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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495165

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to comorbidities and mortalities globally. The rational of current study was to evaluate the combined epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin as a potent antitumor agent as commentary agent for therapeutic protocol. The present study investigated the effect of epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) (150mg) and quercetin (200mg) at different proportions on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). Cell growth, colonogenic, Annexin V in addition cell cycle were detected in response to phytomolecules. Data obtained showed that, the colony formation was inhibited significantly in CRC starting from the lowest concentration tested of 10 µg/mL resulting in no colonies as visualized by a phase-contrast microscope. Data showed a significant elevation in the annexin V at 100 µg/mL EGCG(25.85%) and 150 µg/mL quercetin (48.35%). Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that this combination caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase at concentration of 100 µg/mL (72.7%) and 150 µg/mL (75.25%). The combined effect of epigallocatechin Gallate and quercetin exert antiproliferative activity against CRC, it is promising in alternative conventional chemotherapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Catequina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Anexina A5 , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Quercetina/farmacologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7145, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785771

RESUMO

Endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) catalysing the hydrolysis of ß-1.4-glycosidic linkage of cellulose molecules is an enzyme of tremendous industrial importance. The present study describes a response surface methodology based predicted model to deduce a set of fermentation conditions for optimum growth and activity of recombinant endoglucanase in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Numerous significant parameters including fermentation media composition, temperature (Celsius), pH and agitation rate (rpm) were analysed systemically by employing central composite design. This effort reports highly efficient recombinant endoglucanase overproduction (6.9 gl-1 of biomass) with 30% expression by E. coli in modified M9NG media incubated at 37 °C and pH 7 agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of 3 mM glucose and 24 mM glycerol in the M9NG media has shown positive effect on the enzyme yield and activity. The CMCase activity experimentally estimated was found to be 1185 U/mg with the optimized parameters. The outcomes of both the responses by the predicted quadratic model were found in consensus with the obtained values. Our results well depicted the favourable conditions to further scale-up the volumetric yield of other relevant recombinant enzymes and proteins.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(11): 1418-1433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple psychological and physiological impairments in young children. According to the recent reports, 1 out of every 58 newly-born children is suffering from autism. The aetiology of the disorder is complex and poorly understood, hindering the adaptation of targeted and effective therapies. There are no well- established diagnostic biomarkers for autism. Hence the analysis of symptoms by the pediatricians plays a critical role in the early intervention. METHODS: In the present report, we have emphasized 24 behavioral, psychological and clinical symptoms of autism. RESULTS: Impaired social interaction, restrictive and narrow interests, anxiety, depression; aggressive, repetitive, rigid and self-injurious behavior, lack of consistency, short attention span, fear, shyness and phobias, hypersensitivity and rapid mood alterations, high level of food and toy selectivity; inability to establish friendships or follow the instructions; fascination by round spinning objects and eating non-food materials are common psychological characteristics of autism. Speech or hearing impairments, poor cognitive function, gastrointestinal problems, weak immunity, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms, weak motor neuromuscular interaction, lower level of serotonin and neurotransmitters, headache and body pain are common physiological symptoms. CONCLUSION: A variable qualitative and quantitative impact of this wide range of symptoms is perceived in each autistic individual, making him/her distinct, incomparable and exceptional. Selection and application of highly personalized medical and psychological therapies are therefore recommended for the management and treatment of autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Gastroenteropatias , Ansiedade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 676-681, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163031

RESUMO

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered as a common cause of hormonal disturbance and obesity. The diagnosis of PCOS was done by different methods including clinical signs as anovulation, hyperandrogenism, biochemical markers and ultrasounographic investigation. This study investigated comparative outcomes of ultrasonographic and biochemical markers for early prediction of PCOS in obese women. Subjects and methods: Seventy-five patients were clinically diagnosed with obese, PCOS and obese with PCOS and twenty-five normal age matched subjects were enrolled as control. Abdominal and transvaginal ultrasonographic for assessment of ovarian properties. In addition, BMI, serum free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and LDL-c levels were evaluated. Result: In obese patients with PCOs (20%) ovaries revealed normal appearance in morphology while the rest (80%) showed PCOs in the form of cysts of 2-8 mm in diameter peripherally arranged around stroma. A significant elevation of free testosterone, DHEA and insulin in obese with or without PCOS compared with obese group (p<0.001). A positive correlation with hormonal abnormalities of increased HA1c, LDL-c, free testosterone, DHEA and insulin compared with obese only. Conclusion: According to our study findings, ovarian morphology combined with biochemical markers is more reliable for early prediction and diagnosis of PCOS for interpretation and management.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Anovulação/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/diagnóstico , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S2): 72-78, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845250

