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1.
Microb Genom ; 7(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846280

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to expand globally, with case numbers rising in many areas of the world, including the Indian sub-continent. Pakistan has one of the world's largest populations, of over 200 million people and is experiencing a severe third wave of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 that began in March 2021. In Pakistan, during the third wave until now only 12 SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been collected and among these nine are from Islamabad. This highlights the need for more genome sequencing to allow surveillance of variants in circulation. In fact, more genomes are available among travellers with a travel history from Pakistan, than from within the country itself. We thus aimed to provide a snapshot assessment of circulating lineages in Lahore and surrounding areas with a combined population of 11.1 million. Within a week of April 2021, 102 samples were sequenced. The samples were randomly collected from two hospitals with a diagnostic PCR cutoff value of less than 25 cycles. Analysis of the lineages shows that the Alpha variant of concern (first identified in the UK) dominates, accounting for 97.9 % (97/99) of cases, with the Beta variant of concern (first identified in South Africa) accounting for 2.0 % (2/99) of cases. No other lineages were observed. In depth analysis of the Alpha lineages indicated multiple separate introductions and subsequent establishment within the region. Eight samples were identical to genomes observed in Europe (seven UK, one Switzerland), indicating recent transmission. Genomes of other samples show evidence that these have evolved, indicating sustained transmission over a period of time either within Pakistan or other countries with low-density genome sequencing. Vaccines remain effective against Alpha, however, the low level of Beta against which some vaccines are less effective demonstrates the requirement for continued prospective genomic surveillance.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 181: 109086, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634390

RESUMO

AIM: To assess safety and effectiveness of gliclazide MR 60 mg in people with controlled or suboptimal controlled T2DM treated with breakable gliclazide MR 60 mg formulation. METHOD: This study data has been extracted from an international, observational study conducted in nine Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Total 220 patients with T2DM were recruited from Pakistan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reporting at least 1 symptomatic HE, whereas secondary endpoints were changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) %, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) mg/dL, and body weight (kg) and proportion of patients reporting any HE (confirmed or severe), between inclusion visit (V0) and end of the study visit (V1). RESULTS: During Ramadan, 3.6% (n = 8/220) patients had experienced at least one symptomatic HEs. A significant (p-value < 0.001) reduction was observed in HbA1c: (mean [SD]) (-0.4 [0.9] %), and body weight (-0.7 [4.8] kg). Thirteen adverse events (AEs) unrelated to gliclazide MR were reported during the study pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan periods. CONCLUSION: This study shows safety and effectiveness profile of gliclazide MR 60 mg by emphasizing on the low risk of HEs, effective glycaemic control and body weight reduction in T2DM patients, who are inclined to fasting during Ramadan.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gliclazida , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Islamismo , Paquistão
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1014, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma(CP) was utilized as potential therapy during COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The study aimed at appraisal of CP transfusion safety and usefulness in COVID pneumonia. METHODS: Single arm, MEURI study design of non-randomized open label trial was conducted in five centers. Patients werecategorized as moderately severe, severe, and critical. The primary endpoint was a) improvement in clinical status and change in category of disease severity; secondary endpoint was b) CP ability to halt disease progression to invasive ventilation. CP transfused to hospitalized patients. Statistical tests including median (interquartile ranges), Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test using SPSS ver. 23, ANOVA and Chi-square test were applied for the analysis of results parameters before and after CP treatment. SOFA score was applied for multiorgan failure in severe and critical cases. RESULTS: A total of 50 adult patients; median age 58.5 years (range: 29-92 years) received CP with infusion titers; median 1:320 U/mL (Interquartile range 1:80-1:320) between April 4 to May 5, 2020. The median time from onset of symptoms to enrollment in trial was 3 to 7 days with shortness of breath and lung infiltration as severity criterion. In 35 (70%) recipients, oxygen saturation improved from 80 to 95% within 72h, with resolution of lung infiltrates. Primary endpoint was achieved in 44 (88%) recipients whereas secondary endpoint was achieved in 42 (84%). No patient experienced severe adverse events. A high SOFA score (> 7) correlated with deaths in severe and critical patients. Eight (16%) patients expired due to comorbidities; cardiac arrest in 2 (4%), multiorgan failure secondary to cytokine storm in 5 (10%) and ventilator associated complications in 1 (2%). CONCLUSION: CP transfusion can be used as a safe and useful treatment in moderately severe and severe patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial registration number is NCT04352751  ( https://www.irct.ir/search/result?query=IRCT20200414047072N1 ). Trial Registration date is 28th April 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586557

RESUMO

COVID-19 virus is a causative agent of viral pandemic in human beings which specifically targets respiratory system of humans and causes viral pneumonia. This unusual viral pneumonia is rapidly spreading to all parts of the world, currently affecting about 105 million people with 2.3 million deaths. Current review described history, genomic characteristics, replication, and pathogenesis of COVID-19 with special emphasis on Nigella sativum (N. sativum) as a treatment option. N. sativum seeds are historically and religiously used over the centuries, both for prevention and treatment of different diseases. This review summarizes the potential role of N. sativum seeds against COVID-19 infection at levels of in silico, cell lines and animal models.

