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1.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 13, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household surveys remain important sources of stillbirth data, but omission and misclassification are common. Classifying adverse pregnancy outcomes as stillbirths requires accurate reporting of vital status at birth and gestational age or birthweight for every pregnancy. Further categorisation, e.g. by sex, or timing (intrapartum/antepartum) improves data to understand and prevent stillbirth. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional population-based survey of women of reproductive age in five health and demographic surveillance system sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). All women answered a full birth history with pregnancy loss questions (FBH+) or a full pregnancy history (FPH). A sub-sample across both groups were asked additional stillbirth questions. Questions were evaluated using descriptive measures. Using an interpretative paradigm and phenomenology methodology, focus group discussions with women exploring barriers to reporting birthweight for stillbirths were conducted. Thematic analysis was guided by an a priori codebook. RESULTS: Overall 69,176 women reported 98,483 livebirths (FBH+) and 102,873 pregnancies (FPH). Additional questions were asked for 1453 stillbirths, 1528 neonatal deaths and 12,620 surviving children born in the 5 years prior to the survey. Completeness was high (> 99%) for existing FBH+/FPH questions on signs of life at birth and gestational age (months). Discordant responses in signs of life at birth between different questions were common; nearly one-quarter classified as stillbirths on FBH+/FPH were reported born alive on additional questions. Availability of information on gestational age (weeks) (58.1%) and birthweight (13.2%) was low amongst stillbirths, and heaping was common. Most women (93.9%) were able to report the sex of their stillborn baby. Response completeness for stillbirth timing (18.3-95.1%) and estimated proportion intrapartum (15.6-90.0%) varied by question and site. Congenital malformations were reported in 3.1% stillbirths. Perceived value in weighing a stillborn baby varied and barriers to weighing at birth a nd knowing birthweight were common. CONCLUSIONS: Improving stillbirth data in surveys will require investment in improving the measurement of vital status, gestational age and birthweight by healthcare providers, communication of these with women, and overcoming reporting barriers. Given the large burden and effect on families, improved data must be made available to end preventable stillbirths.

2.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, an estimated 5.1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually, 98% in low- and middle-income countries. Limited coverage of civil and vital registration systems necessitates reliance on women's retrospective reporting in household surveys for data on these deaths. The predominant platform, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), has evolved over the last 35 years and differs by country, yet no previous study has described these differences and the effects of these changes on stillbirth and neonatal death measurement. METHODS: We undertook a review of DHS model questionnaires, protocols and methodological reports from DHS-I to DHS-VII, focusing on the collection of information on stillbirth and neonatal deaths describing differences in approaches, questionnaires and geographic reach up to December 9, 2019. We analysed the resultant data, applied previously used data quality criteria including ratios of stillbirth rate (SBR) to neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and early NMR (ENMR) to NMR, comparing by country, over time and by DHS module. RESULTS: DHS has conducted >320 surveys in 90 countries since 1984. Two types of maternity history have been used: full birth history (FBH) and full pregnancy history (FPH). A FBH collecting information only on live births has been included in all model questionnaires to date, with data on stillbirths collected through a reproductive calendar (DHS II-VI) or using additional questions on non-live births (DHS-VII). FPH collecting information on all pregnancies including live births, miscarriages, abortions and stillbirths has been used in 17 countries. We found no evidence of variation in stillbirth data quality assessed by SBR:NMR over time for FBH surveys with reproductive calendar, some variation for surveys with FBH in DHS-VII and most variation among the surveys conducted with a FPH. ENMR:NMR ratio increased over time, which may reflect changes in data quality or real epidemiological change. CONCLUSION: DHS remains the major data source for pregnancy outcomes worldwide. Although the DHS model questionnaire has evolved over the last three and half decades, more robust evidence is required concerning optimal methods to obtain accurate data on stillbirths and neonatal deaths through household surveys and also to develop and test standardised data quality criteria.

