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1.
J Food Biochem ; : e13962, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617307

RESUMO

Marinating is a Chinese meat-processing technique that involves treating meat products in an aged brine containing traditional Chinese spices and other condiments. In this study, beef meats were marinated in different seasoning recipes, including marinade solution of water as control (BS1), marinade solution consisting of water and 2% salt (BS2), marinade solution consisting of water, 2% salt, and 0.5% sugar (BS3), and marinade solution consisting of water, 2% salt, 0.5% sugar, 0.5% soy sauce, and spices (BS4). The effects of different marinade solutions through the tumbling on the flavor profile of roasted beef meat were comprehensively analyzed via chemical and sensory analysis. A total of 82 volatile flavor compounds were identified. Among them, 36 compounds were identified in BS1, 40 compounds in BS2, 46 compounds in BS3, and 64 compounds in BS4. Besides, 4 compounds showed high odor activity values (OAVs) in marinated samples, including decanal, trans-2-decenal, linalool, and nonanal. The metal oxide sensors of E-nose distinguished the differences among the different marinated samples. Marinated beef samples BS2 and BS3 showed a significant increase in the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In contrast, marinated beef sample BS4 significantly reduced TBARS value to 4.11 µg MDA/kg beef. It can be concluded that using this different seasoning processing enhances the aroma profile and provides a reference for the production of marinated meat products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Marinating is a Chinese meat-processing technique that involves treating meat products in an aged brine containing traditional Chinese spices and other condiments. Processing beef meat with different marinade solutions could enhance its aroma profile. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of marination in different marinade solutions through the tumbling on the volatile flavor compounds of roasted beef meat using HS-SPME-GC-MS and E-nose. The obtained results from this study could enrich the theoretical knowledge of the flavor chemistry of marinated beef meat and provide a reference for the production of marinated meat products.

2.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110651, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600653

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of spices on individual phospholipid molecules of water-boiled salted duck (WSD) processing. Shotgun lipidomics was used to determine the structure of individual phospholipid molecules in raw duck meat and changes of phospholipids in processed-WSD with or without spices. A total of 118 phospholipid molecules were determined during the whole processing. Spices had a significant effect on the changes of most individual phospholipid molecules during the processing, but the overall effect on the phospholipid profile was not obvious. Nine phospholipid molecule markers were screened by partial least squares discriminant analysis, which can be used to distinguish with or without spice treatment. The effect of spices on most phospholipid molecules began on the first day of dry-ripening, and gradually became more obvious in the subsequent processing. Spice's main function was to delay the degradation of individual phospholipid molecules.

3.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515716

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of peptides isolated from Jinhua ham (JHP) against alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the mechanisms by which JHP prevents against ALD. The tangential flow filtration (TFF) combined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate the JHP. Then the hepatoprotective activity of peptides was evaluated through experiments in mice. The primary structure of the peptide with the strongest liver protective activity was Lys-Arg-Gln-Lys-Tyr-Asp (KRQKYD) and the peptide was derived from the myosin of Jinhua ham, which were both identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the mechanism of KRQKYD prevention against ALD was attributed to the fact that KRQKYD increases the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut and decreases the abundance of Proteobacteria (especially Escherichia_Shigella). The LPS-mediated liver inflammatory cascade was reduced by protecting the intestinal barrier, increasing the tight connection of intestinal epithelial cells and reducing the level of LPS in the portal venous circulation. KRQKYD could inhibit the production of ROS by upregulating the expression of the NRF2/HO-1 antioxidant defense system and by reducing oxidative stress injury in liver cells. This study can provide a theoretical foundation for the application of JHP in the protection of liver from ALD.

4.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110470, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399468

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be capable of converting polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. linoleic acid (LA) into bioactive and other fatty acid metabolites that are not toxic to the bacteria themselves, but the mechanism of this conversion is not clear. Here we reported for the first time that probiotic L. plantarum 12-3 derived from Tibet kefir when supplemented with LA from 1% to 10% in the MRS medium transformed LA to various fatty acid derivatives. These derivatives formed in the medium were identified with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In silico studies were done to confirm the enzymatic reactions responsible for this conversion. We found that L. plantarum 12-3 could convert LA at different concentrations to 8 different fatty acid derivatives. Putative candidate enzymes involved in biotransformation of LA into fatty acid derivatives were identified via whole genome of L. plantarum 12-3, including linoleate isomerase, acetoacetate decarboxylase and dehydrogenase. Therefore, the present study provides further understanding of the mechanism of conversion of LA to health-beneficial fatty acid metabolites in probiotic L. plantarum, which can be explored for potential application in functional foods.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Biotransformação , Simulação por Computador , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Linoleico
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(18): 5154-5167, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281377

