Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8541, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189969

RESUMO

During chronic liver injury hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the principal source of extracellular matrix in the fibrotic liver, transdifferentiate into pro-fibrotic myofibroblast-like cells - a process potentially regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Recently, we found serum miRNA-25-3p (miR-25) levels were upregulated in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) without liver disease, compared to children with CF-associated liver disease and healthy individuals. Here we examine the role of miR-25 in HSC biology. MiR-25 was detected in the human HSC cell line LX-2 and in primary murine HSCs, and increased with culture-induced activation. Transient overexpression of miR-25 inhibited TGF-ß and its type 1 receptor (TGFBR1) mRNA expression, TGF-ß-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and subsequent collagen1α1 induction in LX-2 cells. Pull-down experiments with biotinylated miR-25 revealed Notch signaling (co-)activators ADAM-17 and FKBP14 as miR-25 targets in HSCs. NanoString analysis confirmed miR-25 regulation of Notch- and Wnt-signaling pathways. Expression of Notch signaling pathway components and endogenous Notch1 signaling was downregulated in miR-25 overexpressing LX-2 cells, as were components of Wnt signaling such as Wnt5a. We propose that miR-25 acts as a negative feedback anti-fibrotic control during HSC activation by reducing the reactivity of HSCs to TGF-ß-induced collagen expression and modulating the cross-talk between Notch, Wnt and TGF-ß signaling.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121957

RESUMO

Patients with brain-metastatic breast cancer face a bleak prognosis marked by morbidity and premature death. A deeper understanding of molecular interactions in the metastatic brain tumour microenvironment may inform the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells or PBS (modelling traumatic brain injury) were stereotactically injected into the cerebral cortex of NOD/SCID mice to model metastatic colonization. Brain cells were isolated from five tumour-associated samples and five controls (pooled uninvolved and injured tissue) by immunoaffinity chromatography, and proteomic profiles were compared using the Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) discovery platform. Ontology and cell type biomarker enrichment analysis of the 125 differentially abundant proteins (p < 0.05) showed the changes largely represent cellular components involved in metabolic reprogramming and cell migration (min q = 4.59 × 10-5), with high-throughput PubMed text mining indicating they have been most frequently studied in the contexts of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and autophagy. Analysis of mouse brain cell type-specific biomarkers suggested the changes were paralleled by increased proportions of microglia, mural cells and interneurons. Finally, we orthogonally validated three of the proteins in an independent xenograft cohort, and investigated their expression in craniotomy specimens from triple-negative metastatic breast cancer patients, using a combination of standard and fluorescent multiplex immunohistochemistry. This included 3-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA Hydrolase (HIBCH), which is integral for gluconeogenic valine catabolism in the brain, and was strongly induced in both graft-associated brain tissue (13.5-fold by SWATH-MS; p = 7.2 × 10-4), and areas of tumour-associated, reactive gliosis in human clinical samples. HIBCH was also induced in the tumour compartment, with expression frequently localized to margins and haemorrhagic areas. These observations raise the possibility that catabolism of valine is an effective adaptation in metastatic cells able to access it, and that intermediates or products could be transferred from tumour-associated glia. Overall, our findings indicate that metabolic reprogramming dominates the proteomic landscape of graft-associated brain tissue in the intracranial MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Brain-derived metabolic provisions could represent an exploitable dependency in breast cancer brain metastases.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830863

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are amongst the most effective chemotherapeutics ever developed, but they produce grueling side-effects, serious adverse events and resistance often develops over time. We found that these compounds can be sequestered by secreted cellular Prion protein (PrPC), blocking their cytotoxic activity. This effect was dose-dependent using either cell line-conditioned medium or human serum as a source of PrPC. Genetic depletion of PrPC or inhibition of binding via chelation of ionic copper prevented the interaction and restored cytotoxic activity. This was more pronounced for doxorubicin than its epimer, epirubicin. Investigating the relevance to breast cancer management, we found that the levels of PRNP transcript in pre-treatment tumor biopsies stratified relapse-free survival after neoadjuvant treatment with anthracyclines, particularly amongst doxorubicin-treated patients with residual disease at surgery (p=2.8E-08). These data suggest that local sequestration could mediate treatment resistance. Consistent with this, tumor cell expression of PrPC protein correlated with poorer response to doxorubicin but not epirubicin in an independent cohort analyzed by immunohistochemistry, particularly soluble isoforms released into the extracellular environment by shedding (p=0.015). These findings have important potential clinical implications for frontline regimen decision-making. We suggest there is warranted utility for prognostic PrPC/PRNP assays to guide chemo-sensitization strategies that exploit an understanding of PrPC-anthracycline-copper ion complexes.

