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1.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy is the accepted standard of care. The robotic distal (RDP) learning curve is 20-40 surgeries with operating time (ORT) as the most significant factor. This study evaluates how formal mentorship and a robotic skills curriculum impact the learning curve for subsequent generation surgeons. METHODS: Consecutive RDP from 2008 to 2017 were evaluated. First Generation was two surgeons who started program without training or mentorship. Second Generation was the two surgeons who joined the program with mentorship. Third Generation was fellows who benefited from both formal training and mentorship. Multivariable models (MVA) were performed for ORT, clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), and major complications (Clavien≥3). RESULTS: A total of 296 RDP were performed of which 187 did not include other procedures: First Generation (n = 71), Second Generation (n = 50), and Third Generation (n = 66). ORT decreased by generation (p < 0.001) without any differences in CR-POPF or Clavien≥3. On MVA, earlier generation (p = 0.019), pre-operative albumin (p = 0.001) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (p = 0.019) were predictive of ORT. Increased BMI (p = 0.049) and neoadjuvant therapy (p = 0.046) were predictive of CR-POPF. Fellow participation at the console increased over time. CONCLUSION: Formal mentorship and a skills curriculum decreased the learning curve and complications were largely dependent on patient factors.

2.
Updates Surg ; 73(3): 881-891, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050901

RESUMO

Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy has become increasingly used in practice. While laparoscopic approach is the most commonly used technique, robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) has emerged as a safe, feasible and effective approach for distal pancreatectomy. Most studies have shown that RDP improved perioperative surgical outcomes and has equivalent oncologic outcomes to open technique. Widespread adoption is limited by a steep learning curve, higher costs and the need for institutional training protocols in place for safe integration of the platform into practice.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Humanos , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
3.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(8): 1269-1276, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The short-term morbidity associated with post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is well established, however data regarding the long-term impact are lacking. We aim to characterize long-term oncologic outcomes of POPF after pancreatic resection through a single institution, retrospective study of pancreatic resections performed for adenocarcinoma from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis (MVA) were used to evaluate impact of POPF on overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). RESULTS: 767 patients were included. 82 (10.6%) developed grade B (n = 67) or C (n = 15) POPF. Grade C POPF resulted in decreased OS when compared to no POPF (20.22 vs 26.33 months, p = 0.027) and to grade B POPF (20.22 vs. 26.87 months, p = 0.049). POPF patients were less likely to receive AC than those without POPF (59.5% vs 74.9%, p = 0.003) and grade C POPF were less likely to receive AC than all others (26.7% vs 74.2%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: POPF patients are less likely to receive AC and more likely to have delay in time to AC. These factors are exacerbated in grade C POPF and likely contribute to decreased OS. These findings validate the clinical significance of the ISGPF definition of POPF.

4.
Ann Surg ; 273(5): 966-972, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to present the outcomes of our decade-long experience of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy and provide insights into successful program implementation. BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvement in mortality over the past 30 years, morbidity following open pancreatoduodenectomy remains high. We implemented a minimally invasive pancreatic surgery program based on the robotic platform as one potential method of improving outcomes for this operation. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional database was performed to identify patients who underwent robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) between 2008 and 2017 at the University of Pittsburgh. RESULTS: In total, 500 consecutive RPDs were included. Operative time, conversion to open, blood loss, and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula improved early in the experience and have remained low despite increasing complexity of case selection as reflected by increasing number of patients with pancreatic cancer, vascular resections, and higher Charlson Comorbidity scores (all P<0.05). Operating room time plateaued after 240 cases at a median time of 391 minutes (interquartile rang 340-477). Major complications (Clavien >2) occurred in less than 24%, clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula in 7.8%, 30- and 90-day mortality were 1.4% and 3.1% respectively, and median length of stay was 8 days. Outcomes were not impacted by integration of trainees or expansion of selection criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Structured implementation of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy can be associated with excellent outcomes. In the largest series of RPD, we establish benchmarks for the surgical community to consider when adopting this approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(1): 144-153, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholangitis due to anastomotic stricture of the hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), while uncommon, adversely affects postoperative quality-of-life. While prior studies have identified patient-related risk factors for these biliary complications, technical risk factors have not been systematically examined. Video review of surgical procedures has helped define technical details predictive of postoperative complications in bariatric and hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery. Similarly, the present study utilized video review to identify technical factors associated with cholangitis and anastomotic biliary stricture following robotic PD. METHODS: This was an observational study. A blinded experienced HPB surgeon reviewed videos of post-learning-curve HJs performed during robotic PD and extracted 20 technical variables. Other demographic and clinical variables were collected from a prospectively maintained database. RESULTS: 241 robotic PD videos were reviewed. 29 (12.0%) developed cholangitis and/or biliary stricture, with a median time-to-event of 189 (IQR 78-365) days. Several clinical and technical factors were independently predictive of cholangitis and/or biliary stricture: preoperative radiotherapy, small duct size (<10 mm diameter), increased distance of the HJ (>10 mm) from the hilar plate, and continuous suturing technique. CONCLUSION: Post-hoc video review of HJ is a powerful method to predict biliary complications. Moreover, altering specific technical factors might enable surgeons to improve postoperative outcomes.