RESUMO

Aroma profiles and aroma-active compounds of Sichuan vinegar, which is one of the four famous vinegars in China, were systemically analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SAFE-GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In addition, descriptive profile analysis, aroma reconstitution, and omission test were used to evaluate and compare the Sichuan modern vinegar (SMV) and Sichuan traditional vinegar (STV). A total of 99 volatile compounds were tentatively identified from the neutral and acidic fractions of both samples. Among them, 77 compounds were positively identified after comparison with their corresponding standards. Forty-two aroma-active compounds were characterized with flavor dilution (FD) factors from 1 to 6561 by aroma extract dilution assay (AEDA)-GC-O, with the highest for 2-hydroxy-3-butanone, butyrolactone, furan-2-carbaldehyde, acetic acid, and 3-oxobutan-2-yl acetate in both STV and SMV samples. Among them, 10 were identified for the first time in vinegar. Moreover, 40 aroma-active compounds were quantitatively determined, and 26 compounds exhibited their odor activity values (OAVs) larger than 1. The reconstituted solutions showed similar aroma profiles to the original samples in their characteristic aromas in terms of fruity, sweet, roasty, spicy, and woody notes but had slight differences in nutty and herbal notes.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , China , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Olfato , Paladar
6.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 67(1): 123-129, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187238

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess and scrutinize the competency of probiotic L. plantarum K25 to produce linoleic acid analogues in the medium supplemented with different concentrations of linoleic acid, ranging from 1% to 10%, in a dose dependent manner. The analogues produced were identified and quantitated by GC-MS and in silico studies were done to confirm enzymatic reactions involved in its conversion. The results showed that L. plantarum K25 could convert linoleic acid at different concentrations to 9 different fatty acid analogues at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 17.24 mg/L. Among these metabolites, formation of an essential fatty acid, the linolenic acid, in media supplemented with 9% linoleic acid, is being reported for the first time. Putative candidate enzymes involved in biotransformation of linoleic acid into linoleic acid analogues were identified in the whole genome of L. plantarum K25, which was sequenced previously. In silico studies confirmed that many enzymes, including linoleate isomerase and dehydrogenase, may be involved in biotransformation of linoleic acid into linoleic acid analogues. Both enzymes could effectively bind the linoleic acid molecule, mainly by forming hydrogen bonding between the acidic groups of linoleic acid and the proline residues at the active sites of the enzymes, validating putative reaction partners.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Domínio Catalítico , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillus plantarum/enzimologia , Prolina , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/biossíntese
7.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 67(1): 99-109, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031769

RESUMO

Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 capability to convert linoleic acid into conjugated linoleic acid and other metabolites was studied in a dose-dependent manner by supplementing LA at different concentrations. L. plantarum YW11 displayed a uniform distinctive growth curve of CLA and other metabolites at concentrations of LA ranging from 1% (w/v) to 10% (w/v), with slightly increased growth at higher LA concentrations. The biotransformation capability of L. plantarum YW11 evaluated by GC-MS revealed a total of one CLA isomer, i.e. 9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, also known as the rumenic acid (RA), one linoleic acid isomer (linoelaidic acid), and LA metabolites: (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, trans, trans-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, propyl ester and stearic acid. All the metabolites of linoleic acid were produced from 1 to 10% LA supplemented MRS media, while surprisingly the only conjugated linoleic acid compound was produced at 10% LA. To assess the presence of putative enzymes, responsible for conversion of LA into CLA, in silico characterization was carried out. The in silico characterization revealed presence of four enzymes (10-linoleic acid hydratase, linoleate isomerase, acetoacetate decarboxylase and dehydrogenase) that may be involved in the production of CLA (rumenic acid) and LA isomers. The biotransformation ability of L. plantarum YW11 to convert LA into RA has great prospects for biotechnological and industrial implications that could be exploited in the future scale-up experiments.


Assuntos
Biotransformação , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Isomerismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/enzimologia
8.
Foods ; 8(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658700

RESUMO

Saccharomyces boulardii is a unique species of yeast previously characterized as a probiotic strain (CNCM I-745) among a few probiotic yeasts reported to date. Inulin is one of the most common prebiotics that exhibit twisted hydrocolloidal properties in dairy products. The present study was designed to develop a synbiotic yogurt by incorporation of S. boulardii and inulin at 1%, 1.5%, and 2% (w/v), comparing with the probiotic and control plain yogurts. Microrheological, microstructural, microbiological, sensory properties, and volatile compounds of the yogurt samples were evaluated. Microrheological analysis showed that addition of inulin to yogurt slightly reduced the values of G' and G″, while solid-liquid balance (SLB) values confirmed more solid properties of the synbiotic yogurt (0.582~0.595) than the plain yogurt (0.503~0.518). A total of 18 volatile compounds were identified in the synbiotic yogurt, while only five and six compounds were identified in plain and probiotic yogurts, respectively. Physiochemical parameters such as pH, acidity, and protein content were in the normal range (as with the control), while fat content in the synbiotic yogurt decreased significantly. Addition of 1% inulin not only reduced syneresis but also maintained viability of S. boulardii after 28 days of storage. Microstructural and microrheological studies confirmed the dense, compressed, homogeneous structure of the synbiotic yogurt. Thus, addition of inulin improved the textural and sensory properties of the synbiotic yogurt, as well as survival of S. boulardii with viable count above 6.0 log CFU/g in yogurt, as generally required for probiotics. Therefore, novel synbiotic yogurt with desirable quality was developed as an effective carrier for delivery of the probiotic yeast exerting its beneficial health effects.

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