5.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246500

RESUMO

Breast cancer metastasis to gynaecological organs is an understudied pattern of tumour spread. We explored clinico-pathological and molecular features of these metastases to better understand whether this pattern of dissemination is organotropic or a consequence of wider metastatic dissemination. Primary and metastatic tumours from 54 breast cancer patients with gynaecological metastases were analysed using immunohistochemistry, DNA copy-number profiling, and targeted sequencing of 386 cancer-related genes. The median age of primary tumour diagnosis amongst patients with gynaecological metastases was significantly younger compared to a general breast cancer population (46.5 versus 60 years; p < 0.0001). Median age at metastatic diagnosis was 54.4, time to progression was 4.8 years (range 0-20 years), and survival following a diagnosis of metastasis was 1.95 years (range 0-18 years). Patients had an average of five involved sites (most frequently ovary, fallopian tube, omentum/peritoneum), with fewer instances of spread to the lungs, liver, or brain. Invasive lobular histology and luminal A-like phenotype were over-represented in this group (42.8 and 87.5%, respectively) and most patients had involved axillary lymph nodes (p < 0.001). Primary tumours frequently co-expressed oestrogen receptor cofactors (GATA3, FOXA1) and harboured amplifications at 8p12, 8q24, and 11q13. In terms of phenotype conversion, oestrogen receptor status was generally maintained in metastases, FOXA1 increased, and expression of progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and GATA3 decreased. ESR1 and novel AR mutations were identified. Metastasis to gynaecological organs is a complication frequently affecting young women with invasive lobular carcinoma and luminal A-like breast cancer, and hence may be driven by sustained hormonal signalling. Molecular analyses reveal a spectrum of factors that could contribute to de novo or acquired resistance to therapy and disease progression.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(1): 179-188, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to generate and characterize a novel cell line from a breast cancer bone metastasis to better study the progression of the disease. METHODS: The cell line, P7731, was derived from a metastatic bone lesion of a breast cancer patient and assessed for marker expression. P7731 was analyzed for DNA copy number variation, somatic mutations, and gene expression and was compared with the primary tumor. RESULTS: P7731 cells are negative for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 (triple-negative); strongly express vimentin (100% of cells positive) and also express cytokeratins 8/18 and 19 but at lower frequencies. Flow cytometry indicates P7731 cells are predominantly CD44+/CD49f+/EpCAM-, consistent with a primitive, mesenchymal-like phenotype. The cell line is tumorigenic in immunocompromised mice. Exome sequencing identified a total of 45 and 76 somatic mutations in the primary tumor and cell line, respectively, of which 32 were identified in both samples and included mutations in known driver genes PIK3CA, TP53, and ARID1A. P7731 retains the DNA copy number alterations present in the matching primary tumor. Homozygous deletions detected in the cell line and in the primary tumor were found in regions containing three known (CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and CDKN1B) and 23 putative tumor suppressor genes. Cell line-specific gene amplification coupled with mRNA expression analysis revealed genes and pathways with potential pro-metastatic functions. CONCLUSION: This novel human breast cancer-bone metastasis cell line will be a useful model to study aspects of breast cancer biology, particularly metastasis-related changes from breast to bone.

