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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629467

RESUMO

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy; however, some patients achieve durable remission with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We report on all 17 patients with BPDCN who underwent allo-HCT at our center between 2000 and 2020. The median age was 39 (18-67) years. All (n = 16, 94%), except one patient, had systemic disease involving bone marrow and/or other organs. Ten patients (59%) were in first complete remission (CR1) at allo-HCT. The donor source was matched related or unrelated in ten (59%) and alternate donor in seven (41%) patients. Five (31%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all grade I-II. The cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD at five-year was 34%. The CI of non-relapse mortality at one-year was 29%. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at two-year and five-year were 49% (95% CI = 22-71%) and 39% (95% CI = 14-64%), respectively. The two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65% (95% CI = 38-82%) and 40% (95% CI = 12-68%), respectively. The five-year rate for both PFS and OS was 80% in CR1 patients versus 0% in patients not in CR1. In conclusion, allo-HCT provides long-lasting remissions in BPDCN patients, particularly when performed in CR1.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6071, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663807

RESUMO

In contrast to the curative effect of allogenic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia via T cell activity, only modest responses are achieved with checkpoint-blockade therapy, which might be explained by T cell phenotypes and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Here, we show by paired single-cell RNA analysis and TCR repertoire profiling of bone marrow cells in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia patients pre/post azacytidine+nivolumab treatment that the disease-related T cell subsets are highly heterogeneous, and their abundance changes following PD-1 blockade-based treatment. TCR repertoires expand and primarily emerge from CD8+ cells in patients responding to treatment or having a stable disease, while TCR repertoires contract in therapy-resistant patients. Trajectory analysis reveals a continuum of CD8+ T cell phenotypes, characterized by differential expression of granzyme B and a bone marrow-residing memory CD8+ T cell subset, in which a population with stem-like properties expressing granzyme K is enriched in responders. Chromosome 7/7q loss, on the other hand, is a cancer-intrinsic genomic marker of PD-1 blockade resistance in AML. In summary, our study reveals that adaptive T cell plasticity and genomic alterations determine responses to PD-1 blockade in acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells (LSCs) are capable of surviving current standard chemotherapy and are the likely source of deadly, relapsed disease. While stem cell transplant serves as proof-of-principle that AML LSCs can be eliminated by the immune system, the translation of existing immunotherapies to AML has been met with limited success. Consequently, understanding and exploiting the unique immune-evasive mechanisms of AML LSCs is critical. METHODS: Analysis of stem cell datasets and primary patient samples revealed CD200 as a putative stem cell-specific immune checkpoint overexpressed in AML LSCs. Isogenic cell line models of CD200 expression were employed to characterize the interaction of CD200+ AML with various immune cell subsets both in vitro and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-humanized mouse models. CyTOF and RNA-sequencing were performed on humanized mice to identify novel mechanisms of CD200-mediated immunosuppression. To clinically translate these findings, we developed a fully humanized CD200 antibody (IgG1) that removed the immunosuppressive signal by blocking interaction with the CD200 receptor while also inducing a potent Fc-mediated response. Therapeutic efficacy of the CD200 antibody was evaluated using both humanized mice and patient-derived xenograft models. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that CD200 is selectively overexpressed in AML LSCs and is broadly immunosuppressive by impairing cytokine secretion in both innate and adaptive immune cell subsets. In a PBMC-humanized mouse model, CD200+ leukemia progressed rapidly, escaping elimination by T cells, compared with CD200- AML. T cells from mice with CD200+ AML were characterized by an abundance of metabolically quiescent CD8+ central and effector memory cells. Mechanistically, CD200 expression on AML cells significantly impaired OXPHOS metabolic activity in T cells from healthy donors. Importantly, CD200 antibody therapy could eliminate disease in the presence of graft-versus-leukemia in immune competent mice and could significantly improve the efficacy of low-intensity azacitidine/venetoclax chemotherapy in immunodeficient hosts. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of CD200 is a stem cell-specific marker that contributes to immunosuppression in AML by impairing effector cell metabolism and function. CD200 antibody therapy is capable of simultaneously reducing CD200-mediated suppression while also engaging macrophage activity. This study lays the groundwork for CD200-targeted therapeutic strategies to eliminate LSCs and prevent AML relapse.

