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1.
Brain ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020823

RESUMO

Several genetically-targeted therapies are being developed for ALS. Research is increasingly supportive of a greater incidence of clinically actionable variants in sporadic ALS than previously reported. Salmon et al. outline the need to improve access, and offer genetic testing to all people diagnosed with ALS.

2.
Circ Res ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886679

RESUMO

Background: Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is a severe congenital heart defect which affects approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. While there are several reports of D-TGA patients with rare variants in individual genes, the majority of D-TGA cases remain genetically elusive. Familial recurrence patterns and the observation that most cases with D-TGA are sporadic suggest a polygenic inheritance for the disorder, yet this remains unexplored. Methods: We sought to study the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in risk for D-TGA. We conducted a genome-wide association study in an international set of 1,237 patients with D-TGA and identified a genome-wide significant susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3, which was subsequently replicated in an independent case-control set (rs56219800, meta-analysis P=8.6x10-10, OR=0.69 per C allele). Results: SNP-based heritability analysis showed that 25% of variance in susceptibility to D-TGA may be explained by common variants. A genome-wide polygenic risk score derived from the discovery set was significantly associated to D-TGA in the replication set (P=4x10-5). The genome-wide significant locus (3p14.3) co-localizes with a putative regulatory element that interacts with the promoter of WNT5A, which encodes the Wnt Family Member 5A protein known for its role in cardiac development in mice. We show that this element drives reporter gene activity in the developing heart of mice and zebrafish and is bound by the developmental transcription factor TBX20. We further demonstrate that TBX20 attenuates Wnt5a expression levels in the developing mouse heart. Conclusions: This work provides support for a polygenic architecture in D-TGA and identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3 near WNT5A. Genomic and functional data support a causal role of WNT5A at the locus.

3.
Elife ; 102021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796871

RESUMO

SARM1, a protein with critical NADase activity, is a central executioner in a conserved programme of axon degeneration. We report seven rare missense or in-frame microdeletion human SARM1 variant alleles in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or other motor nerve disorders that alter the SARM1 auto-inhibitory ARM domain and constitutively hyperactivate SARM1 NADase activity. The constitutive NADase activity of these seven variants is similar to that of SARM1 lacking the entire ARM domain and greatly exceeds the activity of wild-type SARM1, even in the presence of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), its physiological activator. This rise in constitutive activity alone is enough to promote neuronal degeneration in response to otherwise non-harmful, mild stress. Importantly, these strong gain-of-function alleles are completely patient-specific in the cohorts studied and show a highly significant association with disease at the single gene level. These findings of disease-associated coding variants that alter SARM1 function build on previously reported genome-wide significant association with ALS for a neighbouring, more common SARM1 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to support a contributory role of SARM1 in these disorders. A broad phenotypic heterogeneity and variable age-of-onset of disease among patients with these alleles also raises intriguing questions about the pathogenic mechanism of hyperactive SARM1 variants.

4.
Brain ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677606

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made in understanding the pre-symptomatic phase of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While much is still unknown, advances in other neurodegenerative diseases offer valuable insights. Indeed, it is increasingly clear that the well-recognized clinical syndromes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), spinal muscular atrophy, and frontotemporal dementia are also each preceded by a pre-symptomatic or prodromal period of varying duration, during which the underlying disease process unfolds, with associated compensatory changes and loss of inherent system redundancy. Key insights from these diseases highlight opportunities for discovery in ALS. The development of biomarkers reflecting amyloid and tau has led to a shift in defining AD based on inferred underlying histopathology. PD is unique among neurodegenerative diseases in the number and diversity of non-genetic biomarkers of pre-symptomatic disease, most notably REM-sleep behavior disorder. HD benefits from an ability to predict the likely timing of clinically manifest disease based on age and CAG-repeat length alongside reliable neuroimaging markers of atrophy. SMA clinical trials have highlighted the transformational value of early therapeutic intervention, and studies in FTD illustrate the differential role of biomarkers based on genotype. Similar advances in ALS would transform our understanding of key events in pathogenesis, thereby dramatically accelerating progress towards disease prevention. Deciphering the biology of pre-symptomatic ALS relies upon a clear conceptual framework for defining the earliest stages of disease. Clinically manifest ALS may emerge abruptly, especially among those who harbor genetic mutations associated with rapidly progressive ALS. However, the disease may also evolve more gradually, revealing a prodromal period of mild motor impairment preceding phenoconversion to clinically manifest disease. Similarly, cognitive and behavioral impairment, when present, may emerge gradually, evolving through a prodromal period of mild cognitive impairment or mild behavioral impairment before progression to ALS. Biomarkers are critically important to studying pre-symptomatic ALS and essential to efforts to intervene therapeutically before clinically manifest disease emerges. The use of non-genetic biomarkers, however, presents challenges related to counseling, informed consent, communication of results, and limited protections afforded by existing legislation. Experiences from pre-symptomatic genetic testing and counseling, and the legal protections against discrimination based on genetic data, may serve as a guide. Building upon what we have learned-more broadly from other pre-symptomatic neurodegenerative diseases and specifically from ALS gene mutation carriers-we present a roadmap to early intervention, and perhaps even disease prevention, for all forms of ALS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709092