8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 167(1): 289-301, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cell lines are extremely useful tools in breast cancer research. Their key benefits include a high degree of control over experimental variables and reproducibility. However, the advantages must be balanced against the limitations of modelling such a complex disease in vitro. Informed selection of cell line(s) for a given experiment now requires essential knowledge about molecular and phenotypic context in the culture dish. METHODS: We performed multidimensional profiling of 36 widely used breast cancer cell lines that were cultured under standardised conditions. Flow cytometry and digital immunohistochemistry were used to compare the expression of 14 classical breast cancer biomarkers related to intrinsic molecular profiles and differentiation states: EpCAM, CD24, CD49f, CD44, ER, AR, HER2, EGFR, E-cadherin, p53, vimentin, and cytokeratins 5, 8/18 and 19. RESULTS: This cell-by-cell analysis revealed striking heterogeneity within cultures of individual lines that would be otherwise obscured by analysing cell homogenates, particularly amongst the triple-negative lines. High levels of p53 protein, but not RNA, were associated with somatic mutations (p = 0.008). We also identified new subgroups using the nanoString PanCancer Pathways panel (730 transcripts representing 13 canonical cancer pathways). Unsupervised clustering identified five groups: luminal/HER2, immortalised ('normal'), claudin-low and two basal clusters, distinguished mostly by baseline expression of TGF-beta and PI3-kinase pathway genes. CONCLUSION: These features are compared with other published genotype and phenotype information in a user-friendly reference table to help guide selection of the most appropriate models for in vitro and in vivo studies, and as a framework for classifying new patient-derived cancer cell lines and xenografts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1767-1778, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058716

RESUMO

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10909, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883623

RESUMO

Melanoma tumors are highly heterogeneous, comprising of different cell types that vary in their potential for growth and invasion. Heterogeneous expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) and the POU domain transcription factor BRN2 (POU3F2) has been found in malignant melanoma. Changing expression of these transcription factors as the disease progresses has been linked to the metastatic mechanism of phenotype switching. We therefore investigated the effects of MITF and BRN2 expression in melanoma growth and metastasis. Depletion of MITF resulted in a cell population that had a slowed cell cycle progression, was less invasive in vitro and had hindered tumor and metastasis forming ability in mouse xenograft studies. BRN2 depletion left a cell population with intact proliferation and invasion in vitro; however metastatic growth was significantly reduced in the mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that the proliferative population within melanoma tumors express MITF, and both MITF and BRN2 are important for metastatic growth in vivo. This finding highlights the importance of BRN2 and MITF expression in development of melanoma metastasis.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 255-266, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777932

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is strongly associated with an intergenic region on 11q13. We have previously shown that the strongest risk-associated SNPs fall within a distal enhancer that regulates CCND1. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating CCND1, this enhancer regulates two estrogen-regulated long noncoding RNAs, CUPID1 and CUPID2. We provide evidence that the risk-associated SNPs are associated with reduced chromatin looping between the enhancer and the CUPID1 and CUPID2 bidirectional promoter. We further show that CUPID1 and CUPID2 are predominantly expressed in hormone-receptor-positive breast tumors and play a role in modulating pathway choice for the repair of double-strand breaks. These data reveal a mechanism for the involvement of this region in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Dano ao DNA/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(27): 7077-7082, 2017 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630300

RESUMO

G9a is an epigenetic regulator that methylates H3K9, generally causing repression of gene expression, and participates in diverse cellular functions. G9a is genetically deregulated in a variety of tumor types and can silence tumor suppressor genes and, therefore, is important for carcinogenesis. Although hypoxia is recognized to be an adverse factor in tumor growth and metastasis, the role of G9a in regulating gene expression in hypoxia has not been described extensively. Here, we show that G9a protein stability is increased in hypoxia via reduced proline hydroxylation and, hence, inefficient degradation by the proteasome. This inefficiency leads to an increase in H3K9me2 at its target promoters. Blocking the methyltransferase activity of G9a inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, an increased level of G9a is a crucial factor in mediating the hypoxic response by down-regulating the expression of specific genes, including ARNTL, CEACAM7, GATA2, HHEX, KLRG1, and OGN This down-regulation can be rescued by a small molecule inhibitor of G9a. Based on the hypothesis that the changes in gene expression would influence patient outcomes, we have developed a prognostic G9a-suppressed gene signature that can stratify breast cancer patients. Together, our findings provide an insight into the role G9a plays as an epigenetic mediator of hypoxic response, which can be used as a diagnostic marker, and proposes G9a as a therapeutic target for solid cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Hipóxia/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prognóstico , Prolina/química , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Recidiva , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(14): 3096-3100, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545975