5.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(11): 913.e1-913.e12, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6.
Blood ; 138(18): 1733-1739, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115096

RESUMO

Although clonal hematopoiesis (CH) can precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can also persist after achieving remission. Long-term clonal dynamics and clinical implications of persistent CH are not well understood. Here, we studied the prevalence, dynamics, and clinical implications of postremission CH in 164 AML patients who attained complete remission after induction chemotherapies. Postremission CH was identified in 79 (48%) patients. Postremission CH persisted long term in 91% of the trackable patients despite treatment with various types of consolidation and maintenance therapies. Postremission CH was eradicated in 20 out of 21 (95%) patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant. Although patients with postremission CH as a group had comparable hematopoiesis with those without it, patients with persistent TET2 mutations showed significant neutropenia long term. Postremission CH had little impact on relapse risk, nonrelapse mortality, and incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, although the clinical impact of post-CR CH was heterogeneous among different mutations. These data suggest that although residual clonal hematopoietic stem cells are generally resistant to consolidation and maintenance therapies, they retain the ability to maintain normal hematopoiesis and have little impact on clinical outcomes. Larger study is needed to dissect the gene-specific heterogeneity.

7.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135465

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is associated with older age and an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and cardiovascular complications. We analyzed donor DNA samples in patients with AML/MDS who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) to investigate the association between donor CH and transplant outcomes. We performed targeted deep sequencing of 300 genes on donor blood samples and identified CH with the minimum variant allele frequency of 2%. Among 363 donors, 65 (18%) had CH. The most frequently mutated genes were DNMT3A (31 of 65; 48%), TET2 (16 of 65; 25%), PPM1D (5 of 65, 8%), and ASXL1 (7 of 65; 11%). Transplant outcomes: time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival, were comparable by donor CH. However, risk of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) at 6 months after transplant was higher with donor CH vs. without donor CH (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6-3.6, p < 0.001 and HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6-8.9, p = 0.003). In this homogenous population of AML/MDS patients, donor CH was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV and III-IV aGvHD. Further studies to investigate the mechanisms of increased aGvHD and therapeutic interventions to improve aGvHD in the context of donor CH are warranted.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.


Assuntos
Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are being used after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) to reverse immune dysfunction. However, a major concern for the use of ICIs after alloHCT is the increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We analyzed the association between GVHD prophylaxis and frequency of GVHD in patients who had received ICI therapy after alloHCT. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 21 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=16) or myelodysplastic syndromes (n=5) who were treated with antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (16 patients) or anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (5 patients) therapy for disease relapse after alloHCT. Associations between the type of GVHD prophylaxis and incidence of GVHD were analyzed. RESULTS: Four patients (19%) developed acute GVHD. The incidence of acute GVHD was associated only with the type of post-transplantation GVHD prophylaxis; none of the other variables included (stem cell source, donor type, age at alloHCT, conditioning regimen and prior history of GVHD) were associated with the frequency of acute GVHD. Twelve patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for GVHD prophylaxis. Patients who received PTCy had a significantly shorter median time to initiation of ICI therapy after alloHCT compared with patients who did not receive PTCy (median 5.1 months compared with 26.6 months). Despite early ICI therapy initiation, patients who received PTCy had a lower observed cumulative incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD compared with patients who did not receive PTCy (16% compared with 22%; p=0.7). After controlling for comorbidities and time from alloHCT to ICI therapy initiation, the analysis showed that PTCy was associated with a 90% reduced risk of acute GVHD (HR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.6, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ICI therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes after alloHCT may be a safe and feasible option. PTCy appears to decrease the incidence of acute GVHD in this cohort of patients.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(18): 5038-5048, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunoprofiling to identify biomarkers and integration with clinical trial outcomes are critical to improving immunotherapy approaches for patients with cancer. However, the translational potential of individual studies is often limited by small sample size of trials and the complexity of immuno-oncology biomarkers. Variability in assay performance further limits comparison and interpretation of data across studies and laboratories. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To enable a systematic approach to biomarker identification and correlation with clinical outcome across trials, the Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers and Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIMAC-CIDC) Network was established through support of the Cancer MoonshotSM Initiative of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Partnership for Accelerating Cancer Therapies (PACT) with industry partners via the Foundation for the NIH. RESULTS: The CIMAC-CIDC Network is composed of four academic centers with multidisciplinary expertise in cancer immunotherapy that perform validated and harmonized assays for immunoprofiling and conduct correlative analyses. A data coordinating center (CIDC) provides the computational expertise and informatics platforms for the storage, integration, and analysis of biomarker and clinical data. CONCLUSIONS: This overview highlights strategies for assay harmonization to enable cross-trial and cross-site data analysis and describes key elements for establishing a network to enhance immuno-oncology biomarker development. These include an operational infrastructure, validation and harmonization of core immunoprofiling assays, platforms for data ingestion and integration, and access to specimens from clinical trials. Published in the same volume are reports of harmonization for core analyses: whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, cytometry by time of flight, and IHC/immunofluorescence.