RESUMO

Introduction: Dyspnea (or breathlessness) due to progressive neuromuscular respiratory failure is common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is associated with anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life (QoL). For effective treatment, it is essential to understand the relationships between dyspnea, anxiety, depression and QoL.Methods: The UK Trajectories of Outcomes in Neurological Conditions-ALS study (TONiC-ALS) collected self-report measures from patients with ALS. Ordinal scales were transformed to interval-scaled estimates by the Rasch Measurement model. They were subsequently included in a series of path models where the focal relationships were dyspnea to QoL and dyspnea to depression.Results: Path analyses using 1022 participants showed that 60.5% of the variance of QoL was explained by fatigue, anxiety, dyspnea and disability. For depression, 54.1% of the variance was explained by a model of these factors. Dyspnea played an important but mostly indirect role in influencing QoL and depressive symptoms. Disability was dominated by all other factors in the model.Discussion: Dyspnea in ALS influences quality of life and depression largely through indirect effects, principally acting via anxiety and fatigue. Recognition of this is essential for clinicians to understand where to intervene for greatest benefit. Researchers must be aware that studies of the effect of dyspnea on QoL and depression require path models, measuring both direct and indirect effects, as the impact of dyspnea is likely to be significantly miscalculated if only direct effects are assessed.

6.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

7.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(10): 821-831, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent unmet need for new therapies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In a clinical study with healthy volunteers, levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, was shown to improve neuromechanical efficiency and contractile function of the human diaphragm. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral levosimendan in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with a focus on respiratory function. METHODS: The REFALS study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial at 99 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis specialist centres in 14 countries worldwide. People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were eligible for participation if they were at least 18 years of age and had a sitting slow vital capacity (SVC) of 60-90% predicted. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by interactive web-response system to receive either levosimendan or placebo. The capsules for oral administration were identical in appearance to maintain blinding of participants and investigators. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in supine SVC at 12 weeks, assessed as the percentage of predicted normal sitting SVC. The key secondary endpoint was the combined assessment of function and survival (CAFS) up to 48 weeks. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, comprising all participants who were randomly assigned. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03505021) and has been completed. An extension study (REFALS-ES; NCT03948178) has also been completed, but will be reported separately. FINDINGS: Between June 21, 2018, and June 28, 2019, 871 people were screened for the study, of whom 496 were randomly assigned either levosimendan (n=329) or placebo (n=167). Participants were followed up between June 27, 2018 and June 26, 2020, for a median duration of 50·1 (IQR 37·5-51·1) weeks. The median duration of treatment was 47·9 (IQR 26·4-48·1) weeks. Change from baseline in supine SVC at 12 weeks was -6·73% with levosimendan and -6·99% with placebo, with no significant difference between the treatments (estimated treatment difference 0·26%, 95% CI -2·03 to 2·55, p=0·83). Similarly, at week 48, CAFS did not differ between treatment groups (least squares mean change from baseline 10·69, 95% CI -15·74 to 37·12; nominal p value=0·43). The most frequent adverse events were increased heart rate (106 [33%] of 326 receiving levosimendan vs 12 [7%] of 166 receiving placebo), fall (85 [26%] vs 48 [29%]), headache (93 [29%] vs 36 [22%]), and dyspnoea (59 [18%] vs 32 [19%]). 33 (10%) participants allocated levosimendan and 20 (12%) assigned placebo died during the trial, mainly due to respiratory failure or progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. INTERPRETATION: Levosimendan was not superior to placebo in maintaining respiratory function in a broad population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although levosimendan was generally well tolerated, increased heart rate and headache occurred more frequently with levosimendan than with placebo. The possibility of a clinically relevant subgroup of responsive individuals requires further evaluation. FUNDING: Orion Corporation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Administração Oral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409288

