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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12366, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451751

RESUMO

Deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase causes propionic acidemia and deficiencies of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase or its cofactor adenosylcobalamin cause methylmalonic acidemia. These inherited disorders lead to pathological accumulation of propionyl-CoA which is converted in Krebs cycle to methylcitrate (MCA) in a reaction catalyzed by citrate synthase. In healthy individuals where no propionyl-CoA accumulation occurs, this enzyme drives the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate to produce citric acid (CA), a normal Krebs cycle intermediate. The competitive synthesis of CA and MCA through the same enzymatic mechanism implies that increase in MCA production is accompanied by decrease in CA levels. In this study, we assessed MCA concentration and the ratio of MCA/CA as plausible markers for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias. We measured MCA and CA in dried blood spots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The reference ranges of MCA, CA and MCA/CA in 123 healthy individuals were ≤0.63 µmol/L, 36.6-126.4 µmol/L and 0.0019-0.0074, respectively. In patients with propionic and methylmalnic acidemias (n = 7), MCA concentration ranged between 1.0-12.0 µmol/L whereas MCA/CA was between 0.012-0.279. This is the first report to describe the potential role of MCA and MCA/CA in dried blood spots as diagnostic and monitoring biomarkers for inherited disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism.

2.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468281

RESUMO

Schindler disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGA) activity due to defects in the NAGA gene. Accumulation of the enzyme's substrates results in clinically heterogeneous symptoms ranging from asymptomatic individuals to individuals with severe neurological manifestations. Here, a 5-year-old Emirati male born to consanguineous parents presented with congenital microcephaly and severe neurological manifestations. Whole genome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense variant (c.838C>A; p.L280I) in the NAGA gene. The allele is a reported SNP in the ExAC database with a 0.0007497 allele frequency. The proband's asymptomatic sister and cousin carry the same genotype in a homozygous state as revealed from the family screening. Due to the extreme intrafamilial heterogeneity of the disease as seen in previously reported cases, we performed further analyses to establish the pathogenicity of this variant. Both the proband and his sister showed abnormal urine oligosaccharide patterns, which is consistent with the diagnosis of Schindler disease. The α-NAGA activity was significantly reduced in the proband and his sister with 5.9% and 12.1% of the mean normal activity, respectively. Despite the activity loss, p.L280I α-NAGA processing and trafficking were not affected. However, protein molecular dynamic simulation analysis revealed that this amino acid substitution is likely to affect the enzyme's natural dynamics and hinders its ability to bind to the active site. Functional analysis confirmed the pathogenicity of the identified missense variant and the diagnosis of Schindler disease. Extreme intrafamilial clinical heterogeneity of the disease necessitates further studies for proper genetic counseling and management.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A causes a recognizable clinical syndrome. The goal of this paper is to investigate congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and genital defects (GD) in patients with DYRK1A variants. METHODS: A large database of clinical exome sequencing (ES) was queried for de novo DYRK1A variants and CAKUT/GD phenotypes were characterized. Xenopus laevis (frog) was chosen as a model organism to assess Dyrk1a's role in renal development. RESULTS: Phenotypic details and variants of 19 patients were compiled after an initial observation that one patient with a de novo pathogenic variant in DYRK1A had GD. CAKUT/GD data were available from 15 patients, 11 of whom presented with CAKUT/GD. Studies in Xenopus embryos demonstrated that knockdown of Dyrk1a, which is expressed in forming nephrons, disrupts the development of segments of embryonic nephrons, which ultimately give rise to the entire genitourinary (GU) tract. These defects could be rescued by coinjecting wild-type human DYRK1A RNA, but not with DYRK1AR205* or DYRK1AL245R RNA. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports routine GU screening of all individuals with de novo DYRK1A pathogenic variants to ensure optimized clinical management. Collectively, the reported clinical data and loss-of-function studies in Xenopus substantiate a novel role for DYRK1A in GU development.