12.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2193-2205, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns regarding increased peritransplantation complications, especially severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), in patients with prior use of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective study of 43 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes who were treated with an antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) (32 patients) or anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) (9 patients) blockade or both (2 patients) prior to HSCT with the primary outcome of aGVHD by day 100 after HSCT. Outcome analyses were stratified by GVHD prophylaxis as use of post-HSCT cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (22 patients) or not (non-PTCy) (21 patients). RESULTS: The PTCy group demonstrated a trend toward lower grade 3 to 4 aGVHD when compared with the non-PTCy group (5% vs 22%), although the rates of grade 2 to 4 aGVHD were comparable (49% vs 56%). The interval between CPI and HSCT did not appear to impact the incidence of aGVHD. However, a higher incidence of grade 3 to 4 aGVHD was observed in patients who received >4 treatments of CPI prior to HSCT if they were not given PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis (43% vs 12%). Matched control analyses using patients with no prior use of CPI confirmed the increase in grade 3 to 4 aGVHD with those agents. However, that increased risk was limited to patients who did not receive PTCy and was not observed in patients who received PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis. Despite persistent improvement in GVHD with the use of PTCy, disease control was not compromised and progression-free survival at 1 year was found to be superior for patients treated with PTCy compared with those not receiving PTCy among patients with prior use of CPI (55% vs 22%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicated that HSCT with prior use of CPI appears feasible in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes and the use of PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis improves outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Hematol ; 94(12): 1382-1387, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595538

RESUMO

There have been conflicting results regarding the impact of minimal/measurable disease at transplant on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) outcomes after haploidentical transplantation (haplo-SCT). We assessed the impact of pre-transplant disease status on post-transplant outcomes of 143 patients treated with haplo-SCT using fludarabine-melphalan (FM) conditioning and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). With a median follow-up of 29 months, the two-year PFS for all patients was 41%. Compared to patients in complete remission (CR) at transplant, those with active disease (n = 29) and CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) (n = 39) had worse PFS. They had hazard ratios (HR) of 3.5 (95% CI: 2.05-6.1; P < .001) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-3.9; P = .002), respectively. Among patients who were in CR at transplant, there were no differences in PFS between those who had minimal residual disease (MRD) positive (n = 24), and MRD negative (n = 41) (HR 1.85, 95%CI: 0.9-4.0; P = .1). In multivariable analysis for patients in CR, only age was predictive for outcomes, while MRD status at transplant did not influence the treatment outcomes. Our findings suggest that haplo-SCT with FM conditioning regimen and PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis has a protective effect, and may potentially abrogate the inferior outcomes of MRD positivity for patients with AML. Patients with positive MRD may benefit from proceeding urgently to a haplo-SCT, as this does not appear to negatively impact transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Transplante Haploidêntico , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(6): 839-848, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258129