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease causing upper and lower motor neuron loss and currently no effective disease-modifying treatment is available. A pathological feature of this disease is neuroinflammation, a mechanism which involves both CNS-resident and peripheral immune system cells. Regulatory T-cells are immune-suppressive agents known to be dramatically and progressively decreased in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Low-dose interleukin-2 promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and was proposed as an immune-modulatory strategy for this disease. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot phase-II clinical trial called Immuno-Modulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis was carried out to test safety and activity of low-dose interleukin-2 in 36 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (NCT02059759). Participants were randomized to 1MIU, 2MIU-low-dose interleukin-2 or placebo and underwent one injection daily for 5 days every 28 days for three cycles. In this report, we describe the results of microarray gene expression profiling of trial participants' leukocyte population. We identified a dose-dependent increase in regulatory T-cell markers at the end of the treatment period. Longitudinal analysis revealed an alteration and inhibition of inflammatory pathways occurring promptly at the end of the first treatment cycle. These responses are less pronounced following the end of the third treatment cycle, although an activation of immune-regulatory pathways, involving regulatory T-cells and T helper 2 cells, was evident only after the last cycle. This indicates a cumulative effect of repeated low-dose interleukin-2 administration on regulatory T-cells. Our analysis suggested the existence of inter-individual variation amongst trial participants and we therefore classified patients into low, moderate and high-regulatory T-cell-responders. NanoString profiling revealed substantial baseline differences between participant immunological transcript expression profiles with the least responsive patients showing a more inflammatory-prone phenotype at the beginning of the trial. Finally, we identified two genes in which pre-treatment expression levels correlated with the magnitude of drug responsiveness. Therefore, we proposed a two-biomarker based regression model able to predict patient regulatory T-cell-response to low-dose interleukin-2. These findings and the application of this methodology could be particularly relevant for future precision medicine approaches to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

9.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396104

RESUMO

Since amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases exhibit significant heterogeneity, we aim to investigate the association of lipid composition of plasma and CSF with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, its progression and clinical characteristics. Lipidome analyses would help to stratify patients on a molecular basis. For this reason, we have analysed the lipid composition of paired plasma and CSF samples from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and age-matched non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis individuals (controls) by comprehensive liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The concentrations of neurofilament light chain-an index of neuronal damage-were also quantified in CSF samples and plasma. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis versus control comparison, in a moderate stringency mode, showed that plasma from cases contains more differential lipids (n = 122 for raw P < 0.05; n = 27 for P < 0.01) than CSF (n = 17 for raw P < 0.05; n = 4 for P < 0.01), with almost no overlapping differential species, mainly characterized by an increased content of triacylglyceride species in plasma and decreased in CSF. Of note, false discovery rate correction indicated that one of the CSF lipids (monoacylglycerol 18:0) had high statistic robustness (false discovery rate-P < 0.01). Plasma lipidomes also varied significantly with the main involvement at onset (bulbar, spinal or respiratory). Notably, faster progression cases showed particular lipidome fingerprints, featured by decreased triacylclycerides and specific phospholipids in plasma, with 11 lipids with false discovery rate-P < 0.1 (n = 56 lipids in plasma for raw P < 0.01). Lipid species associated with progression rate clustered in a relatively low number of metabolic pathways, mainly triacylglyceride metabolism and glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid biosynthesis. A specific triacylglyceride (68:12), correlated with neurofilament content (r = 0.8, P < 0.008). Thus, the present findings suggest that systemic hypermetabolism-potentially sustained by increased triacylglyceride content-and CNS alterations of specific lipid pathways could be associated as modifiers of disease progression. Furthermore, these results confirm biochemical lipid heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with different presentations and progression, suggesting the use of specific lipid species as potential disease classifiers.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.

