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1.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 757-764, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes has been suggested to increase risk for death; however, the definitions of prediabetes that can predict death remain elusive. We prospectively investigated the association of multiple definitions of prediabetes with the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in Japanese workers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 62,785 workers who underwent a health checkup in 2010 or 2011 and were followed up for death from 2012 to March 2019. Prediabetes was defined according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values or a combination of both using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) or World Health Organization (WHO)/International Expert Committee (IEC) criteria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: Over a 7-year follow-up, 229 deaths were documented. Compared with normoglycemia, prediabetes defined according to ADA criteria was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.12-2.09) and death due to cancer (HR 2.37; 95% CI 1.45-3.89) but not with death due to CVD. The results were materially unchanged when prediabetes was defined according to ADA FPG, ADA HbA1c, WHO FPG, or combined WHO/IEC criteria. Diabetes was associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of Japanese workers, FPG- and HbA1c-defined prediabetes, according to ADA or WHO/IEC, were associated with a significantly increased risk of death from all causes and cancer but not CVD.

2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 61, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). LSD has recently spread in Asia following outbreaks in the Middle East and Europe. The disease emerged in Bangladesh in July 2019 in the Chattogram district, then rapidly spread throughout the entire country. We investigated six LSD outbreaks in Bangladesh to record the clinical signs and collect samples for diagnostic confirmation. Furthermore, we performed the molecular characterization of Bangladesh isolates, analyzing the full RPO30 and GPCR genes and the partial EEV glycoprotein gene. RESULTS: Clinical observations revealed common LSD clinical signs in the affected cattle. PCR and real-time PCR, showed the presence of the LSDV genome in samples from all six districts. Phylogenetic analysis and detailed inspection of multiple sequence alignments revealed that Bangladesh isolates differ from common LSDV field isolates encountered in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, as well as newly emerged LSDV variants in Russia and China. Instead, they were closely related to LSDV KSGP-0240, LSDV NI2490, and LSDV Kenya. CONCLUSIONS: These results show the importance of continuous monitoring and characterization of circulating strains and the need to continually refine the strategies for differentiating vaccine strains from field viruses.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438260

RESUMO

An important mediator of inflammation is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), whose levels are determined by the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). Of the two isoforms of the enzyme, COX-2 has been shown to be induced in macrophages during inflammation. Although general COX inhibitors, belonging to the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or specific COX-2 inhibitors, called coxibs, are useful in the control of acute inflammation, adverse reactions were seen when used chronically in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or neurodegenerative diseases. Extracellular ATP (eATP) has been reported as a damage-associated molecular pattern signal. In this report, we show that eATP synergistically increases the levels of COX-2 enzyme and PGE2 in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages and human monocytes. Activation of macrophages also occurred when cultured in media obtained from dying neurons that contained higher levels of ATP. We show that eATP increases the levels of COX-2 protein, which is sustained up to 36 h poststimulation. This is in turn due to sustained levels of phosphorylated, or activated, cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and p38 MAPK in ATP-treated cells compared to LPS-stimulated cells. The eATP-dependent increase in COX-2/PGE2 levels in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells could be abolished using antagonists for purinergic P2X7 -and P2Y6 receptors. Similarly, the increase in COX-2/PGE2 levels in the peritoneum of LPS-treated mice could be significantly abolished in mice that were preinjected with the nonspecific P2 receptor antagonist, suramin. P2 receptor antagonists, therefore, should be explored in our search for an ideal anti-inflammatory candidate.