RESUMO

Outcomes after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) are influenced by both disease- and patient-related factors. Here, we developed a novel prognostic model, hematopoietic cell transplant-composite risk (HCT-CR), by combining the refined disease risk index (DRI-R) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant comorbidity/age index (HCT-CI/Age) to predict post-transplant survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The analysis included 942 AML/MDS patients treated with AHSCT. Patients were stratified into 4 HCT-CR risk groups: Low-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 272); Intermediate-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 168); High-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 284); and Very high-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 184). Compared with the low-risk group, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups had a significantly increased risk of death [adjusted HR of 1.37 (P < 0.04), 2.08 (P < 0.001), and 2.92 (P < 0.001), respectively]. The concordance test showed that the HCT-CR model provided better discriminative capacity for OS prediction compared with all prior models independently, including cytogenetic risk group, DRI-R, and HCT-CI/Age model (C-indices: 0.62, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.54, respectively) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, combining disease- and patient-related factors provides better survival stratification for patients with AML/MDS receiving AHSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer ; 125(9): 1470-1481, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenotypic characterization of immune cells in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is lacking. METHODS: T-cell infiltration was quantified on BM biopsies from 13 patients with AML, and flow cytometry was performed on BM aspirates (BMAs) from 107 patients with AML who received treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The authors evaluated the expression of inhibitory receptors (programmed cell death protein 1 [PD1], cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], lymphocyte-activation gene 3 [LAG3], T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 [TIM3]) and stimulatory receptors (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein [GITR], OX40, 41BB [a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor], inducible T-cell costimulatory [ICOS]) on T-cell subsets and the expression of their ligands (41BBL, B7-1, B7-2, ICOSL, PD-L1, PD-L2, and OX40L) on AML blasts. Expression of these markers was correlated with patient age, karyotype, baseline next-generation sequencing for 28 myeloid-associated genes (including P53), and DNA methylation proteins (DNA methyltransferase 3α, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1[IDH1], IDH2, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 [TET2], and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 [FLT3]). RESULTS: On histochemistry evaluation, the T-cell population in BM appeared to be preserved in patients who had AML compared with healthy donors. The proportion of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) in BMAs was higher in patients with AML than in healthy donors. PD1-positive/OX40-positive T cells were more frequent in AML BMAs, and a higher frequency of PD1-positive/cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)-positive T cells coexpressed TIM3 or LAG3. PD1-positive/CD8-positive T cells were more frequent in BMAs from patients who had multiply relapsed AML than in BMAs from those who had first relapsed or newly diagnosed AML. Blasts in BMAs from patients who had TP53-mutated AML were more frequently positive for PD-L1. CONCLUSIONS: The preserved T-cell population, the increased frequency of regulatory T cells, and the expression of targetable immune receptors in AML BMAs suggest a role for T-cell-harnessing therapies in AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Infiltração Leucêmica/patologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Genes cdc/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Infiltração Leucêmica/diagnóstico , Infiltração Leucêmica/imunologia , Infiltração Leucêmica/metabolismo , Ligantes , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Recidiva , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
17.
Blood Adv ; 2(17): 2254-2261, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206098

RESUMO

Donor availability for allogeneic transplantation remains an important factor in determining outcomes of a successful transplant. We examined outcomes of 242 patients treated over 3 years who had a matched unrelated donor (MUD) search at our institution. One hundred sixty patients (66%) had a 10 of 10 MUD identified, and 85 (53%) proceeded to MUD transplantation. White patients and those with common haplotypes were more likely to have a MUD identified (odds ratio [OR], 7.4 [P < .0001]; OR, 41.6 [P < .0001]), and were more likely to proceed to transplantation with a MUD (OR, 11.2 [P < .0001]; OR, 85.1 [P = .002]). In addition, patients who were newly diagnosed/in remission at the time of MUD search had a higher probability of receiving a transplant (OR, 2.01 [P = .013]) and better progression-free survival (PFS; P < .0001). In multivariate analysis for patients who received a transplant, donor type did not influence PFS at 3 years, which was 40% for MUD and 57% for haploidentical transplants, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.2 [P = .50]). In conclusion, race, haplotype frequency, and disease status at the time of MUD search influence the probability of identifying a MUD and receiving a transplant. Patients with a low likelihood of receiving a MUD transplant may proceed to a haploidentical transplant as soon as indicated, as this approach does not appear to compromise transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Doadores não Relacionados/provisão & distribuição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Haplótipos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Haploidêntico , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Med ; 24(7): 1036-1046, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892070

RESUMO

Metabolic reprograming is an emerging hallmark of tumor biology and an actively pursued opportunity in discovery of oncology drugs. Extensive efforts have focused on therapeutic targeting of glycolysis, whereas drugging mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has remained largely unexplored, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of tumor contexts in which OXPHOS is essential. Here, we report the discovery of IACS-010759, a clinical-grade small-molecule inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Treatment with IACS-010759 robustly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in models of brain cancer and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reliant on OXPHOS, likely owing to a combination of energy depletion and reduced aspartate production that leads to impaired nucleotide biosynthesis. In models of brain cancer and AML, tumor growth was potently inhibited in vivo following IACS-010759 treatment at well-tolerated doses. IACS-010759 is currently being evaluated in phase 1 clinical trials in relapsed/refractory AML and solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metabolismo Energético , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/biossíntese , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
JCI Insight ; 2(13)2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679949

RESUMO

Genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, in particular in osteoprogenitor cells, have been shown to support leukemogenesis. However, it is unclear how leukemia cells alter the BM microenvironment to create a hospitable niche. Here, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, but not normal CD34+ or CD33+ cells, induce osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In addition, AML cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Mechanistic studies identified that AML-derived BMPs activate Smad1/5 signaling to induce osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Gene expression array analysis revealed that AML cells induce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in BM-MSCs irrespective of AML type. Overexpression of CTGF in a transgenic mouse model greatly enhanced leukemia engraftment in vivo. Together, our data suggest that AML cells induce a preosteoblast-rich niche in the BM that in turn enhances AML expansion.

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