RESUMO

RAD51 is a vital component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway and is overexpressed in drug-resistant cancers, including aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). A proposed strategy for improving therapeutic outcomes for patients is through small molecule inhibition of RAD51, thereby sensitizing tumor cells to DNA damaging irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Here we report structure-activity relationships for a library of quinazolinone derivatives. A novel RAD51 inhibitor (17) displays up to 15-fold enhanced inhibition of cell growth in a panel of TNBC cell lines compared to compound B02, and approximately 2-fold increased inhibition of irradiation-induced RAD51 foci formation. Additionally, compound 17 significantly inhibits TNBC cell sensitivity to DNA damage, implying a potentially targeted therapy for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Quinazolinonas/química , Rad51 Recombinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/toxicidade , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
14.
Blood ; 129(18): 2479-2492, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270450

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are vulnerable to endogenous damage and defects in DNA repair can limit their function. The 2 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins SSB1 and SSB2 are crucial regulators of the DNA damage response; however, their overlapping roles during normal physiology are incompletely understood. We generated mice in which both Ssb1 and Ssb2 were constitutively or conditionally deleted. Constitutive Ssb1/Ssb2 double knockout (DKO) caused early embryonic lethality, whereas conditional Ssb1/Ssb2 double knockout (cDKO) in adult mice resulted in acute lethality due to bone marrow failure and intestinal atrophy featuring stem and progenitor cell depletion, a phenotype unexpected from the previously reported single knockout models of Ssb1 or Ssb2 Mechanistically, cDKO HSPCs showed altered replication fork dynamics, massive accumulation of DNA damage, genome-wide double-strand breaks enriched at Ssb-binding regions and CpG islands, together with the accumulation of R-loops and cytosolic ssDNA. Transcriptional profiling of cDKO HSPCs revealed the activation of p53 and interferon (IFN) pathways, which enforced cell cycling in quiescent HSPCs, resulting in their apoptotic death. The rapid cell death phenotype was reproducible in in vitro cultured cDKO-hematopoietic stem cells, which were significantly rescued by nucleotide supplementation or after depletion of p53. Collectively, Ssb1 and Ssb2 control crucial aspects of HSPC function, including proliferation and survival in vivo by resolving replicative stress to maintain genomic stability.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Instabilidade Genômica/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Ilhas de CpG/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 23(6): 356-367, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27740960

RESUMO

Our understanding of the natural history of breast cancer has evolved alongside technologies to study its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics landscapes. These technologies have helped decipher multiple molecular pathways dysregulated in breast cancer. First-generation 'omics analyses considered each of these dimensions individually, but it is becoming increasingly clear that more holistic, integrative approaches are required to fully understand complex biological systems. The 'omics represent an exciting era of discovery in breast cancer research, although important issues need to be addressed to realize the clinical utility of these data through precision cancer care. How can the data be applied to predict response to molecular-targeted therapies? When should treatment decisions be based on tumor genetics rather than histology? And with the sudden explosion of "big data" from large 'omics consortia and new precision clinical trials, how do we now negotiate evidence-based pathways to clinical translation through this apparent sea of opportunity? The aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of 'omics technologies used in breast cancer research today, the current state-of-play in terms of applying this new knowledge in the clinic, and the practical and ethical issues that will be central to the public discussion on the future of precision cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Genômica/tendências , Metabolômica/tendências , Proteômica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Oncotarget ; 7(37): 60087-60100, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27507046