11.
Neurology ; 97(11): 528-536, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315786

RESUMO

Development of effective treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been hampered by disease heterogeneity, a limited understanding of underlying pathophysiology, and methodologic design challenges. We have evaluated 2 major themes in the design of pivotal, phase 3 clinical trials for ALS-(1) patient selection and (2) analytical strategy-and discussed potential solutions with the European Medicines Agency. Several design considerations were assessed using data from 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials (n = 988), 4 population-based cohorts (n = 5,100), and 2,436 placebo-allocated patients from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. The validity of each proposed design modification was confirmed by means of simulation and illustrated for a hypothetical setting. Compared to classical trial design, the proposed design modifications reduce the sample size by 30.5% and placebo exposure time by 35.4%. By making use of prognostic survival models, one creates a potential to include a larger proportion of the population and maximize generalizability. We propose a flexible design framework that naturally adapts the trial duration when inaccurate assumptions are made at the design stage, such as enrollment or survival rate. In case of futility, the follow-up time is shortened and patient exposure to ineffective treatments or placebo is minimized. For diseases such as ALS, optimizing the use of resources, widening eligibility criteria, and minimizing exposure to futile treatments and placebo is critical to the development of effective treatments. Our proposed design modifications could circumvent important pitfalls and may serve as a blueprint for future clinical trials in this population.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14283, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253796

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) play a significant role in central nervous system diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies of ALS have consistently identified retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase activity in patients. Evidence indicates that ERVs are the cause of reverse transcriptase activity in ALS, but it is currently unclear whether this is due to a specific ERV locus or a family of ERVs. We employed a combination of bioinformatic methods to identify whether specific ERVs or ERV families are associated with ALS. Using the largest post-mortem RNA-sequence datasets available we selectively identified ERVs that closely resembled full-length proviruses. In the discovery dataset there was one ERV locus (HML6_3p21.31c) that showed significant increased expression in post-mortem motor cortex tissue after multiple-testing correction. Using six replication post-mortem datasets we found HML6_3p21.31c was consistently upregulated in ALS in motor cortex and cerebellum tissue. In addition, HML6_3p21.31c showed significant co-expression with cytokine binding and genes involved in EBV, HTLV-1 and HIV type-1 infections. There were no significant differences in ERV family expression between ALS and controls. Our results support the hypothesis that specific ERV loci are involved in ALS pathology.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W153-W161, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125897

RESUMO

As a result of the advent of high-throughput technologies, there has been rapid progress in our understanding of the genetics underlying biological processes. However, despite such advances, the genetic landscape of human diseases has only marginally been disclosed. Exploiting the present availability of large amounts of biological and phenotypic data, we can use our current understanding of disease genetics to train machine learning models to predict novel genetic factors associated with the disease. To this end, we developed DGLinker, a webserver for the prediction of novel candidate genes for human diseases given a set of known disease genes. DGLinker has a user-friendly interface that allows non-expert users to exploit biomedical information from a wide range of biological and phenotypic databases, and/or to upload their own data, to generate a knowledge-graph and use machine learning to predict new disease-associated genes. The webserver includes tools to explore and interpret the results and generates publication-ready figures. DGLinker is available at https://dglinker.rosalind.kcl.ac.uk. The webserver is free and open to all users without the need for registration.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Software , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Gráficos por Computador , Genes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
Brain ; 144(5): 1279-1280, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157726
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3400, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099648