5.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1996-2003, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055085

RESUMO

Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in more than two fetal or neonatal interstitial spaces due to nonimmune causes. It is a serious condition that requires extensive medical care as it indicates severe fetal compromise. We clinically evaluated four patients from two branches of a highly consanguineous family from the UAE with NIHF using whole exome sequencing and in silico analysis. Fetal onset pleural and peritoneal effusions were detected in all four patients and were born with moderate to severe hydrops fetalis that resolved with age. Follow up showed relatively normal growth and development apart from mild ascites and haemangiomas in all affected children, recurrent hydrocele in all affected males, intestinal malabsorption in two patients, dysmorphic features in two patients, and congenital cardiac defects in three out of four patients. Molecular testing identified a homozygous eight nucleotide deletion in THSD1 gene (NM_199263:c.1163_1170delGGCCAGCC, p.Arg388Glnfs*66) as the underlying cause of this phenotype in the affected children. The novel variant cosegregates with the described phenotype in an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and is predicted to be pathogenic as it leads to a truncated protein that lost important structural and functional domains. Thrombospondin-1 domain containing protein 1 gene THSD1 has been recently associated with of NIHF and embryonic lethality. Here, we report the novel truncating THSD1 variant, and describe new clinical features that have not been reported previously thus expanding the phenotype associate with loss-of-function mutations in THSD1 causing NIHF.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.

9.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 34, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) results from the accumulation of excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain, often leading to severe neurological impairments. However, the adverse effects of CH can be reduced if the condition is detected and treated early. Earlier reports demonstrated that some CH cases are caused by mutations in L1CAM gene encoding the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. On the other hand, recent studies have implicated the multiple PDZ domain (MPDZ) gene in some severe forms of CH, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. METHODS: In this study, whole-exome and Sanger sequencing were performed on a 9 months old Emirati child clinically diagnosed by CH. In addition, in silico, cellular, and molecular assays have been conducted to confirm pathogenicity of the identified variants and to establish disease mechanism. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed two compound heterozygous novel variants (c.394G > A and c.1744C > G) in the affected child within the MPDZ gene. Segregation analysis revealed that each of the parents is heterozygous for one of the two variants and therefore passed that variant to their child. The outcome of the in silico and bioinformatics analyses came in line with the experimental data, suggesting that the two variants are most likely disease causing. CONCLUSIONS: The compound heterozygous variants identified in this study are the most likely cause of CH in the affected child. The study further confirms MPDZ as a gene underlying some CH cases.

10.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 122-130, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone dysplasias are a large group of disorders affecting the growth and structure of the skeletal system. METHODS: In the present study, we report the clinical and molecular delineation of a new form of syndromic autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD) in two Emirati first cousins. They displayed postnatal growth deficiency causing profound limb shortening with proximal and distal segments involvement, narrow chest, radiological abnormalities involving the spine, pelvis and metaphyses, corneal clouding and intellectual disability. Whole genome homozygosity mapping localised the genetic cause to 11q12.1-q13.1, a region spanning 19.32 Mb with ~490 genes. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified four novel homozygous variants within the shared block of homozygosity. Pathogenic variants in genes involved in phospholipid metabolism, such as PLCB4 and PCYT1A, are known to cause bone dysplasia with or without eye anomalies, which led us to select PLCB3 as a strong candidate. This gene encodes phospholipase C ß 3, an enzyme that converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. RESULTS: The identified variant (c.2632G>T) substitutes a serine for a highly conserved alanine within the Ha2' element of the proximal C-terminal domain. This disrupts binding of the Ha2' element to the catalytic core and destabilises PLCB3. Here we show that this hypomorphic variant leads to elevated levels of PIP2 in patient fibroblasts, causing disorganisation of the F-actin cytoskeleton. CONCLUSIONS: Our results connect a homozygous loss of function variant in PLCB3 with a new SMD associated with corneal dystrophy and developmental delay (SMDCD).

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(5): 824-830, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434495