Assuntos
Colangite , Colestase , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Colangite/diagnóstico por imagem , Colangite/etiologia , Colestase/diagnóstico por imagem , Colestase/etiologia , Constrição Patológica , Humanos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos
6.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 25(6): 1503-1511, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is often performed in frail patients and is associated with significant morbidity. The five-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) has been utilized to predict adverse postoperative outcomes, but has not been tested in PD. We aimed to develop risk tools to generate and predict 30-day outcomes after PD and compare their performance with the mFI-5. Risk tools were then used to generate a PD-specific calculator. METHODS: Elective PDs from the 2014-2016 ACS NSQIP® Procedure Targeted Pancreatectomy PUFs were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to predict postoperative mortality, any complication, serious complication, clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), and discharge not-to-home. Predictive accuracy was evaluated through repeated stratified tenfold cross-validation and compared to the mFI-5. RESULTS: Nine thousand eight hundred sixty-seven PDs were captured. Nine risk factors were retained: sex, age, BMI, DM, HTN, ASA classification, pancreatic duct size, gland texture, and adenocarcinoma. Cross-validated C-indices ranged from 0.49 to 0.61 for the mFI-5 and 0.63 to 0.75 for our risk models. The best-performing model was for discharge not-to-home (C = 0.75), and the model delivering the largest increase in predictive accuracy was for CR-POPF (CmFI-5/Model = 0.49/0.70). A user-friendly risk calculator was created predicting the five outcomes of interest. CONCLUSION: We have created a PD-specific risk calculator that outperforms the mFI-5. This calculator may serve as a useful adjunct in shared decision-making for patients and surgeons.


Assuntos
Fístula Pancreática , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Humanos , Pancreatectomia , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(7): 1581-1589, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term complications following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) can significantly impact quality of life and healthcare utilization. Most reports focus on short-term (within 90 days) PD outcomes; however, the incidence and risk factors for long-term complications (> 90 days) remain to be evaluated. We sought to identify the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for long-term complications post-PD. METHODS: All PD survivors between 2010 and 2017 were identified from a single-institutional database. Long-term complications (> 90 days post-PD and not resulting from cancer recurrence), including biliary stricture, cholangitis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, small bowel obstruction, and incisional hernia, were identified. Logistic regression was used to identify perioperative predictors of long-term complications. RESULTS: Of 906 PDs, 628 long-term survivors met criteria for analysis (mean age of 65.3 years, 47% female). Median follow-up and overall survival were 51.1 months (95% CI 47.6, 55.7) and 68.5 months (95% CI 57.9, 81.4), respectively. A total of 198 (31.5%) experienced at least one long-term complication. Complications included incisional hernia (17.7%), biliary stricture or cholangitis (8.0%), pancreatitis (5.7%), small bowel obstruction (4.3%), and peptic ulcer (3.2%). In total, 108 (17.2%) of the complications required an intervention, nearly half of which were surgical. On multivariable analysis, several predictors of long-term complications were identified: obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), postoperative wound infection, prolonged index length of stay, readmission (< 90 days), operative approach (open vs. robotic), and pylorus-preservation. CONCLUSION: Long-term complications occur in nearly a third of PDs and nearly one-fifth of all PDs require re-intervention. Several modifiable predictors of long-term complications were identified.