3.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 10, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paradata are (timestamped) records tracking the process of (electronic) data collection. We analysed paradata from a large household survey of questions capturing pregnancy outcomes to assess performance (timing and correction processes). We examined how paradata can be used to inform and improve questionnaire design and survey implementation in nationally representative household surveys, the major source for maternal and newborn health data worldwide. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH cross-sectional population-based survey of women of reproductive age in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites (in Bangladesh, Guinea-Bissau, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda) randomly compared two modules to capture pregnancy outcomes: full pregnancy history (FPH) and the standard DHS-7 full birth history (FBH+). We used paradata related to answers recorded on tablets using the Survey Solutions platform. We evaluated the difference in paradata entries between the two reproductive modules and assessed which question characteristics (type, nature, structure) affect answer correction rates, using regression analyses. We also proposed and tested a new classification of answer correction types. RESULTS: We analysed 3.6 million timestamped entries from 65,768 interviews. 83.7% of all interviews had at least one corrected answer to a question. Of 3.3 million analysed questions, 7.5% had at least one correction. Among corrected questions, the median number of corrections was one, regardless of question characteristics. We classified answer corrections into eight types (no correction, impulsive, flat (simple), zigzag, flat zigzag, missing after correction, missing after flat (zigzag) correction, missing/incomplete). 84.6% of all corrections were judged not to be problematic with a flat (simple) mistake correction. Question characteristics were important predictors of probability to make answer corrections, even after adjusting for respondent's characteristics and location, with interviewer clustering accounted as a fixed effect. Answer correction patterns and types were similar between FPH and FBH+, as well as the overall response duration. Avoiding corrections has the potential to reduce interview duration and reproductive module completion by 0.4 min. CONCLUSIONS: The use of questionnaire paradata has the potential to improve measurement and the resultant quality of electronic data. Identifying sections or specific questions with multiple corrections sheds light on typically hidden challenges in the survey's content, process, and administration, allowing for earlier real-time intervention (e.g.,, questionnaire content revision or additional staff training). Given the size and complexity of paradata, additional time, data management, and programming skills are required to realise its potential.

4.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 9, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic data collection is increasingly used for household surveys, but factors influencing design and implementation have not been widely studied. The Every Newborn-INDEPTH (EN-INDEPTH) study was a multi-site survey using electronic data collection in five INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites. METHODS: We described experiences and learning involved in the design and implementation of the EN-INDEPTH survey, and undertook six focus group discussions with field and research team to explore their experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted in NVivo12 using an iterative process guided by a priori themes. RESULTS: Five steps of the process of selecting, adapting and implementing electronic data collection in the EN-INDEPTH study are described. Firstly, we reviewed possible electronic data collection platforms, and selected the World Bank's Survey Solutions® as the most suited for the EN-INDEPTH study. Secondly, the survey questionnaire was coded and translated into local languages, and further context-specific adaptations were made. Thirdly, data collectors were selected and trained using standardised manual. Training varied between 4.5 and 10 days. Fourthly, instruments were piloted in the field and the questionnaires finalised. During data collection, data collectors appreciated the built-in skip patterns and error messages. Internet connection unreliability was a challenge, especially for data synchronisation. For the fifth and final step, data management and analyses, it was considered that data quality was higher and less time was spent on data cleaning. The possibility to use paradata to analyse survey timing and corrections was valued. Synchronisation and data transfer should be given special consideration. CONCLUSION: We synthesised experiences using electronic data collection in a multi-site household survey, including perceived advantages and challenges. Our recommendations for others considering electronic data collection include ensuring adaptations of tools to local context, piloting/refining the questionnaire in one site first, buying power banks to mitigate against power interruption and paying attention to issues such as GPS tracking and synchronisation, particularly in settings with poor internet connectivity.

