable to Dox was indicated by an increase in superoxide, protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS) activity, protein nitrosylation, and inducible NOS protein expression. Dox increased the levels of cardiac proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, whereas the expression of Vit C transporter proteins (sodium-ascorbate cotransporter 2 and glucose transporter 4) was reduced. Prophylactic and concurrent treatment with Vit C prevented all these changes and improved survival in the Vit C + Dox group. Vit C also improved Dox-mediated systolic and diastolic dysfunctions and structural damage. These results suggest a cardioprotective role of Vit C in Dox-induced cardiomyopathy by reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, as well as improving Vit C transporter proteins.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This in vivo study provides novel data that vitamin C improves cardiac structure and function in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation along with upregulation of cardiac vitamin C transporter proteins. The latter may have a crucial role in improving antioxidant status in this cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/biossíntese , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0179452, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678856

RESUMO

We previously reported that Vitamin C (Vit C) protects against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and p53 activation and rescuing cell death in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. The pattern of activation and the role of oxidative stress as well as down-stream mechanisms for such protection remain elusive. Therefore the present study aims to analyze time-dependant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of stress induced signalling pathways in cardiomyocytes treated with Dox and Vit C. The data provides further understanding of heart pathophysiology in response to Dox at the cellular level, and may help to optimize the timing of various therapeutic approaches. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Dox (10 µM), Vit C (25 µM), and Dox + Vit C for different time intervals up to 24 h. p38-JNK (SB203580) and p53 (pifithrin-α) inhibitors were used to determine the role of each respective signalling protein. Dox administration to cardiomyocytes increased the levels of ROS in a time-dependent manner that followed the activation of stress-induced proteins p53, p38 and JNK MAPKs, culminating in an increase in autophagy and apoptosis markers. Dox-induced increase in ROS was alleviated by Vit C adjuvant treatment at all time-points and this was also correlated with blunting of the activation of the studied signaling pathways leading to the prevention of apoptosis and preservation of cell viability. Protective effect of Vit C against the activation of stress induced proteins, autophagy and apoptosis was mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties even though blockage of p38, JNK and p53 by pharmacological inhibitors also suppressed Dox-induced apoptosis. ROS is defined as a key inducer of cardiomyocyte damage under Dox exposure; Vit C could effectively counteract all Dox-induced changes in cardiomyocytes and may potentially be used as an antioxidant adjuvant therapy to protect against Dox-induced cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 312(6): H1238-H1247, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28432060

RESUMO

It has been suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 promotes IL-10-mediated cardiac cell survival, whereas another receptor, TLR2, from the same family, is detrimental. Here, we examined the interactive role of these two innate signaling molecules under stressful conditions, including IL-10 knockout (IL-10-/-) mice, global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts, and in vitro short hairpin RNA experimental models in the presence or absence of IL-10 (10 ng/ml). Circulating and myocardial levels of TNF-α as well as apoptosis and fibrosis were higher in IL-10-/- mice. The increase in TLR2 in IL-10-/- hearts indicated its negative regulation by IL-10. Ex vivo I/R also caused a marked upregulation of TLR2 and TNF-α as well as apoptotic and fibrotic signals. However, a 40-min reperfusion with IL-10 triggered an increase in TLR4 expression and improved recovery of cardiac function. The increase in IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M and IRAK-2 activity during I/R injury suggested their role in TLR2 signaling. In vitro inhibition of TLR4 activity as a consequence of RNA inhibition-mediated suppression of myeloid differentiation gene (MyD)88 suggested MyD88-dependent activation of TLR4. The inclusion of IL-10 during reperfusion also downregulated the expression of IRAK-2, TNF-α receptor-associated factor 1-interacting protein (TRAIP) and apoptotic signals, caspase-3, and the Bax-to-Bcl-xL ratio. IL-10 reduced the TNF-α receptor-associated increase in TRAIP-induced apoptosis during I/R injury, which led to an increase in IL-1ß to mitigate transforming growth factor-ß receptor type I-mediated fibrosis. The IL-10 mitigation of these changes suggests that the stimulation through TLR4 signaling promotes IRAK-4 and phosphorylates IRAK-1 instead of IRAK-2 and may be an important therapeutic approach in restoring heart health in stress.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Under stress conditions such as downregulation of the IL-10 gene or ischemia-reperfusion injury, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 activation is suppressed, along with the upregulation of TLR-2 and IRAK-2, resulting in fibrosis and apoptosis. It is suggested that IL-10 helps to maintain heart function during stress via myeloid differentiation gene 88/IRAK-4/IRAK-1-dependent TLR4 signaling.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Genótipo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/deficiência , Interleucina-10/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Interferência de RNA , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Transfecção , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 95(10): 1078-1090, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187269