Assuntos
Hérnia Incisional , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
JAMA Surg ; 155(7): 607-615, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432666

RESUMO

Importance: Learning curves are unavoidable for practicing surgeons when adopting new technologies. However, patient outcomes are worse in the early stages of a learning curve vs after mastery. Therefore, it is critical to find a way to decrease these learning curves without compromising patient safety. Objective: To evaluate the association of mentorship and a formal proficiency-based skills curriculum with the learning curves of 3 generations of surgeons and to determine the association with increased patient safety. Design, Setting, and Participants: All consecutive robotic pancreaticoduodenectomies (RPDs) performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2008 and 2017 were included in this study. Surgeons were split into generations based on their access to mentorship and a proficiency-based skills curriculum. The generations are (1) no mentorship or curriculum, (2) mentorship but no curriculum, and (3) mentorship and curriculum. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to create risk-adjusted learning curves by surgical generation and to analyze factors associated with operating room time, complications, and fellows completing the full resection. The participants include surgical oncology attending surgeons and fellows who participated in an RPD at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2008 and 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was operating room time (ORT). Secondary outcomes were postoperative pancreatic fistula and Clavien-Dindo classification higher than grade 2. Results: We identified 514 RPDs completed between 2008 and 2017, of which 258 (50.2%) were completed by first-generation surgeons, 151 (29.3%) were completed by the second generation, and 82 (15.9%) were completed by the third generation. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to age (66.3-67.3 years; P = .52) or female sex (n = 34 [41.5%] vs n = 121 [46.9%]; P = .60). There was a significant decrease in ORT (P < .001), from 450.8 minutes for the first-generation surgeons to 348.6 minutes for the third generation. Additionally, across generations, Clavien-Dindo classification higher than grade 2 (n = 74 [28.7%] vs n = 30 [9.9%] vs n = 12 [14.6%]; P = .01), conversion rates (n = 18 [7.0%] vs n = 7 [4.6%] vs n = 0; P = .006), and estimated blood loss (426 mL vs 288.6 mL vs 254.7 mL; P < .001) decreased significantly with subsequent generations. There were no significant differences in postoperative pancreatic fistula. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ORT, conversion rates, and estimated blood loss decreased across generations without a concomitant rise in adverse patient outcomes. These findings suggest that a proficiency-based curriculum coupled with mentorship allows for the safe introduction of less experienced surgeons to RPD without compromising patient safety.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Curva de Aprendizado , Mentores , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/educação , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/educação , Idoso , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2961-2971, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222859

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant therapy (NT) is a growing strategy in localized head pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDC). However, a significant portion of NT patients do not reach resection due to disease progression or performance status decline. We sought to identify predictors of disease progression or performance status decline during NT. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive patients with localized head-PDC who received NT at a tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2017. Univariate and multivariate (MVA) analysis were performed to identify factors associated with disease progression or performance status decline during NT preventing surgical resection. RESULTS: A total of 479 patients with PDC underwent NT; 71.2% proceeded to surgery, 20.5% had disease progression, and 8.3% experienced performance status decline. Median OS was 28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.8-32.3], 12.8 (CI 11.2-14.3), and 6.9 (CI 5.2-9.4) months, respectively (p < 0.05). MVA predictors of disease progression were larger clinical CT tumor size [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, CI 1.0-1.1], unplanned change in NT regimen (OR 2.6, CI 1.0-6.9), hospital admission during NT (OR 2.2, CI 1.2-3.9), and lack of CA19-9 response (OR 4.4, CI 4.0-8.4). MVA predictors of performance status decline were increasing age (OR 1.1, CI 1.0-1.2), presence of pre-NT diabetes (OR 3.8, CI 1.3-11.3), hospital admission during NT (OR 14.0, CI 3.9-49.8), and lack of CA19-9 response (OR 4.7, CI 1.4-15.5). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis identifies several predictors of disease progression and performance status decline during NT for PDC. Knowledge of these factors informs the physician on the risks and limitations of NT and provides insight to guide patient selection and counseling.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(Suppl 3): 965, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034575

RESUMO

In the original article, Caroline J. Rieser's last name is spelled wrong. It is correct as reflected here.

12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(6): 2007-2014, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal cutoffs for carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) response after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not well characterized. This study aimed to analyze the relationship of serum CA19-9 to other markers of response and to identify thresholds correlating to outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of resected PDAC patients from 2010 to 2017 at an academic tertiary referral center was conducted. RESULTS: The analysis enrolled 250 subjects. Normalization and multiple cutoff points for CA19-9 response were assessed. Normalization was not associated with improved survival (35.17 vs. 29.43 months; p = 0.173). Although a response 45% or higher was associated with longer survival (35 vs. 20 months; p = 0.018), a response of 85% or higher was optimal (55.7 vs. 25.97 months; p < 0.0001). A response of 85% or higher remained a strong independent predictor of survival [hazard ratio (HR), 0.47; p = 0.007]. Subjects with a response of 85% or higher had received more NT cycles [3 (range 2-6) vs. 3 (range 2-4) cycles; p = 0.006] and fewer adjuvant cycles [4 (range 3-6) vs. 5 (range 3-6) cycles; p = 0.027]. Reduction in T-size correlated with a drop in CA19-9 and a size reduction of 25% or higher (56.97 vs. 28.17 months; p = 0.016) improved survival. A serum CA19-9 response of 85% or higher was a strong independent predictor of a reduction in T-size of 25% or higher (HR 2.40; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: A CA19-9 response of 85% or higher is the optimal threshold for predicting survival. It is predictive of T-size reduction. Future NT trials should incorporate CA19-9 response as an end point.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(10): 2259-2268, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher MELD scores correlate with adverse operative outcomes regardless of the presence of liver disease, but their impact on pancreatectomy outcomes remains undefined. We aimed to compare 30-day adverse postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing elective pancreatectomy stratified by MELD score. METHODS: Elective pancreatoduodenectomies (PDs) and distal pancreatectomies (DPs) were identified from the 2014-2016 ACS NSQIP Procedure Targeted Pancreatectomy Participant Use Data Files. Outcomes examined included mortality, cardiopulmonary complications, prolonged postoperative length-of-stay, discharge not-to-home, transfusion, POPF, CR-POPF, any complication, and serious complication. Outcomes were compared between MELD score strata (< 11 vs. ≥ 11) as established by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine the risk-adjusted impact of MELD score on outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 7580 PDs and 3295 DPs had evaluable MELD scores. Of these, 1701 PDs and 223 DPs had a MELD score ≥ 11. PDs with MELD ≥ 11 exhibited higher risk for mortality (OR = 2.07, p < 0.001), discharge not-to-home (OR = 1.26, p = 0.005), and transfusion (OR = 1.7, p < 0.001). DP patients with MELD ≥ 11 demonstrated prolonged LOS (OR = 1.75, p < 0.001), discharge not-to-home (OR = 1.83, p = 0.01), and transfusion (OR = 2.78, p < 0.001). In PD, MELD ≥ 11 was independently predictive of 30-day mortality (OR = 1.69, p = 0.007) and transfusion (OR = 1.55, p < 0.001). In DP, MELD ≥ 11 was independently predictive of prolonged LOS (OR = 1.42, p = 0.026) and transfusion (OR = 2.3, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A MELD score ≥ 11 is associated with a near twofold increase in the odds of mortality following pancreatoduodenectomy. The MELD score is an objective assessment that aids in risk-stratifying patients undergoing pancreatectomy.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(3): 898-906, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), calculated using absolute platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, has recently emerged as a predictor of survival for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) when assessed at diagnosis. Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is increasingly used in the treatment of PDAC. However, biomarkers of response are lacking. This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of SII before and after NAT and its association with the pancreatic tumor biomarker carbohydrate-antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed all PDAC patients treated with NAT before pancreatic resection at a single institution between 2007 and 2017. Pre- and post-NAT lab values were collected to calculate SII. Absolute pre-NAT, post-NAT, and change in SII after NAT were evaluated for their association with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study analyzed 419 patients and found no significant correlation between pre-NAT SII and clinical outcomes. Elevated post-NAT SII was an independent, negative predictor of overall survival (OS) when assessed as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR], 1.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00003-1.00014; p = 0.006). Patients with a post-NAT SII greater than 900 had a shorter median OS (31.9 vs 26.1 months; p = 0.050), and a post-NAT SII greater than 900 also was an independent negative predictor of OS (HR, 1.369; 95% CI 1.019-1.838; p = 0.037). An 80% reduction in SII independently predicted a CA 19-9 response after NAT (HR, 4.22; 95% CI 1.209-14.750; p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Post-treatment SII may be a useful prognostic marker in PDAC patients receiving NAT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ampullary adenocarcinoma (AA) is classified by immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes into intestinal (IN), pancreatobiliary (PB), and ambiguous (AM). The impact of adjuvant therapy on IHC subtype and disease stage is unclear. We examined the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy regimen on survival of ampullary cancers by IHC subtype and disease stage. METHODS: Review of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) performed for AA between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. The impact of regimen on IHC subtype and stage was analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one patients were subtyped: IN = 32%, PB = 48%, and AM = 20% with overall survival of 45.6, 31.3, and 46.9 months, respectively. PB had higher pathologic T-stage, positive lymph node disease, and perineural and lymphovascular invasion (P < .05). 5-Fluorouracil (FU)-based adjuvant therapy improved survival compared to no treatment (87.4 vs 32.1 months; P = .046), and receipt of 5-FU emerged as an independent predictor of improved survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.244; P = .031) regardless of subtype. 5-FU was superior to Gemcitabine in advanced-stage disease (stage IIB and III vs I+IIA, HR: 0.35; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy with 5-FU confers a survival benefit in patients with advanced-stage AA regardless of subtype. The impact of various chemotherapy regimens on subtypes of ampullary cancer warrants further investigation.

16.
J Surg Educ ; 76(3): 745-755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Explore the methods used and costs necessary for the creation and maintenance of a surgical video library with an emphasis on its applications in surgical education and scholarship. DESIGN: A methodology paper highlighting how to develop and utilize a surgical video library for trainee operative preparation, development of research projects, and surgeon credentialing. SETTING: The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, a tertiary care medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: The video library includes all recorded robotic operations performed by the Division of Surgical Oncology at the University of Pittsburgh from 2010 to 2018. It includes 929 videos of which 110 selected videos are uploaded for trainee review online to prepare for upcoming operations. These procedures are broken into steps to create intraoperative time metrics for trainee integration. Fellows operated from console in 85% of robotic cases and all 30 fellows could obtain robotic privileges based on case logs. To date 102 short scholarly videos have been created: 7 for manuscripts, 13 as video submissions, 27 in book chapters, and 55 for presentations. Three papers have been published using video review to determine clinical outcomes with four more under evaluation. The cost of the program is <$10,000 annually. CONCLUSIONS: Video libraries can be efficiently created utilizing intraoperative recorders for minimally invasive surgery. Breaking surgeries into distinct steps can aid in deliberate integration and answer clinical questions. Overall video libraries are cost effective tools for trainee education, research, and ultimately surgeon credentialing.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/educação , Gravação em Vídeo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Pennsylvania
17.
HPB (Oxford) ; 21(7): 810-817, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) are often incidentally found in older adults, requiring careful consideration between operative management and watchful waiting. This study analyzes the short-term complications associated with distal pancreatectomy (DP) for PNET and PCN in older adults to inform clinical decision-making. METHODS: Patients undergoing DP for PNET and PCN were analyzed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database and the pancreatectomy procedure-targeted dataset. Associations between decade of age and 30-day outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: 1626 patients were analyzed from 2014 to 2015. 692 (42.6%) were younger than 60 years, 507 (31.2%) were sexagenarians, 342 (21.0%) were septuagenarians, and 85 (5.2%) were octogenarians. Minimally invasive approaches were used in 62.7%. While septuagenarians and octogenarians constituted 26.3% of the cohort, they were affected by 55.6% of reintubations, 66.7% of failures to wean, 82.4% of myocardial infarctions, and 57.1% of septic shock. Septuagenarians and octogenarians had longer hospital stays, as compared to those younger than 60 years. CONCLUSION: Septuagenarians and octogenarians are disproportionately affected by perioperative complications after DP for PNET and PCN. Careful patient selection and thorough counseling should be provided when surgery is considered.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/patologia , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Surg Educ ; 76(3): 814-823, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Providing feedback to surgical trainees is a critical component for assessment of technical skills, yet remains costly and time consuming. We hypothesize that statistical selection can identify a homogenous group of nonexpert crowdworkers capable of accurately grading inanimate surgical video. DESIGN: Applicants auditioned by grading 9 training videos using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool and an error-based checklist. The summed OSATS, summed errors, and OSATS summary score were tested for outliers using Cronbach's Alpha and single measure intraclass correlation. Accepted crowdworkers then submitted grades for videos in 3 different compositions: full video 1× speed, full video 2× speed, and critical section segmented video. Graders were blinded to this study and a similar statistical analysis was performed. SETTING: The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six premedical students participated as crowdworker applicants and 2 surgery experts were compared as the gold-standard. RESULTS: The selected hire intraclass correlation was 0.717 for Total Errors and 0.794 for Total OSATS for the first hire group and 0.800 for Total OSATS and 0.654 for Total Errors for the second hire group. There was very good correlation between full videos at 1× and 2× speed with an interitem statistic of 0.817 for errors and 0.86 for OSATS. Only moderate correlation was found with critical section segments. In 1 year 275hours of inanimate video was graded costing $22.27/video or $1.03/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical selection can be used to identify a homogenous cohort of crowdworkers used for grading trainees' inanimate drills. Crowdworkers can distinguish OSATS metrics and errors in full videos at 2× speed but were less consistent with segmented videos. The program is a comparatively cost-effective way to provide feedback to surgical trainees.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/educação , Competência Clínica , Crowdsourcing , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/educação , Oncologia Cirúrgica/educação , Lista de Checagem , Currículo , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Pennsylvania , Treinamento por Simulação , Gravação em Vídeo
19.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(11): 1659-1666, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding remains the third most commonly performed surgical procedure for weight loss. Some patients fail to get acceptable outcomes and undergo revisional surgery at rates ranging from 7% to 60%. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are among the most common salvage options for failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of converting failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding to RYGB, OAGB, or SG. METHODS: Data collected from 7 experienced bariatric centers around the world were retrospectively collected, reviewed, and analyzed. Final body mass index (BMI), change in BMI, percentage excess BMI loss, and major complications with particular attention to leaks, hemorrhage, and mortality were reported. RESULTS: Of 1219 patients analyzed, 74% underwent RYGB, 16% underwent OAGB, and 10% underwent SG after banding failure. The mean age was 38 years (±10 yr), and 82% of patients were women. The mean follow-up was 33 months. The follow-up rate was 100%, 87%, and 52% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. At the latest follow-up, percentage excess BMI loss >50% was achieved by 75% of RYGB, 85% of OAGB, and 67% of SG patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 13% of patients after RYGB, 5% after OAGB, and 15% after SG. CONCLUSION: Our data show that it is possible to achieve or maintain significant weight loss with an acceptable complication rate with all 3 surgical options.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Reoperação , Adulto , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Gastrectomia/mortalidade , Gastrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/mortalidade , Derivação Gástrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/mortalidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(12): 3483-3491, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) correlates with response to therapy and overall survival (OS) for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aimed to define the chronologic relationship between CA19-9 elevation and radiographic recurrence to develop a model that can predict the risk of recurrence (RFS) and prognosis during interval surveillance for patients with resected PDAC. METHODS: A retrospective review examined patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from January 2010 to May 2016. Their CA19-9 levels were classified at diagnosis, after surgery, and at 6-month surveillance intervals. Recurrence was defined by radiographic evidence. The CA19-9 levels were correlated with RFS and OS at every time point using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The study examined 525 patients. Five patterns of CA19-9 were identified: normal ("nonsecretors," 18.5%), always elevated, and high at diagnosis but normal after resection involving three patterns with varied behavior during surveillance. These five patterns had implications for RFS and OS. When elevation of CA19-9, as assessed at 6-month intervals, was analyzed relative to detection of radiographic disease, CA19-9 had poor positive predictive value (average, 35%) but high negative predictive value (average, 92%) for radiographic recurrence. Conditional RFS showed that CA19-9 elevation did not equal radiographic recurrence but predicted subsequent RFS. Additionally, conditional OS showed that CA19-9 elevation alone was predictive at each time point. CONCLUSION: This study showed that CA19-9 patterns beyond the post-resection period predict RFS and OS. High CA19-9 frequently is discordant with recurrence on imaging and may precede it by more than 6 months. At each surveillance interval, CA19-9 is predictive of prognosis, which may help in counseling patients and could be used to direct protocols of salvage chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Vigilância da População , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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