RESUMO

Glucose transport across the blood brain barrier and into neural cells is critical for normal cerebral physiologic function. Dysfunction of the cerebral glucose transporter GLUT1 (encoded by SLC2A1) is known to result in epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID), and movement disorder. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare homozygous missense variants (c.526C>T [p.Arg176Trp] and c.629C>T [p.Ala210Val]) in SLC45A1, encoding another cerebral glucose transporter, in two consanguineous multiplex families with moderate to severe ID, epilepsy, and variable neuropsychiatric features. The variants segregate with the phenotype in these families, affect well-conserved amino acids, and are predicted to be damaging by in silico programs. Intracellular glucose transport activity of the p.Arg176Trp and p.Ala210Val SLC45A1 variants, measured in transfected COS-7 cells, was approximately 50% (p = 0.013) and 33% (p = 0.008) lower, respectively, than that of intact SLC45A1. These results indicate that residues at positions 176 and 210 are critical for the glucose transport activity of SLC45A1. All together, our data strongly suggest that recessive mutations in SLC45A1 cause ID and epilepsy. SLC45A1 thus represents the second cerebral glucose transporter, in addition to GLUT1, to be involved in neurodevelopmental disability. Identification of additional individuals with mutations in SLC45A1 will allow better definition of the associated phenotypic spectrum and the exploration of potential targeted treatment options.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Animais , Células COS , Cercopithecus aethiops , Criança , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(5): 1257-1263, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322503

RESUMO

Steel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by skeletal abnormalities and dysmorphic features. The first mutation associated with this syndrome was reported in Puerto Rican children. In this study, we identified a novel homozygous splice site variant in COL27A1 (c.3556-2A>G) in a consanguineous Emirati family with a child affected by Steel syndrome. In addition, the affected child had severe non-progressive sensorineural hearing loss not reported previously. The variant segregated in the family in an autosomal recessive manner and we show that the variant alters mRNA splicing. Furthermore, relative quantitative analysis revealed a marked reduction in gene expression in the proposita compared to healthy controls. Segregation analysis of heterozygous variants, related to hearing loss, identified by whole exome sequencing in the child (ILDR1: c.1159T>C, SYNE4: c.313G>C, and GPR98: c.18746T>G) excluded them from being responsible for the hearing loss in the proposita. In addition, the products of these genes are not interacting in the same pathway and have only been reported to cause deafness in an autosomal recessive manner. Therefore, we conclude that the novel splice-site variant identified in COL27A1 is the most likely cause for Steel syndrome in this family and that the hearing loss is part of this syndrome's phenotype.


Assuntos
Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Processamento de RNA/genética
13.
Nat Genet ; 49(4): 613-617, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288113

RESUMO

ABL1 is a proto-oncogene well known as part of the fusion gene BCR-ABL1 in the Philadelphia chromosome of leukemia cancer cells. Inherited germline ABL1 changes have not been associated with genetic disorders. Here we report ABL1 germline variants cosegregating with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. The variant c.734A>G (p.Tyr245Cys) was found to occur de novo or cosegregate with disease in five individuals (families 1-3). Additionally, a de novo c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) variant was identified in a sixth individual (family 4). We overexpressed the mutant constructs in HEK 293T cells and observed increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting increased ABL1 kinase activities associated with both the p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr substitutions. Our clinical and experimental findings, together with previously reported teratogenic effects of selective BCR-ABL inhibitors in humans and developmental defects in Abl1 knockout mice, suggest that ABL1 has an important role during organismal development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Cromossomo Filadélfia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(2): 460-470, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27860360