RESUMO

The molecular rationale to induce synthetic lethality, by targeting defective homologous recombination repair in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), has proven to have several shortcomings. Not meeting the expected minimal outcomes in clinical trials has highlighted common clinical resistance mechanisms including; increased expression of the target gene PARP1, increased expression or reversion mutation of BRCA1, or up-regulation of the compensatory homologous recombination protein RAD51. Indeed, RAD51 has been demonstrated to be an alternative synthetic lethal target in BRCA1-mutated cancers. To overcome selective pressure on DNA repair pathways, we examined new potential targets within TNBC that demonstrate synthetic lethality in association with RAD51 depletion. We confirmed complementary targets of PARP1/2 and DNA-PK as well as a new synthetic lethality combination with p38. p38 is considered a relevant target in breast cancer, as it has been implicated in resistance to chemotherapy, including tamoxifen. We show that the combination of targeting RAD51 and p38 inhibits cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, which was further enhanced by targeting of PARP1. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of RAD51 increased ERK1/2 and p38 signaling. Our results highlight a potential compensatory mechanism via p38 that limits DNA targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Rad51 Recombinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(15): 3269-3283, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378691

RESUMO

Predicting response to endocrine therapy and survival in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer is a significant clinical challenge and novel prognostic biomarkers are needed. Long-range regulators of gene expression are emerging as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for human diseases, so we have explored the potential of distal enhancer elements of non-coding RNAs in the prognostication of breast cancer survival. HOTAIR is a long non-coding RNA that is overexpressed, promotes metastasis and is predictive of decreased survival. Here, we describe a long-range transcriptional enhancer of the HOTAIR gene that binds several hormone receptors and associated transcription factors, interacts with the HOTAIR promoter and augments transcription. This enhancer is dependent on Forkhead-Box transcription factors and functionally interacts with a novel alternate HOTAIR promoter. HOTAIR expression is negatively regulated by oestrogen, positively regulated by FOXA1 and FOXM1, and is inversely correlated with oestrogen receptor and directly correlated with FOXM1 in breast tumours. The combination of HOTAIR and FOXM1 enables greater discrimination of endocrine therapy responders and non-responders in patients with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Consistent with this, HOTAIR expression is increased in cell-line models of endocrine resistance. Analysis of breast cancer gene expression data indicates that HOTAIR is co-expressed with FOXA1 and FOXM1 in HER2-enriched tumours, and these factors enhance the prognostic power of HOTAIR in aggressive HER2+ breast tumours. Our study elucidates the transcriptional regulation of HOTAIR, identifies HOTAIR and its regulators as novel biomarkers of patient response to endocrine therapy and corroborates the importance of transcriptional enhancers in cancer.

18.
J Pathol ; 237(3): 363-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172396

RESUMO

Treatment options for patients with brain metastases (BMs) have limited efficacy and the mortality rate is virtually 100%. Targeted therapy is critically under-utilized, and our understanding of mechanisms underpinning metastatic outgrowth in the brain is limited. To address these deficiencies, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 36 BMs from breast, lung, melanoma and oesophageal cancers, using DNA copy-number analysis and exome- and RNA-sequencing. The key findings were as follows. (a) Identification of novel candidates with possible roles in BM development, including the significantly mutated genes DSC2, ST7, PIK3R1 and SMC5, and the DNA repair, ERBB-HER signalling, axon guidance and protein kinase-A signalling pathways. (b) Mutational signature analysis was applied to successfully identify the primary cancer type for two BMs with unknown origins. (c) Actionable genomic alterations were identified in 31/36 BMs (86%); in one case we retrospectively identified ERBB2 amplification representing apparent HER2 status conversion, then confirmed progressive enrichment for HER2-positivity across four consecutive metastatic deposits by IHC and SISH, resulting in the deployment of HER2-targeted therapy for the patient. (d) In the ERBB/HER pathway, ERBB2 expression correlated with ERBB3 (r(2) = 0.496; p < 0.0001) and HER3 and HER4 were frequently activated in an independent cohort of 167 archival BM from seven primary cancer types: 57.6% and 52.6% of cases were phospho-HER3(Y1222) or phospho-HER4(Y1162) membrane-positive, respectively. The HER3 ligands NRG1/2 were barely detectable by RNAseq, with NRG1 (8p12) genomic loss in 63.6% breast cancer-BMs, suggesting a microenvironmental source of ligand. In summary, this is the first study to characterize the genomic landscapes of BM. The data revealed novel candidates, potential clinical applications for genomic profiling of resectable BMs, and highlighted the possibility of therapeutically targeting HER3, which is broadly over-expressed and activated in BMs, independent of primary site and systemic therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Ativação Enzimática , Amplificação de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ligantes , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-4/genética , Receptor ErbB-4/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0130692, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26083390