5.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 17, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birthweight (< 2500 g) is an important marker of maternal health and is associated with neonatal mortality, long-term development and chronic diseases. Household surveys remain an important source of population-based birthweight information, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS); however, data quality concerns remain. Few studies have addressed how to close these gaps in surveys. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of 69,176 women was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites (Matlab-Bangladesh, Dabat-Ethiopia, Kintampo-Ghana, Bandim-Guinea-Bissau, IgangaMayuge-Uganda). Responses to existing DHS/MICS birthweight questions on 14,411 livebirths were analysed and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) associated with reporting weighing, birthweight and heaping reported. Twenty-eight focus group discussions with women and interviewers explored barriers and enablers to reporting birthweight. RESULTS: Almost all women provided responses to birthweight survey questions, taking on average 0.2 min to answer. Of all babies, 62.4% were weighed at birth, 53.8% reported birthweight and 21.1% provided health cards with recorded birthweight. High levels of heterogeneity were observed between sites. Home births and neonatal deaths were less likely to be weighed at birth (home births aOR 0.03(95%CI 0.02-0.03), neonatal deaths (aOR 0.19(95%CI 0.16-0.24)), and when weighed, actual birthweight was less likely to be known (aOR 0.44(95%CI 0.33-0.58), aOR 0.30(95%CI 0.22-0.41)) compared to facility births and post-neonatal survivors. Increased levels of maternal education were associated with increases in reporting weighing and knowing birthweight. Half of recorded birthweights were heaped on multiples of 500 g. Heaping was more common in IgangaMayuge (aOR 14.91(95%CI 11.37-19.55) and Dabat (aOR 14.25(95%CI 10.13-20.3) compared to Bandim. Recalled birthweights were more heaped than those recorded by card (aOR 2.59(95%CI 2.11-3.19)). A gap analysis showed large missed opportunity between facility birth and known birthweight, especially for neonatal deaths. Qualitative data suggested that knowing their baby's weight was perceived as valuable by women in all sites, but lack of measurement and poor communication, alongside social perceptions and spiritual beliefs surrounding birthweight, impacted women's ability to report birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial data gaps remain for birthweight data in household surveys, even amongst facility births. Improving the accuracy and recording of birthweights, and better communication with women, for example using health cards, could improve survey birthweight data availability and quality.

6.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 14, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth registration is a child's first right. Registration of live births, stillbirths and deaths is foundational for national planning. Completeness of birth registration for live births in low- and middle-income countries is measured through population-based surveys which do not currently include completeness of stillbirth or death registration. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). In four African sites, we included new/modified questions regarding registration for 1177 stillbirths and 11,881 livebirths (1333 neonatal deaths and 10,548 surviving the neonatal period). Questions were evaluated for completeness of responses, data quality, time to administer and estimates of registration completeness using descriptive statistics. Timing of birth registration, factors associated with non-registration and reported barriers were assessed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost all women, irrespective of their baby's survival, responded to registration questions, taking an average of < 1 min. Reported completeness of birth registration was 30.7% (6.1-53.5%) for babies surviving the neonatal period, compared to 1.7% for neonatal deaths (0.4-5.7%). Women were able to report age at birth registration for 93.6% of babies. Non-registration of babies surviving the neonatal period was significantly higher for home-born children (aOR 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.60)) and in Dabat (Ethiopia) (aOR 4.11 (95% CI 3.37-5.01)). Other socio-demographic factors associated with non-registration included younger age of mother, more prior births, little or no education, and lower socio-economic status. Neonatal death registration questions were feasible (100% women responded; only 1% did not know), revealing extremely low completeness with only 1.2% of neonatal deaths reported as registered. Despite > 70% of stillbirths occurring in facilities, only 2.5% were reported as registered. CONCLUSIONS: Questions on birth, stillbirth and death registration were feasible in a household survey. Completeness of birth registration is low in all four sites, but stillbirth and neonatal death registration was very low. Closing the registration gap amongst facility births could increase registration of both livebirths and facility deaths, including stillbirths, but will require co-ordination between civil registration systems and the often over-stretched health sector. Investment and innovation is required to capture birth and especially deaths in both facility and community systems.