5.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(6): 1703-1719, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To analyse the safety and effectiveness of gliclazide modified release (MR) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in Ramadan from three geographically and culturally different regions of the world included in the DIA-RAMADAN study. METHODS: DIA-RAMADAN was a real-world, observational, international, non-comparative study. The global study population was divided into three regional subgroups, with data gathered at inclusion 6-8 weeks prior to Ramadan (V0), during Ramadan (4.5 weeks) and 4-6 weeks after Ramadan (V1). Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reporting ≥ 1 symptomatic hypoglycaemic events (HE), which were collected using a patient diary along with other adverse events. RESULTS: Patient numbers from the three regions were n = 564 (46.5%; Indian sub-continent), n = 354 (29.1%; Middle East) and n = 296 (24.4%; South-East Asia). Patient baseline characteristics, demographics, fasting habits and antidiabetic treatments varied between regions. There were similar proportions of symptomatic HE between regions, with no severe HE. Significant weight reductions were observed in all regions following Ramadan, along with reductions in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: These real-world study data indicate that gliclazide MR is safe and effective for management of type 2 diabetes during Ramadan in all three regions studied as part of DIA-RAMADAN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT04132934. INFOGRAPHIC.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2349, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859192

RESUMO

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cooperação Internacional , Razão de Chances , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Hum Genet ; 140(4): 649-666, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389129

RESUMO

Peroxisomes, single-membrane intracellular organelles, play an important role in various metabolic pathways. The translocation of proteins from the cytosol to peroxisomes depends on peroxisome import receptor proteins and defects in peroxisome transport result in a wide spectrum of peroxisomal disorders. Here, we report a large consanguineous family with autosomal recessive congenital cataracts and developmental defects. Genome-wide linkage analysis localized the critical interval to chromosome 12p with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.2 (θ = 0). Next-generation exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous missense variant (c.653 T > C; p.F218S) in peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 (PEX5), a peroxisome import receptor protein. This missense mutation was confirmed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. It segregated with the disease phenotype in the family and was absent in ethnically matched control chromosomes. The lens-specific knockout mice of Pex5 recapitulated the cataractous phenotype. In vitro import assays revealed a normal capacity of the mutant PEX5 to enter the peroxisomal Docking/Translocation Module (DTM) in the presence of peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1) cargo protein, be monoubiquitinated and exported back into the cytosol. Importantly, the mutant PEX5 protein was unable to form a stable trimeric complex with peroxisomal biogenesis factor 7 (PEX7) and a peroxisome targeting signal 2 (PTS2) cargo protein and, therefore, failed to promote the import of PTS2 cargo proteins into peroxisomes. In conclusion, we report a novel missense mutation in PEX5 responsible for the defective import of PTS2 cargo proteins into peroxisomes resulting in congenital cataracts and developmental defects.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sinais de Orientação para Peroxissomos , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/genética , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Gene Ther ; 28(1-2): 6-15, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355226

RESUMO

Beta (ß)-thalassemia is one of the most significant hemoglobinopathy worldwide. The high prevalence of the ß-thalassemia carriers aggravates the disease burden for patients and national economies in the developing world. The survival of ß-thalassemia patients solely relies on repeated transfusions, which eventually results into multi-organ damage. The fetal γ-globin genes are ordinarily silenced at birth and replaced by the adult ß-globin genes. However, mutations that cause lifelong persistence of fetal γ-globin, ameliorate the debilitating effects of ß-globin mutations. Therefore, therapeutically reactivating the fetal γ-globin gene is a prime focus of researchers. CRISPR/Cas9 is the most common approach to correct disease causative mutations or to enhance or disrupt the expression of proteins to mitigate the effects of the disease. CRISPR/cas9 and prime gene editing to correct mutations in hematopoietic stem cells of ß-thalassemia patients has been considered a novel therapeutic approach for effective hemoglobin production. However, genome-editing technologies, along with all advantages, have shown some disadvantages due to either random insertions or deletions at the target site of edition or non-specific targeting in genome. Therefore, the focus of this review is to compare pros and cons of these editing technologies and to elaborate the retrospective scope of gene therapy for ß-thalassemia patients.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Talassemia beta , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tecnologia , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia
10.
Front Physiol ; 11: 607239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324243