RESUMO

A rapid rise in obesity, as well as physical inactivity, in industrialized countries is associated with fructose-consumption-mediated metabolic syndrome having a strong association with cardiovascular disease. Although insulin resistance is thought to be at the core, visceral obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia are also considered important components of this metabolic disorder. In addition, various other abnormalities such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and elevated levels of uric acid are also part of this syndrome. Lifestyle changes through improved physical activity, as well as nutrition, are important approaches to minimize metabolic syndrome and its deleterious effects.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/terapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ácido Úrico/sangue
10.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 312(4): C418-C427, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100487

RESUMO

An increase in oxidative stress is suggested to be the main cause in Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, there is now evidence that activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrosative stress are also involved. The role of vitamin C (Vit C) in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and reduction of nitrosative stress in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity is unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Vit C in the mitigation of Dox-induced changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), NOS activity, protein expression of NOS isoforms, and nitrosative stress as well as cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 in isolated cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into four groups: 1) control, 2) Vit C (25 µM), 3) Dox (10 µM), and 4) Vit C + Dox. Dox caused a significant increase in the generation of superoxide radical (O2·-), peroxynitrite, and NO, and these effects of Dox were blunted by Vit C. Dox increased the expression of iNOS and altered protein expression as well as activation of endothelial NOS (eNOS). These changes were prevented by Vit C. Dox induced an increase in the ratio of monomeric/dimeric eNOS, promoting the production of O2·-, which was prevented by Vit C by increasing the stability of the dimeric form of eNOS. Vit C protected against the Dox-induced increase in TNFα as well as a reduction in IL-10. These results suggest that Vit C provides cardioprotection by reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation via a modulation of Dox-induced increase in the NO levels and NOS activity.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Heart Fail Rev ; 21(1): 11-23, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26542377

RESUMO

Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-ß, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 13: 18, 2015 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardio-Oncology is an evolving discipline that focuses on the management of cancer patients who develop cardiovascular complications as a result of their treatment. Although the current combination of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy may lead to a cure in cancer patients, the administration of anti-cancer drugs, in particular Doxorubicin (DOX) and Trastuzumab (TRZ), is associated with an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Little is known on the potential cardioprotective role of renin angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists in the prevention of DOX+TRZ mediated cardiotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether RAS antagonists would be useful in attenuating DOX+TRZ induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: A total of 240 C57Bl/6 mice were randomized to prophylactic treatment with placebo, Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan for a total of 13 weeks. Within each arm, mice received treatment with either DOX, TRZ, or the combination of both drugs. Serial murine echocardiography was performed weekly to characterize the degree of cardiovascular remodeling within each group. RESULTS: In wild-type (WT) mice treated with DOX+TRZ, LV end diastolic internal diameter (LVID) increased from 3.1 ± 0.2 mm at baseline to 4.6 ± 0.3 mm at week 13 (p < 0.05) and the LV fractional shortening (FS) decreased from 52 ± 2% at baseline to 26 ± 2% at week 13 (p < 0.05). Prophylactic treatment with Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan attenuated the degree of LV cavity dilatation with LVID dimensions of 3.9 ± 0.2 mm, 4.1 ± 0.2 mm, and 4.2 ± 0.1 mm at week 13, respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly, prophylactic treatment with Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan was partially cardioprotective with FS of 40 ± 1%, 32 ± 1%, and 33 ± 2% at week 13, respectively (p < 0.05). As compared to WT mice receiving DOX+TRZ, prophylactic treatment with RAS inhibition was also associated with improved survival, corroborating the echocardiographic findings. CONCLUSION: The cardiotoxic effects of DOX+TRZ were partially attenuated by the prophylactic administration of RAS antagonists in a chronic murine model of chemotherapy induced cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Renina/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 303(6): C645-53, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22763122

RESUMO

Vitamin C (Vit C) has been shown to be protective against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, Vit C uptake into cardiomyocytes is poorly understood. Furthermore, whether the antioxidant enzyme reserve is enhanced by Vit C is also not known. The present study investigated an influence of Dox on Vit C transporters, expression of endogenous antioxidant reserve as well as enzymes, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in isolated cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to control (culture medium 199 alone), Dox (10 µM), Vit C (25 µM), and Vit C + Dox for 24 h. Vit C transporter expression and localization, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and apoptosis were studied. Expression and localization of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-2 (SVCT-2) in the sarcolemma was reduced by Dox, but Vit C supplementation was able to blunt this change. There was a decrease in the expression of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) due to Dox, but only GPx expression was completely prevented and Cu/Zn SOD was partially rescued by Vit C. Dox-induced decrease in antioxidant reserve and increase in oxidative stress were partially mitigated by Vit C. Dox-induced apoptosis was ameliorated by Vit C. It is suggested that cardioprotection offered by Vit C in Dox-induced cardiomyopathy may involve an upregulation of SVCT-2 transporter followed by a reduction in oxidative stress as well as blunting of cardiomyocyte injury.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Transportadores de Sódio Acoplados à Vitamina C/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transportadores de Sódio Acoplados à Vitamina C/biossíntese , Transportadores de Sódio Acoplados à Vitamina C/metabolismo
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1818(3): 730-7, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22178645