7.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 16, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. However, GA is rarely assessed in population-based surveys, the major data source in low/middle-income countries. We examined the performance of new questions to measure GA in household surveys, a subset of which had linked early pregnancy ultrasound GA data. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of 69,176 women was undertaken (2017-2018) in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda. We included questions regarding GA in months (GAm) for all women and GA in weeks (GAw) for a subset; we also asked if the baby was 'born before expected' to estimate preterm birth rates. Survey data were linked to surveillance data in two sites, and to ultrasound pregnancy dating at <24 weeks in one site. We assessed completeness and quality of reported GA. We examined the validity of estimated preterm birth rates by sensitivity and specificity, over/under-reporting of GAw in survey compared to ultrasound by multinomial logistic regression, and explored perceptions about GA and barriers and enablers to its reporting using focus group discussions (n = 29). RESULTS: GAm questions were almost universally answered, but heaping on 9 months resulted in underestimation of preterm birth rates. Preference for reporting GAw in even numbers was evident, resulting in heaping at 36 weeks; hence, over-estimating preterm birth rates, except in Matlab where the peak was at 38 weeks. Questions regarding 'born before expected' were answered but gave implausibly low preterm birth rates in most sites. Applying ultrasound as the gold standard in Matlab site, sensitivity of survey-GAw for detecting preterm birth (GAw <37) was 60% and specificity was 93%. Focus group findings suggest that women perceive GA to be important, but usually counted in months. Antenatal care attendance, women's education and health cards may improve reporting. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published study assessing GA reporting in surveys, compared with the gold standard of ultrasound. Reporting GAw within 5 years' recall is feasible with high completeness, but accuracy is affected by heaping. Compared to ultrasound-GAw, results are reasonably specific, but sensitivity needs to be improved. We propose revised questions based on the study findings for further testing and validation in settings where pregnancy ultrasound data and/or last menstrual period dates/GA recorded in pregnancy are available. Specific training of interviewers is recommended.

8.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 7, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global mortality estimates remain heavily dependent on household surveys in low- and middle-income countries, where most under-five deaths occur. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of mortality data or determinants of capturing births in surveys. METHODS: The Every Newborn-INDEPTH study (EN-INDEPTH) included a large, multi-country survey of women aged 15-49 interviewed about livebirths and their survival status in five Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs). The HDSSs undertake regular household visits to register births and deaths for a given population. We analysed EN-INDEPTH survey data to assess background factors associated with not recalling a complete date-of-birth. We calculated Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for both survey and HDSS data and describe age-at-death distributions during the past 5 years for children born to the same women. We assessed the proportion of HDSS-births that could be matched on month-of-birth to survey-births and used regression models to identify factors associated with matching. RESULTS: 69,176 women interviewed in the survey reported 109,817 births and 3064 deaths in children under 5 years in the 5 years prior to the survey. In the HDSS data, the same women had 83,768 registered births and 2335 under-five deaths in the same period. A complete date-of-birth was not reported for 1-7% of survey-births. Birthdates were less likely to be complete for dead children and children born to women of higher parity or with little/no education. Distributions of reported age-at-death indicated heaping at full weeks (neonatal period) and at 12 months. Heaping was more pronounced in the survey data. Survey estimates of under-five mortality rates were similar to HDSS estimates of under-five mortality in two of five sites, higher in the survey in two sites (15%, 41%) and lower (24%) in one site. The proportion of HDSS-births matched to survey-births ranged from 51 to 89% across HDSSs and births of children who had died were less likely to be matched. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality estimates in the survey and HDSS were not markedly different for most sites. However, neither source is a "gold standard" and both sources miss some events. Research is required to improve capture and accuracy to better track newborn and child survival targets.