RESUMO

Increased cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (NfL) is a recognized biomarker for neurodegeneration that can also be assessed in blood. Here, we investigate plasma NfL as a marker of neurodegeneration in 13 neurodegenerative disorders, Down syndrome, depression and cognitively unimpaired controls from two multicenter cohorts: King's College London (n = 805) and the Swedish BioFINDER study (n = 1,464). Plasma NfL was significantly increased in all cortical neurodegenerative disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and atypical parkinsonian disorders. We demonstrate that plasma NfL is clinically useful in identifying atypical parkinsonian disorders in patients with parkinsonism, dementia in individuals with Down syndrome, dementia among psychiatric disorders, and frontotemporal dementia in patients with cognitive impairment. Data-driven cut-offs highlighted the fundamental importance of age-related clinical cut-offs for disorders with a younger age of onset. Finally, plasma NfL performs best when applied to indicate no underlying neurodegeneration, with low false positives, in all age-related cut-offs.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Síndrome de Down/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Neurogenetics ; 22(3): 215-219, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046764

RESUMO

Alexander Disease (AxD) is a rare leukodystrophy caused by missense mutations of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Primarily seen in infants and juveniles, it can present in adulthood. We report a family with inherited AxD in which the mother presented with symptoms many years after her daughter. We reviewed the age of onset in all published cases of familial AxD and found that 32 of 34 instances of parent-offspring pairs demonstrated an earlier age of onset in offspring compared to the parent. We suggest that genetic anticipation occurs in familial AxD and speculate that genetic mosaicism could explain this phenomenon.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821690

RESUMO

Background: Clinical stage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be assigned using King's staging with a simple protocol based on the number of CNS regions involved and the presence of significant nutritional or respiratory failure. It is important that the assigned clinical stage matches expectations, and generally corresponds with how a health care professional would intuitively stage the patient. We therefore investigated the relationship between King's clinical ALS stage and ALS stage as intuitively assigned by health care professionals. Methods: We wrote 17 case vignettes describing people with ALS at different disease stages from very early limited disease involvement through to severe, multi-domain disease. During two workshops, we asked health care professionals to intuitively stage the vignettes and compared the answers with the actual King's clinical ALS stage. Results: There was a good correlation between King's clinical ALS stage and intuitively assigned stage, with a Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient of 0.64 (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the intuitive stages assigned by practitioners of different types or at different levels of experience. Conclusions: Across a spectrum of ALS scenarios, King's clinical ALS stage corresponds to intuitive ALS stage as assigned by a range of health care professionals.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
18.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(2): 147-157, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842068

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: To improve our clinical understanding of facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN). Recent Findings: We identified 29 new cases and 71 literature cases, resulting in a cohort of 100 patients with FOSMN. During follow-up, cognitive and behavioral changes became apparent in 8 patients, suggesting that changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are a part of the natural history of FOSMN. Another new finding was chorea, seen in 6 cases. Despite reports of autoantibodies, there is no consistent evidence to suggest an autoimmune pathogenesis. Four of 6 autopsies had TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP) 43 pathology. Seven cases had genetic mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Summary: FOSMN is a rare disease with a highly characteristic onset and pattern of disease progression involving initial sensory disturbances, followed by bulbar weakness with a cranial to caudal spread of pathology. Although not conclusive, the balance of evidence suggests that FOSMN is most likely to be a TDP-43 proteinopathy within the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-FTD spectrum.

20.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 686-697, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear, with several conflicting reports. A decisive result on this topic is needed, given that treatment options are available now for SMN deficiency. METHODS: In this largest multicenter case control study to evaluate the effect of SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in ALS, we used whole genome sequencing data from Project MinE data freeze 2. SMN copy numbers of 6,375 patients with ALS and 2,412 controls were called from whole genome sequencing data, and the reliability of the calls was tested with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification data. RESULTS: The copy number distribution of SMN1 and SMN2 between cases and controls did not show any statistical differences (binomial multivariate logistic regression SMN1 p = 0.54 and SMN2 p = 0.49). In addition, the copy number of SMN did not associate with patient survival (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.78 and SMN2 p = 0.23) or age at onset (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.75 and SMN2 p = 0.63). INTERPRETATION: In our well-powered study, there was no association of SMN1 or SMN2 copy numbers with the risk of ALS or ALS disease severity. This suggests that changing SMN protein levels in the physiological range may not modify ALS disease course. This is an important finding in the light of emerging therapies targeted at SMN deficiencies. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:686-697.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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