4.
Nutrition ; 81: 110860, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Consumption of soft drinks has become a serious public health issue worldwide. However, prospective evidence is limited regarding the relationship between soft drink consumption and depression, especially in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective association between soft drink consumption and the development of depressive symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated an occupational cohort of 935 adults in Japan (2012-2016), who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline and attended a 3-y follow-up assessment. Soft drink consumption was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and occupational covariates. RESULTS: Over the 3-y study period, 16.9% (158 cases) of the study participants reported depressive symptoms. Higher soft drink consumption was associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted OR was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.11-3.29; Ptrend = 0.015) when comparing soft drink consumption of ≥4 cups/wk with consumption of <1 cup/wk. CONCLUSION: The present results suggested that greater consumption of soft drinks would increase the likelihood of exhibiting depressive symptoms.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276988

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional associations between frequency of eating with others and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees while accounting for lifestyle and dietary factors. We also examined the relationship with stratification by living arrangement. Participants were 1876 workers aged 18-74 years who participated in a health survey at a periodic checkup. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Frequency of eating with others was categorized into ranges between daily and <1 day/week. Associations between frequency of eating with others and depressive symptoms were assessed using logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 32.9%. The prevalence of depressive symptoms tended to increase with decreasing frequency of eating with others, with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest through lowest frequency groups of eating meals with others being 1.00 (reference), 1.27 (0.92-1.74), 1.56 (1.11-2.21), 1.86 (1.29-2.67), and 2.22 (1.53-3.22), respectively (P for trend<0.001). In analysis stratified by living arrangement, a significant association was found with those living with others but not those living alone (P for interaction <0.001). Lower frequency of eating with others may be associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers living with others, even after controlling for lifestyle and dietary factors.

6.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score (based on percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality among Asians. DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 16.9 years involving 43008 men and 50646 women aged 45-75 years. Association of LCD score, LCD score based on animal sources of protein and fat, and LCD score based on plant sources of protein and fat with risk of mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764504

RESUMO

Calcium and phosphate may play an important role in cardio-metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes; however, epidemiological evidence of the association of calcium and phosphate status with glucose metabolism among Asians is limited. In the current study, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of the association of serum calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product concentrations with glucose metabolism markers among Japanese individuals. Overall, 1701 workers (aged 18-78 years) who participated in a health survey were enrolled in this study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate means of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum calcium concentration was positively associated with HOMA-IR and HbA1c (p for trend < 0.01). Multivariable-adjusted means (95% confidence interval (CI)) of HOMA-IR for the lowest and highest quartiles of serum calcium were 0.78 (0.75-0.82) and 1.01 (0.96-1.07), respectively. The corresponding values for HbA1c were 5.24 (5.22-5.27) and 5.29 (5.26-5.32), respectively. Serum phosphate and calcium-phosphate product concentrations were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (p for trend < 0.01). Multivariable-adjusted means (95% CI) of HOMA-IR for the lowest and highest quartiles of serum phosphate were 1.04 (0.99-1.09) and 0.72 (0.69-0.76), respectively. The corresponding values for calcium-phosphate product were 1.04 (0.99-1.09) and 0.73 (0.69-0.77), respectively. The current findings suggest that higher serum calcium and lower serum phosphate concentrations are associated with IR among apparently healthy adults.

9.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 106, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is estimated to infect 390 million people annually. However, few host factors that alter disease severity are known. Malnutrition, defined as both over- and undernutrition, is a growing problem worldwide and has long been linked to dengue disease severity by epidemiological and anecdotal observations. Accordingly, we sought to establish a mouse model to assess the impact of nutritional status on DENV disease severity. RESULTS: Using transiently immunocompromised mice, we established a model of mild dengue disease with measurable viremia. We then applied it to study the effects of healthy weight, obese, and low-protein diets representing normal, over-, and undernutrition, respectively. Upon infection with DENV serotype 2, obese mice experienced more severe morbidity in the form of weight loss and thrombocytopenia compared to healthy weight groups. Additionally, obesity altered cytokine expression following DENV infection. Although low protein-fed mice did not lose significant weight after DENV2 infection, they also experienced a reduction in platelets as well as increased spleen pathology and viral titers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that obese or undernourished mice incur greater disease severity after DENV infection. These studies establish a role for nutritional status in DENV disease severity.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664291