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes (GD) are complications in advanced pregnancy while miscarriage for early pregnancy. However, the etiological factors are not well understood. Smoking has been associated with these complications as well as the sudden intrauterine deaths, sudden infant death, miscarriages, and still births. However, the immunolocalization of alpha 7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is not studied. Materials and Methods: α7-nAChR subunit expression was evaluated in 10 paraffin-embedded placental tissues after delivery and 10 tissue samples of products of conception during first trimester by immunohistochemistry. Among the placental tissues, two samples were normal placental tissue, four from PE mother, and four from GD mother. The expression of α7-nAChR was compared between the two groups in general and within the subgroups of placenta as well. Protein expression was evaluated using the nuclear labeling index (%) of villi with positive cells stained, positive cells in the decidua, and intensity of staining in the outer villous trophoblast layer. Results: The expression of α7-nAChR protein was high in all the cases of placenta and products of conception (POCs). α7-nAChR expression showed no notable differences among different cases of miscarriages irrespective of the mother's age and gestational age at which the event occurred. However, there were some changes among the normal, PE, and GD placental groups in the linings of the blood vessels. Changes were restricted to the villi (as opposed to the decidua) lining cells, both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, and were specific to the α7 subunit. PE blood vessel lining was thicker and showed more expression of this receptor in endothelial cells and myofibroblasts in PE and GD groups. In POCs, the strong expression was observed in the decidua myocytes of maternal blood vessels and in syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast of chronic villi. Conclusion: Nicotine acetyl choline receptors are found to be expressed highly in the placental tissues and in products of conception. They may be associated with the sudden perinatal deaths and miscarriages or complications of pregnancy.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20674, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244135

RESUMO

The characteristic of the angular distributions of accelerated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) atoms incidence on the surface is designed using the mathematical modeling method. Here, we proposed the idea to study retroreflection and diffraction of a BEC from an evanescent standing wave potential (ESWP). The ESWP is formed by multiple reflections of the laser beam from the surface of the prism under the influence of gravity. After BEC's reflection and diffraction, the so-called BEC's density rainbow patterns develop due to the interference which depends on the surface structure which we model with the periodic decaying evanescent field. The interaction of accelerated bosonic atoms with a surface can help to demonstrate surface structures or to determine surface roughness, or to build future high spatial resolution and high sensitivity magnetic-field sensors in two-dimensional systems.

12.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 32(7): 3159-3166, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921965

RESUMO

Objectives: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, also known as COVID-19 pandemic has caused an alarming situation worldwide. Since the first detection, in December 2019, there have been no effective drug therapy options for treating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. However, healthcare professionals are using chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and some other options of treatments. This study aims to compare the biological, molecular, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of these three treatment modalities for SARS-COV-2 infections, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Convalescent Plasma, and Remdesivir. Methods: A search was conducted in the "Institute of Science Information (ISI)-Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library databases, Scopus, and Google Scholar" for peer reviewed, published studies and clinical trials through July 30, 2020. The search was based on keywords "COVID-19" SARS-COV-2, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir and treatment modalities. Results: As of July 30, 2020, a total of 36,640 relevant documents were published. From them 672 peer reviewed, published articles, and clinical trials were screened. We selected 17 relevant published original articles and clinical trials: 05 for chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine with total sample size (n = 220), 05 for Remdesivir (n = 1,781), and 07 for Convalescent Plasma therapy (n = 398), with a combined total sample size (n = 2,399). Based on the available data, convalescent plasma therapy showed clinical advantages in SARS-COV-2 patients. Conclusions: All three treatment modalities have both favorable and unfavorable characteristics, but none showed clear evidence of benefit for early outpatient disease or prophylaxis. Based on the current available data, convalescent plasma therapy appears to show clinical advantages for inpatient use. In the future, ongoing large sample size randomized controlled clinical trials may further clarify the comparative efficacy and safety of these three treatment classes, to conclusively determine whom to treat with which drug and when to treat them.

13.
Trials ; 21(1): 702, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate (200 mg orally 8 hourly thrice a day for 5 days), versus oseltamivir (75 mg orally twice a day for 5 days), and versus Azithromycin (500 mg orally daily on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally twice a day on days 2-5) alone and in combination (in all seven groups), in clearing the coronavirus (COVID-19) nucleic acid from throat and nasal swab and in bringing about clinical improvement on day 7 of follow-up (primary outcomes). TRIAL DESIGN: An adaptive design, set within a comprehensive cohort study, to permit flexibility in this fast-changing clinical and public health scenario. The randomized study will be a multicenter, multiarm, multistage, randomized controlled trial with a parallel design. An observation only cohort will emerge from those not consenting to randomization. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible will be newly diagnosed patients, either hospitalized or in self-isolation, without any comorbidities or with controlled chronic medical conditions like diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Participants of any gender or age group having tested positive for COVID-19 on Real-Time qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) will be invited to take part in study at twelve centers across eight cities in Pakistan. Those pregnant or lactating, severely dyspneic or with respiratory distress, already undergoing treatment, and with serious comorbidities like liver or kidney failure will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There will be a total of seven comparator groups: Each drug (Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate, Oseltamivir and Azithromycin) given as monotherapy (three groups); combinations of each of two drugs (three groups); and a final group on triple drug regimen. MAIN OUTCOMES: The laboratory-based primary outcome will be turning the test negative for COVID-19 on qRT-PCR on day 7 of follow-up. The clinical primary outcome will be improvement from baseline of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale of clinical status on day 7 of follow-up. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized, maintaining concealment of allocation sequence, using a computer-generated random number list of variable block size into multiple intervention groups in the allocation ratio of 1:1 for all groups. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study, neither physician nor participants will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): This is an adaptive design and parameters for formal sample size calculation in a new disease of a previously unknown virus are not available. Thus, the final sample size will be subjected to periodic reviews at each stage of adaptive design and subsequent advice of National Data Safety & Management Board (NDSMB) notified by Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1.7 dated July 5, 2020. By July 03, 2020, the trial had recruited a total of about 470 participants across 12 centers after approval from the National Bioethics Committee and Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. Recruitment started on April 20, 2020. The recruitment is expected to continue for at least three months subject to review by the National Data Safety and Management Board (NDSMB) notified by Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered on 8 April 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04338698 The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file2).


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842620

RESUMO

We report the underlying genetic causes of prelingual hearing loss (HL) segregating in eight large consanguineous families, ascertained from the Punjab province of Pakistan. Exome sequencing followed by segregation analysis revealed seven potentially pathogenic variants, including four novel alleles c.257G>A, c.6083A>C, c.89A>G, and c.1249A>G of CLPP, CDH23, COL4A5, and LARS2, respectively. We also identified three previously reported HL-causing variants (c.4528C>T, c.35delG, and c.1219T>C) of MYO15A, GJB2, and TMPRSS3 segregating in four families. All identified variants were either absent or had very low frequencies in the control databases. Our in silico analyses and 3-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling support the deleterious impact of these variants on the encoded proteins. Variants identified in MYO15A, GJB2, TMPRSS3, and CDH23 were classified as "pathogenic" or "likely pathogenic", while the variants in CLPP and LARS2 fall in the category of "uncertain significance" based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) variant pathogenicity guidelines. This paper highlights the genetic diversity of hearing disorders in the Pakistani population and reports the identification of four novel mutations in four HL families.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Caderinas/genética , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Surdez/genética , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/epidemiologia , Surdez/patologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6432580, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462008

RESUMO

Typhoid fever is the result of a human host-restricted Salmonella enteric serotype typhi infection that causes enteric fever. Around 21 million people contract typhoid annually, with Pakistan's inhabitants at most risk amongst Asian countries where typhoid remains prevalent. Decades of indiscriminate antibiotic usage has driven the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains and more recently, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Salmonella enteric serotype typhi. Current reports of extensively drug-resistant typhoid fever outbreak in Pakistan are not only a major concern for Pakistan but also for health authorities worldwide: intercontinental transmission, spread, and replacement of native strains in neighboring countries and a major impediment to Pakistani health care management. The WHO records that there are 5274 cases of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid fever out of a total of 8188 total cases of typhoid fever reported in Pakistan. The last remaining feasible oral antibiotic that XDR typhoid remains susceptible to is azithromycin; this is a cause of major concern. Additionally, several cases of XDR typhoid fever have also been reported in patients travelling from Pakistan to the USA, UK, and Canada. This review article attempts to raise the issue of XDR typhoid with respect to its epidemiology, prevention, management, and future outlook and stresses a better understanding of antimicrobial stewardship and general surveillance of the disease. Although progress is being made to combat XDR typhoid locally, efficient, unified efforts on a national and international scale are required to contain the XDR outbreak before it is no longer manageable and leads us back to the preantibiotic era.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhi/genética , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 163: 108154, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330510

