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Kardiologiia ; 61(2): 28-39, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Russo, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734044


Actuality One of the most widely discussed treatments for patients with COVID-19, especially at the beginning of the epidemy, was the use of the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). The first small non-randomized trials showed the ability of HCQ and its combination with azithromycin to accelerate the elimination of the virus and ease the acute phase of the disease. Later, large, randomized trials did not confirm it (RECOVERY, SOLIDARITY). This study is a case-control study in which we compared patients who received and did not receive HCQ.Material and Methods 103 patients (25 in the HCQ treatment group and 78 in the control group) with confirmed COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA was detected in 26 of 73 in the control group (35.6%) and in 10 of 25 (40%) in the HCQ group) and in the rest - a typical picture of viral pneumonia on multislice computed tomography [MSCT]) were included in the analysis. The severity of lung damage was limited to stages I-II, the CRP level should not exceed 60 mg/dL, and oxygen saturation in the air within 92-98%. We planned to analysis the duration of treatment of patients in the hospital, the days until the normalization of body temperature, the number of points according to the original SHOCS-COVID integral scale, and changes in its components (C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and the percentage of lung damage according to MSCT).Results Analysis for the whole group revealed a statistically significant increase in the time to normalization of body temperature from 4 to 7 days (by 3 days, p<0.001), and the duration of hospitalization from 9.4 to 11.8 days (by 2.4 days, p=0.002) when using HCQ in comparison with control. Given the incomplete balance of the groups, the main analysis included 46 patients who were matched by propensity score matching. The trend towards similar dynamics continued. HCQ treatment slowed down the time to normalization of body temperature by 1.8 days (p=0.074) and lengthened the hospitalization time by 2.1 days (p=0.042). The decrease in scores on the SHOCS -COVID scale was statistically significant in both groups, and there were no differences between them (delta - 3.00 (2.90) in the HCQ group and - 2.69 (1.55) in control, p=0.718). At the same time, in the control group, the CRP level returned to normal (4.06 mg/dl), and with the use of GC, it decreased but remained above the norm (6.21 mg/dl, p=0.05). Side effects requiring discontinuation of treatment were reported in 3 patients in the HCQ group and none in the control group.Conclusion We have not identified any positive properties of HCQ and its ability to influence the severity of COVID-19. This antimalarial agent slows down the normalization of the body's inflammatory response and lengthens the time spent in the hospital. HCQ should not be used in the treatment of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
Kardiologiia ; 61(2): 15-27, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734043


Actuality The course of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unpredictable. It manifests in some cases as increasing inflammation to even the onset of a cytokine storm and irreversible progression of acute respiratory syndrome, which is associated with the risk of death in patients. Thus, proactive anti-inflammatory therapy remains an open serious question in patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia, who still have signs of inflammation on days 7-9 of the disease: elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)>60 mg/dL and at least two of the four clinical signs: fever >37.5°C; persistent cough; dyspnea (RR >20 brpm) and/or reduced oxygen blood saturation <94% when breathing atmospheric air. We designed the randomized trial: COLchicine versus Ruxolitinib and Secukinumab in Open-label Prospective Randomized Trial in Patients with COVID-19 (COLORIT). We present here data comparing patients who received colchicine with those who did not receive specific anti-inflammatory therapy. Results of the comparison of colchicine, ruxolitinib, and secukinumab will be presented later.Objective Compare efficacy and safety of colchicine compared to the management of patients with COVID-19 without specific anti-inflammatory therapy.Material and Methods Initially, 20 people were expected to be randomized in the control group. However, enrollment to the control group was discontinued subsequently after the inclusion of 5 patients due to the risk of severe deterioration in the absence of anti-inflammatory treatment. Therefore, 17 patients, who had not received anti-inflammatory therapy when treated in the MSU Medical Research and Educational Center before the study, were also included in the control group. The effects were assessed on day 12 after the inclusion or at discharge if it occurred earlier than on day 12. The primary endpoint was the changes in the SHOCS-COVID score, which includes the assessment of the patient's clinical condition, CT score of the lung tissue damage, the severity of systemic inflammation (CRP changes), and the risk of thrombotic complications (D-dimer) [1].Results The median SHOCS score decreased from 8 to 2 (p = 0.017), i.e., from moderate to mild degree, in the colchicine group. The change in the SHOCS-COVID score was minimal and statistically insignificant in the control group. In patients with COVID-19 treated with colchicine, the CRP levels decreased rapidly and normalized (from 99.4 to 4.2 mg/dL, p<0.001). In the control group, the CRP levels decreased moderately and statistically insignificantly and achieved 22.8 mg/dL by the end of the follow-up period, which was still more than four times higher than normal. The most informative criterion for inflammation lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) increased in the colchicine group by 393 versus 54 in the control group (p = 0.003). After treatment, it was 60.8 in the control group, which was less than 100 considered safe in terms of systemic inflammation progression. The difference from 427 in the colchicine group was highly significant (p = 0.003).The marked and rapid decrease in the inflammation factors was accompanied in the colchicine group by the reduced need for oxygen support from 14 (66.7%) to 2 (9.5%). In the control group, the number of patients without anti-inflammatory therapy requiring oxygen support remained unchanged at 50%. There was a trend to shorter hospital stays in the group of specific anti-inflammatory therapy up to 13 days compared to 17.5 days in the control group (p = 0.079). Moreover, two patients died in the control group, and there were no fatal cases in the colchicine group. In the colchicine group, one patient had deep vein thrombosis with D-dimer elevated to 5.99 µg/mL, which resolved before discharge.Conclusions Colchicine 1 mg for 1-3 days followed by 0.5 mg/day for 14 days is effective as a proactive anti-inflammatory therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia. The management of such patients without proactive anti-inflammatory therapy is likely to be unreasonable and may worsen the course of COVID-19. However, the findings should be treated with caution, given the small size of the trial.