RESUMO

We examined the association of dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) in overall diet, and separately from foods and beverages, with serum liver enzymes in a Japanese working population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1791 employees aged 18-69 years, who underwent a comprehensive health checkup in 2012-2013. A brief validated self-administered diet-history questionnaire was used for dietary assessment, and dietary NEAC intake was determined from databases of NEAC values, obtained using ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The dietary NEAC intake was calculated by multiplying the estimated NEAC values by the amounts consumed and summing the resulting values. A multiple-regression analysis was performed to explore the association between dietary NEAC intake and the serum levels of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)), after adjustment for confounding factors. No significant associations were found between overall dietary NEAC intake and AST (FRAP, p for trend = 0.97; ORAC, p = 0.72), ALT (FRAP, p = 0.73; ORAC, p = 0.92), and GGT (FRAP, p = 0.96; ORAC, p = 0.19) levels. Food-derived, but not beverage-derived, NEAC intake was inversely associated with serum GGT levels (FRAP, p for trend = 0.001; ORAC, p = 0.02), particularly among older participants and those with high serum ferritin concentrations. The results imply that overall dietary NEAC intake is not associated with liver dysfunction, and that the NEAC values from foods may be inversely associated with serum GGT levels.

11.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23437, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While several experimental studies in animals and humans have suggested the protective effect of nightly fasting duration (NFD) against cardiometabolic risk factors, few population-based studies have been conducted. This study aimed to investigate the association between NFD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Japanese non-shift workers. METHODS: A subset of 1054 non-shift workers from the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study were included in this analysis. Participants completed dietary and lifestyle surveys during a periodic checkup. NFD was defined as the time between dinner and breakfast and was categorized into four groups (ie, ≥12 hours, 11 hours, 10 hours, and ≤9 hours). MetS was defined as ≥3 of the following components: high waist circumference (≥90 cm [men] and ≥80 cm [women]), high triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dL [men] and <50 mg/dL [women]), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg), and high fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c ≥5.6%). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NFD and MetS. RESULTS: The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of MetS for the highest (≥12 hours) through lowest (≤9 hours) NFD categories were 1.00 (reference), 0.83 (0.51-1.35), 0.83 (0.48-1.43), and 0.80 (0.43-1.48) (P for trend = 0.50) after adjusting for covariates. Further analyses on the relationship between NFD and each MetS component found no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any evidence of a significant association between NFD and MetS among non-shift workers in Japan.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): e62, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329779

RESUMO

Recent advances in genomic technologies have generated data on large-scale protein-DNA interactions and open chromatin regions for many eukaryotic species. How to identify condition-specific functions of transcription factors using these data has become a major challenge in genomic research. To solve this problem, we have developed a method called ConSReg, which provides a novel approach to integrate regulatory genomic data into predictive machine learning models of key regulatory genes. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we tested our approach to identify regulatory genes in data sets from single cell gene expression and from abiotic stress treatments. Our results showed that ConSReg accurately predicted transcription factors that regulate differentially expressed genes with an average auROC of 0.84, which is 23.5-25% better than enrichment-based approaches. To further validate the performance of ConSReg, we analyzed an independent data set related to plant nitrogen responses. ConSReg provided better rankings of the correct transcription factors in 61.7% of cases, which is three times better than other plant tools. We applied ConSReg to Arabidopsis single cell RNA-seq data, successfully identifying candidate regulatory genes that control cell wall formation. Our methods provide a new approach to define candidate regulatory genes using integrated genomic data in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes Reguladores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Aprendizado Profundo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 36: 91-98, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, and a diet high in antioxidants may improve mood. However, studies addressing this issue are scarce. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the prospective association between dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) in overall diet and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees. Additionally, we examined the association separated by dietary NEAC sources. METHOD: Participants were 911 workers without depressive symptoms at baseline and participated in 3-y follow-up survey. Dietary NEAC was determined from a database of NEAC measurements obtained by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Dietary NEAC was calculated by multiplying the estimated NEAC values with the consumed amount and summing up those values. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms according to overall NEAC and separately from foods and beverages. RESULTS: At 3-y follow-up, 153 (16.8%) workers were newly identified as having depressive symptom. No significant associations were found between higher level of overall dietary NEAC and decreased risk of depressive symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders (overall: FRAP, P for trend = 0.19 and ORAC, P for trend = 0.20). Likewise, neither higher dietary NEAC from foods nor beverages were related with lower depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings did not support an inverse association between dietary NEAC and the risk of depressive symptoms in Japanese workers.