RESUMO

Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound ephrin ligands have been shown to play critical roles in many developmental processes and more recently have been implicated in both normal and pathological processes in post-embryonic tissues. In particular, expression studies of Eph receptors and limited functional studies have demonstrated a role for the Eph/ephrin system in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. In particular, EphA2 was reported on hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. There are also reports of EphA2 expression in many different types of malignancies including leukemia, however there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We explored the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis by analyzing wild type and EphA2 knockout mice. Mature, differentiated cells, progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells derived from knockout and control mice were analyzed and no significant abnormality was detected. These studies showed that EphA2 does not have an obligatory role in normal hematopoiesis. Comparative studies using EphA2-negative MLL-AF9 leukemias derived from EphA2-knockout animals showed that there was no detectable functional role for EphA2 in the initiation or progression of the leukemic process. However, expression of EphA2 in leukemias initiated by MLL-AF9 suggested that this protein might be a possible therapy target in this type of leukemia. We showed that treatment with EphA2 monoclonal antibody IF7 alone had no effect on tumorigenicity and latency of the MLL-AF9 leukemias, while targeting of EphA2 using EphA2 monoclonal antibody with a radioactive payload significantly impaired the leukemic process. Altogether, these results identify EphA2 as a potential radio-therapeutic target in leukemias with MLL translocation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia/terapia , Radioimunoterapia , Receptor EphA2/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Rearranjo Gênico , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Leucemia/genética , Leucemia/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor EphA2/antagonistas & inibidores , Translocação Genética
20.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0125232, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basal-like and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) share common molecular features, poor prognosis and a propensity for metastasis to the brain. Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in ~50% of basal-like breast cancer, and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been reported in up to ~ 10% of Asian TNBC patients. In non-small cell lung cancer several different mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain confer sensitivity to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but the tumourigenic potential of EGFR mutations in breast cells and their potential for targeted therapy is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constructs containing wild type, G719S or E746-A750 deletion mutant forms of EGFR were transfected into the MCF10A breast cells and their tumorigenic derivative, MCF10CA1a. The effects of EGFR over-expression and mutation on proliferation, migration, invasion, response to gefitinib, and tumour formation in vivo was investigated. Copy number analysis and whole exome sequencing of the MCF10A and MCF10CA1a cell lines were also performed. RESULTS: Mutant EGFR increased MCF10A and MCF10CA1a proliferation and MCF10A gefitinib sensitivity. The EGFR-E746-A750 deletion increased MCF10CA1a cell migration and invasion, and greatly increased MCF10CA1a xenograft tumour formation and growth. Compared to MCF10A cells, MCF10CA1a cells exhibited large regions of gain on chromosomes 3 and 9, deletion on chromosome 7, and mutations in many genes implicated in cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Mutant EGFR enhances the oncogenic properties of MCF10A cell line, and increases sensitivity to gefitinib. Although the addition of EGFR E746-A750 renders the MCF10CA1a cells more tumourigenic in vivo it is not accompanied by increased gefitinib sensitivity, perhaps due to additional mutations, including the PIK3CA H1047R mutation, that the MCF10CA1a cell line has acquired. Screening TNBC/basal-like breast cancer for EGFR mutations may prove useful for directing therapy but, as in non-small cell lung cancer, accompanying mutations in PIK3CA may confer gefitinib resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Gefitinibe , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Transfecção , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA