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1.
Allergy ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is the main cause of the autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). We previously reported the selective loss of group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) number and function in a Dock8-deficient mouse model. In this study, we sought to test whether DOCK8 is required for the function and maintenance of ILC subsets in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood ILC1-3 subsets of 16 DOCK8-deficient patients recruited at the pretransplant stage, and seven patients with autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations, were compared with those of healthy controls or post-transplant DOCK8-deficient patients (n = 12) by flow cytometry and real-time qPCR. Sorted total ILCs from DOCK8- or STAT3-mutant patients and healthy controls were assayed for survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and activation by IL-7, IL-23, and IL-12 by cell culture, flow cytometry, and phospho-flow assays. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient but not STAT3-mutant patients exhibited a profound depletion of ILC3s, and to a lesser extent ILC2s, in their peripheral blood. DOCK8-deficient ILC1-3 subsets had defective proliferation, expressed lower levels of IL-7R, responded less to IL-7, IL-12, or IL-23 cytokines, and were more prone to apoptosis compared with those of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 regulates human ILC3 expansion and survival, and more globally ILC cytokine signaling and proliferation. DOCK8 deficiency leads to loss of ILC3 from peripheral blood. ILC3 deficiency may contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to infections.

2.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273456

RESUMO

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic auto-inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. Although colchicine is the first line treatment in FMF, 5-10% of patients do not respond to colchicine. Canakinumab, an anti-IL-1ß monoclonal antibody, has been reported to be effective and safe in colchicine-resistant FMF patients, but the adequate duration and interval of treatment is still a matter of debate. Aim of this study was to evaluate the success of the standardized treatment protocol for canakinumab applied in our Pediatric Rheumatology Department in colchicine-resistant FMF cases with a review of the literature. Nine patients included in this study had indications for canakinumab use as colchicine resistance and recurrent corticosteroid need for pleural/pericardial effusions. Canakinumab was administered monthly for 6 months (initial treatment), bimonthly for 6 months (maintenance treatment), then treatment was discontinued. For the patients who developed a new attack after one-year treatment period, canakinumab was readministered with 3-month intervals (continuation treatment). The mean follow-up time beginning from the first canakinumab injection was 24.3 ± 10.2 (6-33) months. None of the patients had an attack during the first-year treatment. Four of the patients developed an attack 9.0 ± 2.9 (6-12) months after discontinuation of treatment and switched to the continuation treatment period, with no more attacks. We suggest that this standard protocol may be used successfully in colchicine-resistant FMF patients.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(8): 2790-2800.e15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency presents with susceptibility to infections, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferation. The long-term efficacy of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (abatacept) as targeted therapy for its immune dysregulatory features remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and immunologic features of LRBA deficiency and long-term efficacy of abatacept treatment in controlling the different disease manifestations. METHODS: Twenty-two LRBA-deficient patients were recruited from different immunology centers and followed prospectively. Eighteen patients on abatacept were evaluated every 3 months for long-term clinical and immunologic responses. LRBA expression, lymphocyte subpopulations, and circulating T follicular helper cells were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 13.4 ± 7.9 years, and the follow-up period was 3.4 ± 2.3 years. Recurrent infections (n = 19 [86.4%]), immune dysregulation (n = 18 [81.8%]), and lymphoproliferation (n = 16 [72.7%]) were common clinical features. The long-term benefits of abatacept in 16 patients were demonstrated by complete control of lymphoproliferation and chronic diarrhea followed by immune dysregulation, most notably autoimmune cytopenias. Weekly or every other week administration of abatacept gave better disease control compared with every 4 weeks. There were no serious side effects related to the abatacept therapy. Circulating T follicular helper cell frequencies were found to be a reliable biomarker of disease activity, which decreased on abatacept therapy in most subjects. However, high circulating T follicular helper cell frequencies persisted in 2 patients who had a more severe disease phenotype that was relatively resistant to abatacept therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term abatacept therapy is effective in most patients with LRBA deficiency.

4.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12737, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506560

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections resulting from the inadequacy of phagocytic leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen radicals. CGD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with an X-linked recessive (XR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBB (OMIM #300481) gene encoding the gp91(phox) protein, and an autosomal recessive (AR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBA (OMIM #608508), NCF1 (OMIM #608512), NCF2 (OMIM #608515) and NCF4 (OMIM #601488) genes encoding p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox), respectively. The genetic mutation of one of the cytosolic p47phox/p67phox proteins and membrane-bound gp91phox/p22phox proteins, which constitutes the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, causes the disease. In this study, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory and genetic findings and the prognostic effects of molecular inheritance of our 24 CGD cases (14 XR, 10 autosomal recessive-AR). Consanguinity (3 XR and all AR cases) showed statistically significant relationship with the type of hereditary inheritance (p< .001). 83% patients had an infection since early infancy. The mean age of initiation of symptoms was earlier in XR cases and 78% patients had respiratory tract infections. Bone marrow transplantation was performed in 5 XR cases (2 ex) and 4 AR (1 ex) cases. 3 of 9 XR and 2 of 6 AR cases deceased on medical follow-up. In countries especially with high consanguinity rates, the early diagnosis for appropriate prophylactic treatment of CGD is quitely important to avoid from recurrent severe infections, early death and fatal complications of late transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Case Reports Immunol ; 2018: 6897935, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405923

RESUMO

When caring for patients with life-limiting diseases, improving survival and optimizing quality of life are the primary goals. For patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM), the treatment modality has to be decided for a particular patient regarding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy with P. jiroveci prophylaxis. A seven-year-old male patient was admitted with recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and recurrent otitis media. His initial immunologic evaluation revealed low IgG and normal IgA and IgM levels with normal lymphocyte phenotyping and inadequate specific antibody responses. He was diagnosed as common variable immunodeficiency and began to receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (0.5 gm/kg) with four-week intervals. During follow-up for 23 years under IVIG therapy, he was extremely well and never had severe infections. In 2017, targeted next generation sequencing was performed in order to understand his molecular pathology. A previously described hemizygous c.31C>T(p.Arg11Ter) mutation was found in CD40LG gene. The mother was heterozygous carrier for this mutation and his sister did not have any mutation. Flow cytometric analysis for CD40LG expression on activated T cells showed highly decreased, but not absent, CD40LG expression. In conclusion, diagnostic delay is a clinical problem for patients with CD40LG deficiency, because of low or normal IgM levels, showing that all the hypogammaglobulinemic patients, not only with high serum IgM levels, but also with normal to low IgM levels, have to be examined for CD40LG expression on activated T lymphocytes. Secondly, type of CD40LG mutations leads to enormous interpatient variations regarding serum IgM levels, CD40LG levels on activated T cells, age at diagnosis, severity of clinical findings, and follow-up therapies with or without hematopoietic stem cell therapy.

6.
JMM Case Rep ; 5(10): e005167, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479781

RESUMO

Introduction: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a disease of immune dysregulation with autoimmunity affecting various systems. Case Presentation: Two male siblings with a novel LRBA mutation had different primary findings at admission: the younger sibling had chronic early-onset diarrhoea and the elder one had autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. During long-term follow-up for IPEX phenotype, both developed hypogammaglobulinaemia, enteropathy and lung involvement. The patients partially responded to immunosuppressive therapies. A homozygous c.2496C>A, p.Cys832Ter (p.C832*) mutation in the LRBA gene causing a premature stop codon was detected. After molecular diagnosis, abatacept, as a target-specific molecule, was used with promising results. Conclusion: LRBA deficiency is a recently defined defect, with variable presentations in different patients; a single, definitive treatment option is thus not yet available.

7.
Avicenna J Med Biotechnol ; 10(3): 192-195, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090215

RESUMO

Background: The Transmembrane Activator and Calcium modulator ligand Interactor (TACI), encoded by TNFRSF13B/TACI gene, is mutated in some patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) and IgA Deficiency (IgAD). The purpose of the study was to investigate for the first time in Turkish patients the prevalence of TNFRSF13B alterations in CVID, selective and partial IgAD patients. Methods: Forty two CVID, 36 selective IgAD, 34 partial IgAD and 25 healthy controls were included. All patients were examined for TNFRSF13B gene mutations by PCR. Results: The percentages of TNFRSF13B mutations in CVID, selective and partial IgAD patients were 7.1, 2.7 and 2.9%, respectively. No disease causing TNFRSF13B mutation in healthy controls was found. Patients with TACI mutations had recurrent respiratory tract infections. None of them experienced autoimmunity, bronchiectasis or granulomatous disease. In conclusion, TNFRSF13B mutations were present not only in CVID patients, but also in IgAD cases. Conclusion: Modifier genes as well as their combination with other genetic or environmental factors may play an important role in the development of the immunodeficiency phenotype.

9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 32: 2058738418779458, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978731

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) are the most prevalent primary immunodeficiency disorders. High rates of familial inheritance have been described in CVID and IgAD, but it is unknown in different ethnic populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of familial cases and whether they showed more severe clinical characteristics than sporadic ones in Turkish patients. A total of 40 CVID and 70 IgAD patients and their 251 first-degree relatives (FDRs) were evaluated. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were reviewed. A familial case was defined as a patient with at least one affected FDR (A-FDR). The rate of parental consanguinity was 19.1%. There were 37 familial cases (37/110) (33.6%) with at least one A-FDR. There were 48 A-FDRs who had immunoglobulins lower than age-related normals (48/251) (19.1%). Pulmonary infections were significantly higher in familial cases. To our knowledge, this study includes the highest number of CVID/IgAD patients and their FDRs in literature. Familial cases are at least 30% of the IgAD and CVID patients, and they have more frequent lower respiratory tract infections than sporadic ones, so these patients have to be evaluated depending on their being familial or sporadic for better management. The risk of carrying any immunologic alterations in relatives of patients with IgAD and CVID is approximately 20%. Although most A-FDRs are asymptomatic, considering the risk of progression to CVID by age, we highly recommend routine screening for FDRs.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Deficiência de IgA/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Adulto , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Deficiência de IgA/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Turquia
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 32(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional studies besides routine laboratory tests for the definitive diagnosis of T lymphocyte disorders with isolated T or combined T/B-cell immunodeficiencies are important. We hereby summarized our experience with a carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based assay for the assessment of mitogenic T-cell proliferation responses in primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients who have not been diagnosed yet or genetically analyzed, but classified as probably having T-cell defects. METHODS: Unclassified patients (n=46) and controls (n=25) were evaluated for T-cell disorders with CFSE-based assay. RESULTS: CD3+ blast cells after PHA-L stimulation were significantly lower in patients (31.1±28.8) than controls (67.9±8.79; P<.001). Nine patients with low and four patients with normal CD3 values had severely decreased blastic transformation. The proliferation response decreased mostly in combined immunodeficiency group. Sixteen of them had impaired proliferation responses. Appropriate molecular genetical analyses were planned after thorough evaluation of each patient. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro lymphocyte cell proliferation analysis by CFSE method is a reliable and practical choice for the assessment of mitogenic T lymphocyte responses in yet unclassified PID patients for targeting further genetical analyses.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fluoresceínas/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Succinimidas/análise , Linfócitos T/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Fluoresceínas/química , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Succinimidas/química , Succinimidas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/química , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
11.
Case Reports Immunol ; 2017: 2846928, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259832

RESUMO

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMC) is the chronic, recurrent, noninvasive Candida infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. A 26-month-old girl was admitted with the complaints of recurrent oral Candidiasis, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. Candida albicans grew in oral mucosa swab. CMV and EBV DNA titers were elevated. She had hypergammaglobulinemia; IgE level, percentages of lymphocyte subgroups, and in vitro T-cell proliferation responses were normal. She had parenchymal nodules within the lungs and a calcific nodule in the liver. Chronic-recurrent infections with different pathogens leading to significant morbidity suggested combined immunodeficiency, CMC, or Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Genetic analysis revealed a predefined heterozygous gain-of-function mutation (GOF) (c.1154 C>T, p.Thr385Met) in the gene coding STAT1 molecule. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was planned because of severe recurring infections. Patients with STAT1 GOF mutations may exhibit diverse phenotypes including infectious and noninfectious findings. HSCT should be considered as an early treatment option before permanent organ damage leading to morbidity and mortality develops. This case is presented to prompt clinicians to consider STAT1 GOF mutations in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic Candidiasis and recurrent infections with multiple organisms, since these mutations are responsible for nearly half of CMC cases reported.

12.
Turk Pediatri Ars ; 52(3): 138-144, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062247

RESUMO

AIM: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests. RESULTS: A diagnosis of mycobacterial infection was made clinically in a total of 25 patients including five (11.3%) of 45 patients who had severe combined immune deficiency, 12 (52.3%) of 21 patients who had chronic granulomatous disease, four patients (100%) who had interferon gamma receptor 2 partical deficiency, two patients (100%) who had interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 deficiency and one patient (100%) who had nuclear factor kapa-beta essential modulator deficiency. Mycobacterium strain could be typed in 14 (33%) of these 25 patients including Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonea, Mycobacterium elephantis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All patients were treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy. Thirty-six percent of these 25 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eight patients (five before, three after transplantation) died. CONCLUSIONS: Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria including mainly Mycobacterium bovis were observed with a higher rate compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary immunodeficiencies, especially in those affecting the interleukin 12/interferon gamma pathway. Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies with neonatal screening program and preventing administration of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in these patients is important.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 167, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary recurrent fevers (HRF) are a group of rare monogenic diseases leading to recurrent inflammatory flares. A large number of variants has been described for the four genes associated with the best known HRF, namely MEFV, NLRP3, MVK, TNFRSF1A. The Infevers database ( http://fmf.igh.cnrs.fr/ISSAID/infevers ) is a large international registry collecting variants reported in these genes. However, no genotype-phenotype associations are provided, but only the clinical phenotype of the first patient(s) described for each mutation. The aim of this study is to develop a registry of genotype-phenotype associations observed in patients with HRF, enrolled and validated in the Eurofever registry. RESULTS: Genotype-phenotype associations observed in all the patients with HRF enrolled in the Eurofever registry were retrospectively analyzed. For autosomal dominant diseases (CAPS and TRAPS), all mutations were individually analyzed. For autosomal recessive diseases (FMF and MKD), homozygous and heterozygous combinations were described. Mean age of onset, disease course (recurrent or chronic), mean duration of fever episodes, clinical manifestations associated with fever episodes, atypical manifestations, complications and response to treatment were also studied. Data observed in 751 patients (346 FMF, 133 CAPS, 114 MKD, 158 TRAPS) included in the Eurofever registry and validated by experts were summarized in Tables. A total of 149 variants were described: 46 TNFRSF1A and 27 NLRP3 variants, as well as various combinations of 48 MVK and 28 MEFV variants were available. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a potentially useful tool for physicians dealing with HRF, namely a registry of genotype-phenotype associations for patients enrolled in the Eurofever registry. This tool is complementary to the Infevers database and will be available at the Eurofever and Infevers websites.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Sistema de Registros , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 30(2): 194-200, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449602

RESUMO

In order to evaluate B-lymphocyte subsets of patients with primary immunodeficiencies, the normal values for national healthy children have to be used as a reference. Recently, B-cell co-receptor markers (CD19, CD21, and CD81) and CD20, CD22, and CD27 deficiencies have been reported in relation with different primary immunodeficiency diseases. The objective of this study was to establish national reference values for B-lymphocyte co-receptors and some surface markers, CD20, CD22, CD27, as well as classic lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy children. A total of 90 healthy children were included in this study. Complete blood counts were performed and cells with CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD27, and CD81 surface markers were simultaneously detected by flow cytometry. The children were evaluated in three age subgroups, 0-1, 1-6, and >6 years, and minimum, maximum, mean, mean minus standard deviation, and 2.5-97.5 percentile values were all determined. By establishing reliable reference ranges for these surface markers, we hoped to help identifying and classifying some primary immunodeficiency patients, especially those defined as unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia and those without definite diagnosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Adolescente , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Valores de Referência , Turquia
15.
Case Reports Immunol ; 2017: 2676403, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168067

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease) developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein) had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

16.
Case Reports Immunol ; 2016: 5459029, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27699073

RESUMO

Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies. Quantitative determination of oxidative burst was normal, excluding chronic granulomatous disease. Colonoscopy revealed granulation, ulceration, and pseudopolyps, compatible with colitis. Very early-onset colitis and perianal disease leading to fistula formation suggested probability of inherited deficiencies of IL-10 or IL-10 receptor. A mutation at position c.G477A in exon of the IL10RB gene, resulting in a stop codon at position p.W159X, was identified. The patient underwent myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from full matched father at 11 months of age. Perianal lesions, chronic diarrhea, and recurrent infections resolved after transplantation. IL-10/IL-10R deficiencies must be considered in patients with early-onset enterocolitis.

17.
J Clin Med Res ; 8(5): 379-84, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27081423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by impairment in both cellular and humoral immunity with a range of genetic disorders. Complete recombinase activating gene (RAG) deficiency is associated with classical T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID which is the most common phenotype of Turkish SCID patients. There is a broad spectrum of hypomorfic RAG mutations including Omenn syndrome, leaky or atypical SCID with expansion of γδ T cells, autoimmunity and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. METHODS: Twenty-one (44%) patients had RAG1 deficiency of all 44 SCID patients followed up by pediatric immunology department. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of all SCID patients with RAG1 deficiency. RESULTS: Eight patients were classified as T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID, five patients as T(+)B(-)NK(+) SCID (three of these were Omenn phenotype), and eight patients as T(+)B(+)NK(+) SCID phenotype. Mean age of the whole study group, mean age at onset of symptoms and mean age at diagnosis were 87.7 ± 73.8 (12 - 256), 4.4 ± 8.2 (1 - 36) and 29.1 ± 56.8 (1 - 244) months, respectively. Consanguinity was present in 11 (52%) of 21 patients. Autoimmunity was found in six patients (28%). Ten patients (47%) had CMV infection, four (19%) had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and three (14%) had Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infections. Seven patients who had refractory cytopenia (two pancytopenia and five bicytopenia) underwent bone marrow biopsy, three of whom had bone marrow fibrosis. Future evaluations must be considered about bone marrow fibrosis in RAG1 deficiency patients. Eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients, seven of whom did not have Omenn phenotype. CONCLUSION: Non-Omenn phenotype RAG1 deficiencies can also present with eosinophilia. This report is presented to emphasize that RAG1 mutations may lead to diverse clinical phenotypes.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(1): 241-248.e3, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by inborn errors of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex. From the first year of life onward, most affected patients display multiple, severe, and recurrent infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial infections have also been reported in some patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of mycobacterial disease in patients with CGD. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical features of mycobacterial disease in 71 patients with CGD. Tuberculosis and BCG disease were diagnosed on the basis of microbiological, pathological, and/or clinical criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-one (44%) patients had tuberculosis, and 53 (75%) presented with adverse effects of BCG vaccination; 13 (18%) had both tuberculosis and BCG infections. None of these patients displayed clinical disease caused by environmental mycobacteria, Mycobacterium leprae, or Mycobacterium ulcerans. Most patients (76%) also had other pyogenic and fungal infections, but 24% presented solely with mycobacterial disease. Most patients presented a single localized episode of mycobacterial disease (37%), but recurrence (18%), disseminated disease (27%), and even death (18%) were also observed. One common feature in these patients was an early age at presentation for BCG disease. Mycobacterial disease was the first clinical manifestation of CGD in 60% of these patients. CONCLUSION: Mycobacterial disease is relatively common in patients with CGD living in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic, BCG vaccine is mandatory, or both. Adverse reactions to BCG and severe forms of tuberculosis should lead to a suspicion of CGD. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with CGD.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/mortalidade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/etiologia
19.
Turk J Pediatr ; 58(4): 442-445, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276222

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive, multisystem, neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by oculocutaneous telangiectasias, variable immunodeficiency and progressive neurological impairment. Definitive diagnosis is made by revealing a disease causing mutation on ATM gene. Missense mutations and polymorphisms of ATM gene can play a role in the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma. A 13-year-old Turkish girl was diagnosed with ataxia telengiectasia at the age of 8 years. When she was 12 years old, multi-nodular goiter was detected by physical examination and ultrasonography. She underwent thyroidectomy and histopathologic investigation revealed a papillary carcinoma with follicular variant. The patient received post-operative radioiodine therapy as well as L-thyroxine treatment because she had residual lesions. Up until now, she is the first Turkish child wit A-T and thyroid carcinoma described in the literature.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Carcinoma/complicações , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Carcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma Papilar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Turquia
20.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 29(2): 241-51, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684629

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies characterized by decreased serum immunoglobulin G along with a decrease in serum IgA and/or IgM, defective specific antibody production, and recurrent bacterial infections. Abnormal lymphocyte trafficking, dysregulated cellular responses to chemokines, and uncontrolled T cell polarization may be involved in the pathogenesis and may help to understand the clinical complications. We evaluated T helper cell subsets (chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR5, and CCR7), expressions on T lymphocytes, intracellular cytokines - IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, IFN- γ-on CD4(+) T cells, and expression of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells of 20 CVID patients and 26 healthy controls. Autoimmune clinical findings and other complications were also determined. Percentages and absolute numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) cells did not show any significant difference between CVID cases and healthy controls nor between severe and moderate disease patients. The only significant difference regarding Th1 and Th2 type intracellular cytokines was the decreased absolute numbers of CD3(+)CD4(+)IL4(+) cells in CVID cases. There were some findings about T helper cell type dominance in CVID patients such as positive correlation between hepatomegaly and high IL-2 and IFN-γ in CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and very high expression of CCR5 (Th1) on CD3(+)CD4(+) cells in patients with granuloma. Th1 (CCR5) and Th2 (CCR4) type chemokine receptors did not show any dominance in CVID cases. However, frequencies of CCR7 expressing CD3(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) T helper cells and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells were significantly lower in severe CVID patients. In addition, presence of autoimmune clinical findings was negatively correlated with CCR7(+) cells. As CCR7 is a key mediator balancing immunity and tolerance in the immune system, the abnormality of this mediator may contribute to the profound immune dysregulation seen in CVID. In addition, Th1 cells seem to be more involved in the disease pathogenesis than Th2 cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores CCR4/imunologia , Receptores CCR5/imunologia
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