14.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12098, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among middle-aged working Japanese men. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed among middle-aged male employees who underwent periodic health checkup. A total of 241 CVD cases were identified and matched individually on age, gender, and worksite with 1205 controls. Data on BMI, WC, WHtR, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia collected at 4 years before the event/index date were retrieved. Associations between BMI, WC, WHtR, and CVD risk were assessed by using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The strength of the association of BMI, WC, and WHtR with CVD risk was similar. The smoking-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for CVD was 1.60 (1.38-1.85), 1.53 (1.33-1.78), and 1.56 (1.35-1.81) for a 1 SD unit increase in BMI, WC, and WHtR respectively. After further adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, these associations were attenuated but remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of general (BMI) and abdominal (WC and WHtR) obesity were similarly associated with CVD in middle-aged Japanese men.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12095, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to estimate cumulative incidence of overweight and obesity and describe 5-year longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) in a large occupational cohort in Japan. METHODS: Participants were 55 229 Japanese employees, who were aged 20-59 years and attended at all subsequent annual health check-ups between 2009 and 2014. Mixed model analysis was performed to examine the effects of age and cohort by gender on BMI change, with age as a random variable. Cumulative incidence of overweight (23.0≤ BMI <27.5 kg/m2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2 ) was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for the incidence of overweight and obesity according to age group. RESULTS: The incidence of overweight and obesity was approximately double in men (28.3% and 6.7%, respectively) compared to women (14.3% and 3.9%, respectively).The incidence of obesity decreased with age in men, but did not differ according to age in women (P for trend: .02 and .89, respectively). Among overweight participants, the incidence of obesity was higher in women (18.9%) than men (14.5%) and decreased with advancing age (P for trend: <.001 in men and .003 in women). Mean BMI was higher in men than women in all age groups throughout the period. Younger cohorts tended to have a higher BMI change compared with older cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese occupational cohort, transition from overweight to obesity is higher in women than men, and the more recent cohorts had a higher change in mean BMI than the older cohorts.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sleep ; 43(1)2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555821

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Social jetlag, a mismatch between biological and social timing, has been reported to be associated with depressive symptoms among general population. However, evidence on this association is lacking among non-shift workers, who are under pressure to adapt themselves to a work schedule. We investigated the cross-sectional association of social jetlag with depressive symptoms among Japanese non-shift workers. METHODS: This study included 1,404 employees, aged 18-78 years, who completed a study questionnaire at a periodic health checkup. Social jetlag was calculated as the absolute value of the difference in the midpoint of sleep times between weekdays and weekends. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with adjustments for potential confounders including diet and chronotype. RESULTS: Of the study participants, 63.5%, 28.4%, and 8.1% had less than 1 hour, 1 to less than 2 hours, and at least 2 hours of social jetlag, respectively. Greater social jetlag was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval) were 1.30 (0.95 to 1.78) and 2.14 (1.26-3.62) for 1 to less than 2 hour and at least 2 hours compared to less than 1 hour of social jetlag. The association between social jetlag and depressive symptoms appeared to be linear, according to restricted cubic spline regression. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that greater social jetlag is associated with an increased likelihood of having depressive symptoms among non-shift workers.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Probabilidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Nutr ; 39(3): 870-875, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The existing yet limited prospective studies reported conflicting results about obesity and hearing loss. We investigated the prospective association between obesity and hearing loss in a large-scale Japanese working population, as well as the association between metabolic phenotype and hearing loss. METHODS: The study included 48,549 employees aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the risk of hearing loss associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic phenotype (based on a BMI of ≥25.0/<25.0 kg/m2 and presence/absence of ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome, except waist circumference). Baseline and updated information were obtained from annual health checkups. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 7 years, 1595 and 3625 individuals developed unilateral hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hearing loss at 1 kHz were 1.21 (1.08, 1.36) and 1.66 (1.33, 2.08) for those with BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2, respectively, compared to individuals with BMI <25.0 kg/m2. For hearing loss at 4 kHz, the corresponding HRs were 1.14 (1.05, 1.23) and 1.29 (1.09, 1.52). Compared with metabolically healthy non-obese individuals, the adjusted HRs for hearing loss at 1 kHz were 1.19 (1.03, 1.39), 1.27 (1.01, 1.61), and 1.48 (1.25, 1.76) for unhealthy non-obese, healthy obese, and unhealthy obese individuals, respectively. For hearing loss at 4 kHz, the corresponding HRs were 1.13 (1.04, 1.25), 1.21 (1.04, 1.41), and 1.26 (1.12, 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of hearing loss, and metabolically unhealthy obesity may confer additional risk.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(4): 1218-1224, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increasing evidence has suggested a protective role of vitamin D on diabetes, but epidemiologic evidence is scarce among Asian populations. Here we prospectively examined the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in Japanese individuals. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a biomarker cohort of 4754 employees (baseline age 34-69 years) who had attended in a comprehensive health checkup and donated a blood sample. Diabetes diagnosis was based on plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and self-reporting during the 5-year follow-up. Using density sampling, two controls were randomly matched to each case by sex, age, and date of checkup; 336 cases and 668 controls had serum 25(OH)D3 data. Association between serum 25[OH]D3 and the risk of T2D was assessed using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D3 was significantly and inversely associated with T2D risk after adjustment for known risk factors other than BMI (OR [highest vs. lowest serum 25(OH)D3 quartile] = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.92; P for trend = 0.03). This association was somewhat attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.40-1.08; P for trend = 0.08). The inverse association was more evident among individuals whose blood samples were taken during the darker season (OR = 0.45; P for trend = 0.01). In the highest quartile of 25(OH)D3, progression from prediabetes to T2D was about 37% lower than in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating 25(OH)D3 was associated with a lower risk of T2D, and this association was stronger among individuals whose blood was taken during the darker season and among those with prediabetes.

19.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between tobacco smoking and sick leave (SL) in Japan. METHODS: We followed 70,896 workers aged 20-59 years (60,133 males, 10,763 females) between April 2012 and March 2017. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the associations between smoking (smoking status and intensity) and long-term SL (i.e., SL lasting ≥ 30 consecutive days). Cause-specific analyses were also conducted. RESULTS: A total of 1,777 people took long-term SL during a follow-up of 307,749 person-years. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were at a higher risk of long-term SL (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17-1.46). Cause-specific analyses revealed that current smoking was associated with a higher risk of SL due to all physical disorders (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.21-1.67), cancer (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.10-2.00), cardiovascular disease (CVD; HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.26-3.45), and external causes (HR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.31-2.59). Former smokers were at a higher risk of SL due to cancer at a borderline significance level (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.98-1.91). Low-intensity smoking (i.e., 1-10 cigarettes smoked per day) was associated with all-cause SL, SL due to CVD, and SL due to external causes, compared with never smokers. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of working-age Japanese, smoking was associated with a greater risk of long-term sick leave. Greater effort is needed to mitigate disease burden associated with smoking at workplace in Japan. IMPLICATIONS: Our study contributes to the literature on the association between smoking and sick leave in several ways. First, the study was conducted among a Japanese working population. While the association has been extensively studied in Western setting, few attempts have been made elsewhere. Second, cause-specific analyses were undertaken in our study. Third, we paid attention to the effect of low-intensity smoking on sick leave given that there is growing evidence of an elevated health risk associated with low-intensity smoking.

20.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
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