RESUMO

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2, encoded by PYCR2, is one of the three homologous enzymes that catalyze the last step of proline synthesis. Homozygous variants in PYCR2 have been reported in patients from multiple consanguineous families with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10 (HLD10) (MIM: 616420). Here, we report five additional patients from three families with homozygous nonsense or missense variants in PYCR2, identified through clinical exome sequencing. All patients presented with postnatally acquired microcephaly, moderate to profound global developmental delay, and failure to thrive. Brain MRI in these patients showed thin corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and generalized white-matter volume loss. Additional phenotypes that were less consistent among patients included seizures or seizure-like movements, spasticity and ataxic gait, recurrent vomiting, cortical blindness, dysmorphic features, joint contractures, and irritability. Exome sequencing identified homozygous variants in PYCR2 in the proband from each family: c.28C>T (p.(Glu10Ter)), c.796C>T (p.(Arg266Ter)), and c.577G>A (p.(Val193Met)). Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated co-segregation of the disease with the variant in the family. Despite the metabolic role of PYCR2, routine serum metabolic test in these patients were normal. To further understand the disease etiology and functions of PYCR2, small molecule metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma from three severely affected patients. No significant changes were identified in proline biosynthesis pathway or related metabolites. Studying the clinical features and the metabolic profiles of the PYCR2-deficient patients provides a more comprehensive picture for this newly identified disorder and facilitates further research on the gene function and disease etiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Homozigoto , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Gráficos de Crescimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
15.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 106, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial presequence proteases perform fundamental functions as they process about 70 % of all mitochondrial preproteins that are encoded in the nucleus and imported posttranslationally. The mitochondrial intermediate presequence protease MIP/Oct1, which carries out precursor processing, has not yet been established to have a role in human disease. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on four unrelated probands with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), developmental delay (DD), seizures, and severe hypotonia. Proposed pathogenic variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing or array comparative genomic hybridization. Functional analysis of the identified MIP variants was performed using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the protein and its functions are highly conserved from yeast to human. RESULTS: Biallelic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) or copy number variants (CNVs) in MIPEP, which encodes MIP, were present in all four probands, three of whom had infantile/childhood death. Two patients had compound heterozygous SNVs (p.L582R/p.L71Q and p.E602*/p.L306F) and one patient from a consanguineous family had a homozygous SNV (p.K343E). The fourth patient, identified through the GeneMatcher tool, a part of the Matchmaker Exchange Project, was found to have inherited a paternal SNV (p.H512D) and a maternal CNV (1.4-Mb deletion of 13q12.12) that includes MIPEP. All amino acids affected in the patients' missense variants are highly conserved from yeast to human and therefore S. cerevisiae was employed for functional analysis (for p.L71Q, p.L306F, and p.K343E). The mutations p.L339F (human p.L306F) and p.K376E (human p.K343E) resulted in a severe decrease of Oct1 protease activity and accumulation of non-processed Oct1 substrates and consequently impaired viability under respiratory growth conditions. The p.L83Q (human p.L71Q) failed to localize to the mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal for the first time the role of the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase in human disease. Loss of MIP function results in a syndrome which consists of LVNC, DD, seizures, hypotonia, and cataracts. Our approach highlights the power of data exchange and the importance of an interrelationship between clinical and research efforts for disease gene discovery.


Assuntos
Genes Recessivos/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Síndrome
16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 11(1): 94, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reports on the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) to diagnose children with inborn errors of metabolism and other disorders in United Arab Emirates. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2014, 85 patients (46 % females) were seen in the metabolic center at Tawam Hospital (Abu Dhabi) and WES testing was requested because definitive diagnoses were not reached by conventional methods. RESULTS: Eighty (93 %) patients were <18 years old and 44 (52 %) were <5 years. Sixty-eight (80 %) patients had neurologic abnormalities. WES facilitated rapid diagnosis in 50 % of the patients, especially those with mitochondrial disorders. Yet, in most cases extensive investigation was required after the results were available. Most patients with confirmed molecular diagnoses had autosomal recessive disorders and were homozygous for the rare alleles. Most patients with autosomal dominant disorders and all patients with X-linked disorders had de novo mutations. WES results were negative (no pathogenic variants related to patient phenotype were identified) in six patients and incorrect in two patients. One patient had a reported "deleterious" hemizygous mutation in SLC35A2, c.617_620del (p.Q206fs), suggesting 'congenital disorder of glycosylation, TYPE IIm', but glycosylation studies were normal and healthy brothers had the same mutation. Another patient had "pathogenic" mutation in MCCC2, c.1015G > A (p.V339M), but urine organic acids was normal. WES confirmed inborn errors of metabolism (five mitochondrial diseases, three lysosomal storage diseases, and six other disorders) in 14 patients and genetic disorders (14 neurological diseases and three non-neurological diseases) in 17 patients. Variants of unknown significance were identified in 48 patients; 12 had "confirmed pathologic variants"and 12 had "likely pathologic variants", based on consistent phenotypes, biochemical/ segregation studies, or reported pathogenicity. In 24 patients, the variants were inconsistent with phenotypes or biochemical/ familial studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although WES provided molecular diagnoses, the results required careful interpretations and many patients required additional investigations. This tool is useful when conventional diagnostic methods fail. Staff competence in obtaining consent/ permission, interpreting the findings, and providing the proper counseling are essential before incorporating this technology into routine clinical practices.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Emirados Árabes Unidos
17.
JIMD Rep ; 30: 59-62, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117295