RESUMO

Na(+)- Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) has been proposed to play a role in refilling the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Ca(2+) pool along with the SER Ca(2+) pump (SERCA). Here, SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin was used to determine the effects of SER Ca(2+) depletion on NCX-SERCA interactions in smooth muscle cells cultured from pig coronary artery. The cells were Na(+)-loaded and then placed in either a Na(+)-containing or in a Na(+)-substituted solution. Subsequently, the difference in Ca(2+) entry between the two groups was examined and defined as the NCX mediated Ca(2+) entry. The NCX mediated Ca(2+) entry in the smooth muscle cells was monitored using two methods: Ca(2+)sensitive fluorescence dye Fluo-4 and radioactive Ca(2+). Ca(2+)-entry was greater in the Na(+)-substituted cells than in the Na(+)-containing cells when measured by either method. This difference was established to be NCX-mediated as it was sensitive to the NCX inhibitors. Thapsigargin diminished the NCX mediated Ca(2+) entry as determined by either method. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was used to determine the co-localization of NCX1 and subsarcolemmal SERCA2 in the cells incubated in the Na(+)-substituted solution with or without thapsigargin. SER Ca(2+) depletion with thapsigargin increased the co-localization between NCX1 and the subsarcolemmal SERCA2. Thus, inhibition of SERCA2 leads to blockade of constant Ca(2+) entry through NCX1 and also increases proximity between NCX1 and SERCA2. This blockade of Ca(2+) entry may protect the cells against Ca(2+)-overload during ischemia-reperfusion when SERCA2 is known to be damaged.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio , Sódio/metabolismo , Tapsigargina/farmacologia , Animais , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Sarcolema/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Suínos
15.
Cell Calcium ; 51(2): 149-54, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22206647

RESUMO

The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Ca(2+) pool is refilled by the SER Ca(2+) pump (SERCA) using cytosolic Ca(2+) and/or extracellular Ca(2+) entering the cell. The effects of the SERCA pump inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) were studied in pig coronary artery smooth muscle using two protocols. In protocol A, the SERCA pump was inhibited by adding CPA to cells/tissues in Ca(2+)-containing solution, whereas in protocol B, CPA was added to cells/tissues in Ca(2+)-free solution, followed by reintroduction of extracellular Ca(2+). Addition of CPA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) in cultured smooth muscle cells and elicited contraction in de-endothelialized coronary arteries in both protocols. Based on pharmacological experiments, the CPA-induced contraction of de-endothelialized arteries in protocol B resulted from store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Reactive oxygen species such as peroxides are known to damage the SERCA pump in this tissue. Consistently, CPA-induced contractions were decreased in arteries pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide in protocol A. However, this pretreatment also decreased the force of contraction due to SOCE in protocol B, suggesting that it closed SOCE. We propose that the closure of SOCE triggered by exposure to reactive oxygen species may be a protective mechanism, so that Ca(2+) entry by this pathway is disallowed when SERCA is damaged in pathologies such as ischemia-reperfusion.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Suínos
16.
Cell Calcium ; 48(6): 352-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21093050

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to invent an extracellular inhibitor selective for the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump(s) (PMCA) isoform 1. PMCA extrude Ca(2+) from cells during signalling and homeostasis. PMCA isoforms are encoded by 4 genes (PMCA1-4). Pig coronary artery endothelium and smooth muscle express the genes PMCA1 and 4. We showed that the endothelial cells contained mostly PMCA1 protein while smooth muscle cells had mostly PMCA4. A random peptide phage display library was screened for binding to synthetic extracellular domain 1 of PMCA1. The selected phage population was screened further by affinity chromatography using PMCA from rabbit duodenal mucosa which expressed mostly PMCA1. The peptide displayed by the selected phage was termed caloxin 1b3. Caloxin 1b3 inhibited PMCA Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase in the rabbit duodenal mucosa (PMCA1) with a greater affinity (inhibition constant=17±2 µM) than the PMCA in the human erythrocyte ghosts (PMCA4, inhibition constant=45±4 µM). The affinity of caloxin 1b3 was also higher for PMCA1 than for PMCA2 and 3 indicating its selectivity for PMCA1. Consistent with an inhibition of PMCA1, caloxin 1b3 addition to the medium increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in endothelial cells. Caloxin 1b3 is the first known PMCA1 selective inhibitor. We anticipate caloxin 1b3 to aid in understanding PMCA physiology in endothelium and other tissues.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/farmacologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , ATPase de Ca(2+) e Mg(2+)/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase de Ca(2+) e Mg(2+)/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Vasos Coronários/citologia , Vasos Coronários/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Coelhos , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto , Suínos
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