COVID-19 , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 4-15, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155953


The article focuses on effective treatment of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) at early stages and substantiates the requirement for antiviral therapy and for decreasing the viral load to prevent the infection progression. The absence of a specific antiviral therapy for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is stated. The authors analyzed results of early randomized studies using lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and favipiravir in COVID-19 and their potential for the treatment of novel coronavirus infection. Among the drugs blocking the virus entry into cells, the greatest attention was paid to the antimalaria drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. The article addresses in detail ineffectiveness and potential danger of hydroxychloroquine, which demonstrated neither a decrease in the time of clinical recovery nor any improvement of prognosis for patients with COVID-19. The major objective was substantiating a possible use of bromhexine, a mucolytic and anticough drug, which can inhibit transmembrane serin protease 2 required for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into cells. Spironolactone may have a similar feature. Due to its antiandrogenic effects, spironolactone can inhibit X-chromosome-related synthesis of ACE-2 receptors and activation of transmembrane serin protease 2. In addition to slowing the virus entry into cells, spironolactone decreases severity of fibrosis in different organs, including the lungs. The major part of the article addresses clinical examples of managing patients with COVID-19 at the University Clinic of the Medical Research and Educational Centre of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, including successful treatment with schemes containing bromhexine and spironolactone. In conclusion, the authors described the design of a randomized, prospective BISCUIT study performed at the University Clinic of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University with an objective of evaluating the efficacy of this scheme.

Bromoexina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Espironolactona , Betacoronavirus , Bromoexina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Moscou , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 4-21, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131470


The article is devoted to the treatment of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the advanced stages of the disease. The types of response of the immune system to the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 with the start of the inflammation process are considered. The situation is analyzed in detail in which the growing autoimmune inflammation (up to the development of a "cytokine storm") affects not only the pulmonary parenchyma, but also the endothelium of the small vessels of the lungs. Simultaneous damage to the alveoli and microthrombosis of the pulmonary vessels are accompanied by a progressive impairment of gas exchange, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the treatment of which, even with the use of invasive ventilation, is ineffective and does not really change the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. In order to interrupt the pathological process at the earliest stages of the disease, the necessity of proactive anti-inflammatory therapy in combination with active anticoagulation treatment is substantiated. The results of the first randomized studies on the use of inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin-6 (tocilizumab), interleukin-17 (secukinumab), Janus kinase blockers, through which the signal is transmitted to cells (ruxolitinib)), which have potential in the early treatment of COVID- 19. The use of a well-known anti-inflammatory drug colchicine (which is used for gout treatment) in patients with COVID-19 is considered. The design of the original COLORIT comparative study on the use of colchicine, ruxolitinib and secukinumab in the treatment of COVID-19 is presented. Clinical series presented, illustrated early anti-inflammatory therapy together with anticoagulants in patients with COVID-19 and the dangers associated with refusing to initiate such therapy on time.

Colchicina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis , SARS-CoV-2
Kardiologiia ; 60(11): 4-15, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487145


Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of bromhexine at a dose of 8 mg 4 times a day and spironolactone 50 mg per day in patients with mild and moderate COVID 19.Material and methods It was an open, prospective comparative non-randomized study. 103 patients were included (33 in the bromhexine and spironolactone group and 70 in the control group). All patients had a confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus infection (COVID 19) based on a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA and/or a typical pattern of viral pneumonia on multispiral computed tomography. The severity of lung damage was limited to stage I-II, the level of CRP should not exceed 60 mg / dL and SO2 in the air within 92-98%. The duration of treatment is 10 days.Results The decrease in scores on the SHOKS-COVID scale, which, in addition to assessing the clinical status, the dynamics of CRP (a marker of inflammation), D-dimer (a marker of thrombus formation), and the degree of lung damage on CT (primary endpoint) was statistically significant in both groups and differences between them was not identified. Analysis for the group as a whole revealed a statistically significant reduction in hospitalization time from 10.4 to 9.0 days (by 1.5 days, p=0.033) and fever time from 6.5 to 3.9 days (by 2.5 days, p<0.001). Given the incomplete balance of the groups, the main analysis included 66 patients who were match with using propensity score matching. In matched patients, temperature normalization in the bromhexine/spironolactone group occurred 2 days faster than in the control group (p=0.008). Virus elimination by the 10th day was recorded in all patients in the bromhexine/spironolactone group; the control group viremia continued in 23.3% (p=0.077). The number of patients who had a positive PCR to the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the 10th day of hospitalization or longer (≥10 days) hospitalization in the control group was 20/21 (95.2%), and in the group with bromhexine /spironolactone -14/24 (58.3%), p=0.012. The odds ratio of having a positive PCR or more than ten days of hospitalization was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.008 - 0.61, p=0.0161) with bromhexine and spironolactone versus controls. No side effects were reported in the study group.Conclusion The combination of bromhexine with spironolactone appeared effective in treating a new coronavirus infection by achieving a faster normalization of the clinical condition, lowering the temperature one and a half times faster, and reducing explanatory combine endpoint the viral load or long duration of hospitalization (≥ 10 days).

Bromoexina , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espironolactona , Resultado do Tratamento