9.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 11, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household surveys remain important sources of maternal and child health data, but until now, standard surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have not collected information on maternity care for women who have experienced a stillbirth. Thus, nationally representative data are lacking to inform programmes to address the millions of stillbirths which occur annually. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). All women answered a full birth history with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+) or full pregnancy history (FPH). A sub-sample, including all women reporting a recent stillbirth or neonatal death, was asked additional maternity care questions. These were evaluated using descriptive measures. Associations between stillbirth and maternal socio-demographic characteristics, babies' characteristics and maternity care use were assessed using a weighted logistic regression model for women in the FBH+ group. RESULTS: A total of 15,591 women reporting a birth since 1 January 2012 answered maternity care questions. Completeness was very high (> 99%), with similar proportions of responses for both live and stillbirths. Amongst the 14,991 births in the FBH+ group, poorer wealth status, higher parity, large perceived baby size-at-birth, preterm or post-term birth, birth in a government hospital compared to other locations and vaginal birth were associated with increased risk of stillbirth after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Regarding association with reported postnatal care, women with a stillbirth were more likely to report hospital stays of > 1 day. However, women with a stillbirth were less likely to report having received a postnatal check compared to those with a live birth. CONCLUSIONS: Women who had experienced stillbirth were able to respond to questions about pregnancy and birth, and we found no reason to omit questions to these women in household surveys. Our analysis identified several potentially modifiable factors associated with stillbirth, adding to the evidence-base for policy and action in low- and middle-income contexts. Including these questions in DHS-8 would lead to increased availability of population-level data to inform action to end preventable stillbirths.

11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e555-e566, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 5·1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Household surveys, most notably the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), run in more than 90 countries and are the main data source from the highest burden regions, but data-quality concerns remain. We aimed to compare two questionnaires: a full birth history module with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+; the current DHS standard) and a full pregnancy history module (FPH), which collects information on all livebirths, stillbirths, miscarriages, and neonatal deaths. METHODS: Women residing in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites within the INDEPTH Network (Bandim in Guinea-Bissau, Dabat in Ethiopia, IgangaMayuge in Uganda, Matlab in Bangladesh, and Kintampo in Ghana) were randomly assigned (individually) to be interviewed using either FBH+ or FPH between July 28, 2017, and Aug 13, 2018. The primary outcomes were stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the 5 years before the survey interview (measured by stillbirth rate [SBR] and neonatal mortality rate [NMR]) and mean time taken to complete the maternity history section of the questionnaire. We also assessed between-site heterogeneity. This study is registered with the Research Registry, 4720. FINDINGS: 69 176 women were allocated to be interviewed by either FBH+ (n=34 805) or FPH (n=34 371). The mean time taken to complete FPH (10·5 min) was longer than for FBH+ (9·1 min; p<0·0001). Using FPH, the estimated SBR was 17·4 per 1000 total births, 21% (95% CI -10 to 62) higher than with FBH+ (15·2 per 1000 total births; p=0·20) in the 5 years preceding the survey interview. There was strong evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=80·9%; p<0·0001), with SBR higher for FPH than for FBH+ in four of five sites. The estimated NMR did not differ between modules (FPH 25·1 per 1000 livebirths vs FBH+ 25·4 per 1000 livebirths), with no evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=0·7%; p=0·40). INTERPRETATION: FPH takes an average of 1·4 min longer to complete than does FBH+, but has the potential to increase reporting of stillbirths in high burden contexts. The between-site heterogeneity we found might reflect variations in interviewer training and survey implementation, emphasising the importance of interviewer skills, training, and consistent implementation in data quality. FUNDING: Children's Investment Fund Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 54, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the greatest challenges that countries face regarding the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child health regard the actions required to improve neonatal health; these interventions have to be informed by evidence. In view of the persisting high numbers of newborn deaths in Uganda, we aimed to define a locally contextualised national research agenda for newborn health to guide national investments towards SDG targets. METHODS: We adopted a systematic approach for priority-setting adapted from the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. We identified and listed local newborn researchers and experts in Uganda by reviewing the PubMed database, through a snowballing technique, and engaged the Ministry of Health. Participants were requested to generate at least three research questions. The collated questions were sent to the same expert group to be rated using five criteria, including answerability, scalability, impact, generalisability and speed. FINDINGS: Of the 300 researchers and stakeholders contacted, 104 responded (36%) and generated 304 questions. These questions were collated and duplicates removed giving a condensed list of 41 research questions. These questions were then rated by 82 experts. Of the top 15 research questions, 86.7% (13/15) were in the service delivery and 6.7% (1/15) in the development domain, while only 6.7% (1/15) was in the group 'other'. None of the leading 15 questions was in the discovery domain. Strategies to improve quality of intrapartum care featured high in the responses, while research around care for premature babies was not a perceived focus of research. CONCLUSIONS: The focus of improved evidence to guide and innovate service delivery, foremost intrapartum care, reflects the importance of this area as accelerated improvement is likely to yield fast and sustained survival gains in the neonatal period and beyond in Uganda. We recommend that other countries adapt a similar approach in defining priority reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health areas for investment in order to accelerate progress towards achieving the SDGs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Objetivos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Assistência Perinatal , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Uganda
13.
Int J Public Health ; 64(6): 909-920, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared pregnancy identification methods and outcome capture across 31 Health Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. METHODS: From 2009 to 2014, details on the sites and surveillance systems including frequency of update rounds, characteristics of enumerators and interviewers, acceptable respondents were collected and compared across sites. RESULTS: The 31 HDSS had a combined population of over 2,905,602 with 165,820 births for the period. Stillbirth rate ranged from 1.9 to 42.6 deaths per 1000 total births and the neonatal mortality rate from 2.6 to 41.6 per 1000 live births. Three quarters (75.3%) of recorded neonatal deaths occurred in the first week of life. The proportion of infant deaths that occurred in the neonatal period ranged from 8 to 83%, with a median of 53%. Sites that registered pregnancies upon locating a live baby in the routine household surveillance round had lower recorded mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Increased attention and standardization of pregnancy surveillance and the time of birth will improve data collection and provide platforms for evaluations and availability of data for decision-making with implications for national planning.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010901, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820319