RESUMO

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Children with MSUD suffer from bouts of metabolic decompensation, which may lead to neurological damage. Liver transplantation from unrelated deceased donors has been considered curative. The natural history of the disease following transplantation using a haploidentical (obligate heterozygous) living donor is still unclear, although previously described as favorable. We describe acute metabolic crises in a 20-month-old child with MSUD type II. The first well-documented one occurred 5 months after a successful liver transplantation from his mother. The patient developed encephalopathy with progressive lethargy and seizures after an episode of gastroenteritis with dehydration. Plasma levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine were markedly elevated and alloisoleucine was detected. He promptly responded to dialysis and BCAA-free dietetic management and subsequently could resume a normal diet. Since then he has had another symptomatic metabolic crisis with seizures. This case strongly suggests that some recipients of liver transplantation from a haploidentical parent possess limited capacity to oxidize BCAA at the time of catabolic stress and dehydration and remain at risk of severe metabolic crises. Thus, careful metabolic monitoring and prompt treatment post liver transplantation are still required to avoid neurological sequelae of MSUD, particularly if the donor is heterozygous for MSUD.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 156-61, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395437

RESUMO

The gene encoding the AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) has recently been shown to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with intellectual disability (ID). The phenotypic spectrums associated with variants in this gene vary widely ranging for mild to severe non-specific ID to Coffin-Siris syndrome. In this study, we evaluated three children from a consanguineous Emirati family affected with ID and dysmorphic features. Genomic DNA from all affected siblings was analyzed using CGH array and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Based on a recessive mode of inheritance, homozygous or compound heterozygous variants shared among all three affected children could not be identified. However, further analysis revealed a heterozygous variant (c.4318C>T; p.Q1440*) in the three affected children in an autosomal dominant ID causing gene, ARID1B. This variant was absent in peripheral blood samples obtained from both parents and unaffected siblings. Therefore, we propose that the most likely explanation for this situation is that one of the parents is a gonadal mosaic for the variant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gonadal mosaicism inheritance of an ARID1B variant leading to familial ID recurrence.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Face/patologia , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Micrognatismo/patologia , Pescoço/patologia , Linhagem , Irmãos
19.
JIMD Rep ; 28: 127-135, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26589311

RESUMO

This study reports on the inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) detected by our national newborn screening between 2011 and 2014. One hundred fourteen patients (55 UAE citizens and 59 residents) were diagnosed during this period. The program was most comprehensive (tested 29 IEM) and universally applied in 2013, giving an incidence of 1 in 1,787 citizens. This relatively high prevalence resulted from the frequent consanguineous marriages (81.5%) among affected families. The following eight disorders accounted for 80% of the entities: biotinidase deficiency (14 of 55), phenylketonuria (11 of 55), 3-methylcrotonyl glycinuria (9 of 55), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (4 of 55), argininosuccinic aciduria, glutaric aciduria type 1, glutaric aciduria type 2, and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency (2 of 55 each). Mutation analysis was performed in 48 (87%) of the 55 patients, and 33 distinct mutations were identified. Twenty-nine (88%) mutations were clinically significant and, thus, could be included in our premarital screening. Most mutations were homozygous, except for the biotinidase deficiency. The BTD mutations c.1207T>G (found in citizens) and c.424C>A (found in Somalians) were associated with undetectable biotinidase activity. Thus, the high prevalence of IEM in our region is amenable to newborn and premarital screening, which is expected to halt most of these diseases.

20.
J Mol Neurosci ; 57(3): 393-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055038

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a major public health burden on most societies with significant socioeconomic costs. It has been shown that genetic mutations in numerous genes are responsible for a proportion of hereditary forms of ID. NOP2/Sun transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferase family member 2 encoded by NSUN2 gene is a highly conserved protein and has been shown to cause autosomal recessive ID type 5 (MRT5). In this study, we recruited an Emirati consanguineous family with a patient diagnosed with ID. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant c.1020delA in NSUN2 gene. The variants segregated in an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in the family. This variant is novel and causes a frameshift and premature stop codon. At the messenger RNA (mRNA) level, relative expression analysis showed a decreased level of NSUN2 mRNA in the affected child compared to a healthy individual. Mutation prediction analysis and clinical investigation confirmed the pathogenic nature of the identified variant. We therefore conclude that c.1020delA mutation in NSUN2 is most likely the cause of ID in our patient.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Árabes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Consanguinidade , Metilação de DNA/genética , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética
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