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the real-world safety and effectiveness of gliclazide modified release (MR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan. METHODS: DIA-RAMADAN (NCT04132934) was a prospective, international, observational study conducted in nine countries. Patients >18 years of age with T2DM (N = 1244) were examined at an inclusion visit (V0) occurring 6-8 weeks before the start of Ramadan. Patients received a diary to report treatment changes, hypoglycaemic events (HEs), and other adverse events. Gliclazide MR was taken once daily for 14-18 weeks. A second visit (V1) was conducted 4-6 weeks after the end of Ramadan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reporting ≥1 symptomatic HE. Changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body weight were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The proportion of patients reporting ≥1 symptomatic HE during Ramadan was low (2.2%) with no reported severe HEs. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.3%), FPG (-9.7 mg/dL), body weight (-0.5 kg) and body mass index (-0.2 kg/m2) between V0 and V1 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM treated with gliclazide MR during Ramadan have a low risk of hypoglycaemia and maintain glycaemic control and weight while fasting.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Gliclazida/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Islamismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Front Physiol ; 11: 554766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391008

RESUMO

Background: Miscarriage is a common complication of early pregnancy, mostly occurring in the first trimester. However, the etiological factors and prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers are not well known. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) is a receptor of tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) and has a role in various pathological conditions, cancers, but its association with miscarriages and significance as a clinicopathological parameter are not studied. Accordingly, the present study aimed to clarify the localization and expression for NK-1R in human retained products of conception (POC). The role of NK-1R is not known in miscarriages. Materials and Methods: NK-1R expression was assessed in POC and normal placental tissues by immunohistochemistry. Three- to four-micrometer-thin sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were used for this purpose. Tissues were processed and then immunohistochemically stained with NK-1R antibody. Brain tissue was used as control for antibody. Protein expression was evaluated using the nuclear labeling index (%). Tissues were counterstained with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), and microscopy was performed at 10×, 20×, and 40× magnifications. Results: Ten human POC tissues and 10 normal placental tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the localization of NK-1R. The expression of NK-1R protein was high in all the cases of both groups. NK-1R expression showed no notable differences among different cases of miscarriages as well as normal deliveries at full term regardless of the mother's age and gestational age at which the event occurred. Statistically, no difference was found in both groups, which is in agreement with our hypothesis and previous findings. Conclusion: The expression of NK-1R was similar in all the cases, and it was intense. It shows that dysregulation of NK-1R along with its ligand SP might be involved in miscarriages and also involved in normal delivery. Our results provide fundamental data regarding this anti-NK-1R strategy. Thus, the present study recommends that SP/NK-1R system might, therefore, be considered as an emerging and promising diagnostic and therapeutic strategy against miscarriages. Hence, we report for the first time the expression and localization of NK-1R in POC. We suggest NK-1R antagonist in addition to the immunoglobulins and human chorionic gonadotropin to diagnose and treat spontaneous miscarriages.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 869-878, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564433

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder, characterized by limited cognitive abilities and impaired adaptive behaviors. In recent years, exome sequencing (ES) has been instrumental in deciphering the genetic etiology of ID. Here, through ES of a large cohort of individuals with ID, we identified two bi-allelic frameshift variants in METTL5, c.344_345delGA (p.Arg115Asnfs∗19) and c.571_572delAA (p.Lys191Valfs∗10), in families of Pakistani and Yemenite origin. Both of these variants were segregating with moderate to severe ID, microcephaly, and various facial dysmorphisms, in an autosomal-recessive fashion. METTL5 is a member of the methyltransferase-like protein family, which encompasses proteins with a seven-beta-strand methyltransferase domain. We found METTL5 expression in various substructures of rodent and human brains and METTL5 protein to be enriched in the nucleus and synapses of the hippocampal neurons. Functional studies of these truncating variants in transiently transfected orthologous cells and cultured hippocampal rat neurons revealed no effect on the localization of METTL5 but alter its level of expression. Our in silico analysis and 3D modeling simulation predict disruption of METTL5 function by both variants. Finally, mettl5 knockdown in zebrafish resulted in microcephaly, recapitulating the human phenotype. This study provides evidence that biallelic variants in METTL5 cause ID and microcephaly in humans and highlights the essential role of METTL5 in brain development and neuronal function.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genes Recessivos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 180(48)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518464

RESUMO

Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignant neoplasms in Denmark. The majority of cases are basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The choice of treatment depends on tumour, area, histology and patient-specific factors. Superficial and low-risk BCC can be treated with curettage, photodynamic therapy, imiquimod cream or cryotherapy. High-risk BCC and SCC should be treated by surgical excision or radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Algoritmos , Carcinoma Basocelular/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Dinamarca , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
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