RESUMO

Background: Under-five and maternal mortality were halved in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) era, with slower reductions for 2.6 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths. The Every Newborn Action Plan aims to accelerate progress towards national targets, and includes an ambitious Measurement Improvement Roadmap. Population-based household surveys, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are major sources of population-level data on child mortality in countries with weaker civil registration and vital statistics systems, where over two-thirds of global child deaths occur. To estimate neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, miscarriages, birthweight, gestational age) the most common direct methods are: (1) the standard DHS-7 with Full Birth History with additional questions on pregnancy losses in the past 5 years (FBH+) or (2) a Full Pregnancy History (FPH). No direct comparison of these two methods has been undertaken, although descriptive analyses suggest that the FBH+ may underestimate mortality rates particularly for stillbirths. Methods: This is the protocol paper for the Every Newborn-INDEPTH study (INDEPTH Network, International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Every Newborn, Every Newborn Action Plan), aiming to undertake a randomised comparison of FBH+ and FPH to measure pregnancy outcomes in a household survey in five selected INDEPTH Network sites in Africa and South Asia (Bandim in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau; Dabat in Ethiopia; IgangaMayuge in Uganda; Kintampo in Ghana; Matlab in Bangladesh). The survey will reach >68 000 pregnancies to assess if there is ≥15% difference in stillbirth rates. Additional questions will capture birthweight, gestational age, birth/death certification, termination of pregnancy and fertility intentions. The World Bank's Survey Solutions platform will be tailored for data collection, including recording paradata to evaluate timing. A mixed methods assessment of barriers and enablers to reporting of pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes will be undertaken. Conclusions: This large-scale study is the first randomised comparison of these two methods to capture pregnancy outcomes. Results are expected to inform the evidence base for survey methodology, especially in DHS, regarding capture of stillbirths and other outcomes, notably neonatal deaths, abortions (spontaneous and induced), birthweight and gestational age. In addition, this study will inform strategies to improve health and demographic surveillance capture of neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 29: 179, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050643

RESUMO

Introduction: World Health Organization estimates that the appropriate caesarean section rates should range from 10% to 15% at the population level. There is limited access and utilisation of caesarean section services in Uganda. This case-control study explored factors associated with caesarean section delivery, focusing on service-related and individual level factors. Methods: we interviewed 134 cases that had a caesarean section and 134 controls that had a "normal" vaginal delivery. The study was conducted at health facilities in Kabarole district during March to May 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine individual factors associated with caesarean sections, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Key Informant (KI) data obtained from health workers was analysed using MAXQDA (version 12) software to determine health service factors affecting caesarean section service delivery. Results: the mean age of the overall sample was 26 years (SD ± 6.5 years). Cases had 5% more women who belonged to the eldest age group (> 35 years) compared to the controls. The factors associated with caesarean section delivery were: having a previous caesarean section delivery (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.5 CI: 2.22-9.0), attendance of four or more ANC visits (AOR: 2.0 CI: 1.04-3.83). Inadequate human resource, medicines and supplies affected access to the service. Misconceptions such as negative branding of women that have caesarean section deliveries as "lazy" reduced its acceptance thus low utilisation of the service. Conclusion: health system inadequacies and misconceptions about caesarean section delivery contributed to the low access and utilisation of the service.


Assuntos
Recesariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010601, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497508

RESUMO

Background: Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care. Methods: We used data from Mayuge District, Uganda. Data from household surveys on access to SBA were linked to health facility assessment census data on readiness to provide basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) in the same district. One individual- and two ecological-linking methods were applied. All methods used household survey reports on where care at birth was accessed. The individual-linking method linked this to data about facility readiness from the specific facility where each woman delivered. The first ecological-linking approach used a district-wide mean estimate of facility readiness. The second used an estimate of facility readiness adjusted by level of health facility accessed. Absolute differences between estimates derived from the different linking methods were calculated, and agreement examined using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 1177 women resident in Mayuge reported a birth during 2012-13. Of these, 664 took place in facilities within Mayuge, and were eligible for linking to the census of the district's 38 facilities. 55% were assisted by a SBA in a facility. Using the individual-linking method, effective coverage of births that took place with an SBA in a facility ready to provide BEmONC was just 10% (95% confidence interval CI 3-17). The absolute difference between the individual- and ecological-level linking method adjusting for facility level was one percentage point (11%), and tests suggested good agreement. The ecological method using the district-wide estimate demonstrated poor agreement. Conclusions: The proportion of women accessing appropriately equipped facilities for care at birth is far lower than the coverage of facility delivery. To realise the life-saving potential of health services, countries need evidence to inform actions that address gaps in the provision of quality care. Linking household and facility-based information provides a simple but innovative method for estimating quality of care at the population level. These encouraging findings suggest that linking data sets can result in meaningful evidence even when the exact location of care seeking is not known.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 22(1): 63-73, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression. Potential risk factors were examined with multilevel logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: 34 073 births from 1982 to 2011 were analysed. The annual rate of decrease was 0.9% for stillbirths and 1.8% for neonatal mortality. Stillbirths were associated with several risk factors: multiple births (AOR 2.57, CI 1.66-3.99), previous adverse outcome (AOR 6.16, CI 4.26-8.88) and grand multiparity among 35- to 49-year-olds (AOR 1.97, CI 1.32-2.89). Neonatal deaths were associated with multiple births (AOR 6.16, CI 4.80-7.92) and advanced maternal age linked with parity of 1-4 (AOR 2.34, CI 1.28-4.25) and grand multiparity (AOR 1.44, CI 1.09-1.90). Education, marital status and household wealth were not associated with the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The slow decline in mortality rates and easily identifiable risk factors calls for improving quality of care at birth and a rethinking of how to address obstetric risks, potentially a revival of the risk approach in antenatal care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16(Suppl 7): 621, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While community capabilities are recognized as important factors in developing resilient health systems and communities, appropriate metrics for these have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the role of community capabilities on access to maternal health services has been underexplored. In this paper, we summarize the development of a community capability score based on the Future Health System (FHS) project's experience in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda, and, examine the role of community capabilities as determinants of institutional delivery in these three contexts. METHODS: We developed a community capability score using a pooled dataset containing cross-sectional household survey data from Bangladesh, India, and Uganda. Our main outcome of interest was whether the woman delivered in an institution. Our predictor variables included the community capability score, as well as a series of previously identified determinants of maternal health. We calculate both population-averaged effects (using GEE logistic regression), as well as sub-national level effects (using a mixed effects model). RESULTS: Our final sample for analysis included 2775 women, of which 1238 were from Bangladesh, 1199 from India, and 338 from Uganda. We found that individual-level determinants of institutional deliveries, such as maternal education, parity, and ante-natal care access were significant in our analysis and had a strong impact on a woman's odds of delivering in an institution. We also found that, in addition to individual-level determinants, greater community capability was significantly associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. For every additional capability, the odds of institutional delivery would increase by up to almost 6 %. CONCLUSION: Individual-level characteristics are strong determinants of whether a woman delivered in an institution. However, we found that community capability also plays an important role, and should be taken into account when designing programs and interventions to support institutional deliveries. Consideration of individual factors and the capabilities of the communities in which people live would contribute to the vision of supporting people-centered approaches to health.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Materna , Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 24251, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. DESIGN: Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. RESULTS: The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007). Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (p<0.001). Women delivering in private facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was slightly lower in private compared to public facilities, calling for quality improvement in both private and public sector facilities, and a greater emphasis on tracking access to and quality of care in private sector facilities.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Setor Público/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 24584, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care for women and babies before, during, and after the time of birth is a sensitive measure of the functionality of any health system. Engaging communities in preventing newborn deaths is a promising strategy to achieve further progress in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a home visit strategy combined with health facility strengthening on uptake of newborn care-seeking, practices and services, and to link the results to national policy and scale-up in Uganda. DESIGN: The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST) was a two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial in rural eastern Uganda. In intervention villages volunteer community health workers (CHWs) were trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits (two during pregnancy and three in the first week after birth) to offer preventive and promotive care and counselling, with extra visits for sick and small newborns to assess and refer. Health facility strengthening was done in all facilities to improve quality of care. Primary outcomes were coverage of key essential newborn care behaviours (breastfeeding, thermal care, and cord care). Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as a clinical trial, number ISRCTN50321130. RESULTS: The intervention significantly improved essential newborn care practices, although many interventions saw major increases in both arms over the study period. Immediate breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (72.6% vs. 66.0%; p=0.016 and 81.8% vs. 75.9%, p=0.042, respectively). Skin-to-skin care immediately after birth and cord cutting with a clean instrument were marginally higher in the intervention arm versus the control arm (80.7% vs. 72.2%; p=0.071 and 88.1% vs. 84.4%; p=0.023, respectively). Half (49.6%) of the mothers in the intervention arm waited more than 24 hours to bathe the baby, compared to 35.5% in the control arm (p<0.001). Dry umbilical cord care was also significantly higher in intervention areas (63.9% vs. 53.1%, p<0.001). There was no difference in care-seeking for newborn illness, which was high (around 95%) in both arms. Skilled attendance at delivery increased in both the intervention (by 21%) and control arms (by 19%) between baseline and endline, but there was no significant difference in coverage across arms at endline (79.6% vs. 78.9%; p=0.717). Home visits were pro-poor, with more women in the poorest quintile visited by a CHW compared to families in the least poor quintile, and more women who delivered at home visited by a CHW after birth (73.6%) compared to those who delivered in a hospital or health facility (59.7%) (p<0.001). CHWs visited 62.8% of women and newborns in the first week after birth, with 40.2% receiving a visit on the critical first day of life. CONCLUSION: Consistent with results from other community newborn care studies, volunteer CHWs can be effective in changing long-standing practices around newborn care. The home visit strategy may provide greater benefit to poorer families. However, CHW strategies require strong linkages with and concurrent improvement of quality through health system strengthening, especially in settings with high and increasing demand for facility-based services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Visita Domiciliar , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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