RESUMO

Context: RNA viruses exhibit an extraordinary ability to evolve in a changing environment and to switch from animal hosts to humans. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, recognized as a respiratory disease, is an example of zoonotic transmission of the RNA virus known as SARS-CoV-2. The development and regulatory approval of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 pose multiple preventive and therapeutic challenges, especially during an ongoing pandemic. Objective: The review intended to examine the challenges and recent achievements in the development of vaccine candidates against COVID-19. Design: The research team performed a literature review, searching relevant and up to date information from the literature. The sources of data included Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, and Yahoo. The search terms used were COVID-19 challenges, SARS-CoV-2 prospective challenges, RNA viruses adoptability, host switching by RNA viruses, COVID-19 vaccines. Setting: The study took place at the digital libraries of contributing institutions. The data was combined, selected for further analysis and manuscript preparation at King Abdulaziz University. Results: RNA viruses with high rate of genome alterations and evolution have better chances to survive in the adverse environmental conditions by adopting the alternate host species. The recent epidemics such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 are examples of zoonotic transmission of RNA viruses from animal species to the humans. However, the mechanisms involved in the switching-on to new host species need further investigations to control the zoonotic transmissions in near future. As of April 2020, 115 candidate vaccines were being evaluated; 78 of them had been found to be active, and a few of them are in Phase I trials. In the development of different types of vaccine candidates against COVID-19, multiple international pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are involved. Conclusions: Emerging and re-emerging pathogenic RNA viruses pose a serious threat to human health. Little is known about the human-host adoptive mechanism for zoonotic transmission. Deep insights into the molecular mechanism responsible for the switching of animal or bird viruses to humans could provide target molecules or events to prevent such transmissions in the near future. Fast development and approval of efficacious and safe vaccines is key to the effort to provide preventive measures against COVID-19 and future viruses. However, the development and availability of a vaccine candidate is a time-consuming process and often can't be completed during an epidemic. Currently, several types of vaccines are under development, and most of them won't realistically be available in time for the present COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Virais
6.
Environ Int ; 126: 153-161, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798196

RESUMO

Human exposure to phthalates is ubiquitous and has received considerable attention due to their association with adverse health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, earlier studies that link phthalate exposure to T2DM yielded ambiguous results. Furthermore, studies that associate phthalate exposure with oxidative stress and then with T2DM are scant. In this diabetic case-control study, urine samples collected from 101 individuals aged 28-68 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were analyzed to determine 20 phthalate metabolites (PhMs) and seven oxidative stress biomarkers (OSBs). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for the association between diabetes and urinary PhMs and OSBs in participants, stratified by age, gender, nationality, smoking status, occupation, and urinary creatinine. Twelve PhMs and five OSBs were found at detection rates above 50%, with geometric mean concentrations of 0.61-100 and 0.35-10.7 ng/mL (1.04-171 and 0.61-18.6 µg/g creatinine), respectively. Almost all exposures were significantly higher in diabetic cases than in controls. The 12 PhMs were positively associated with higher urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-PGF2α). Individuals in the 3rd and/or 4th quartile(s) for urinary concentrations of PhMs and OSBs showed 3.7- and 7.3-fold increase, respectively, in the odds of having diabetes compared with those in the 1st quartile. The rank order of association of PhMs/OSBs with diabetes followed the order of: mEP ≈ mBP > mEHP > mCPP > mECPP ≈ mEOHP ≈ mEHHP ≈ mIBP ≈ mMP > mCMHP ≈ mBzP and 8-OHdG > 8-PGF2α ≈ 15-PGF2α. The relationship between phthalate exposure and risk of developing T2DM was mediated in part by phthalate-induced oxidative stress, especially 8-OHdG. Our study suggests that human exposure to phthalates is associated with increased oxidative stress which mediates the development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
7.
J Pestic Sci ; 43(3): 180-185, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363123

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of m-coumaric acid on the glycosylation of proteins in the retinas of diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into two main groups, Group I (normal control) and Group II (diabetic); Group II was further divided into four subgroups: Group IIa (diabetic control), Group IIb (diabetic rats were given m-coumaric acid orally [150 mg/kg, body weight (bw)/day]), Group IIc (diabetic rats were given HCA m-coumaric acid orally [300 mg/kg bw/day]), and Group IId (diabetic rats were given insulin [10 units/kg bw/day]) as a positive control). The treatment lasted for six weeks, and the data obtained suggested that m-coumaric acid reduced glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, which further decreased the formation of glucose-derived advanced glycation end products. Hence, it protected the tissues from the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia and enhanced antioxidant activity. In conclusion, m-coumaric acid could be a potential candidate to prevent the onset and progression of retinopathy in diabetic patients.

8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 35: 18-24, sept. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047727

RESUMO

Background: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme of glycolytic pathway, ubiquitously found in living organisms. Increased glycolysis and LDH activity are associated with many pathologic conditions including inflammation and cancer, thereby making the enzyme a suitable drug target. Studies on conserved structural and functional domains of LDH from various species reveal novel inhibitory molecules. Our study describes Escherichia coli production and characterization of a moderately thermostable LDH (LDH-GT) from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465. An in silico 3D model of recombinant enzyme and molecular docking with a set of potential inhibitors are also described. Results: The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme determined by MALDI-TOF was 34,798.96 Da. It exhibited maximum activity at 65°C and pH 7.5 with a KM value for pyruvate as 45 µM. LDH-GT and human LDH-A have only 35.6% identity in the amino acid sequence. On the contrary, comparison by in silico structural alignment reveals that LDH-GT monomer has approximately 80% identity to that of truncated LDH-A. The amino acids "GEHGD" as well as His179 and His193 in the active site are conserved. Docking studies have shown the binding free energy changes of potential inhibitors with LDH-A and LDH-GT ranging from −407.11 to −127.31 kJ mol−1 . Conclusions: By highlighting the conserved structural and functional domains of LDH from two entirely different species, this study has graded potential inhibitory molecules on the basis of their binding affinities so that they can be applied for in vivo anticancer studies


Assuntos
Geobacillus/enzimologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Estabilidade Enzimática , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glicólise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética
9.
Environ Res ; 166: 544-552, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960220

RESUMO

A few epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known about association between other phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and T2DM. In this case-control study, we measured urinary concentrations of 23 phenolic EDCs in 101 individuals from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to examine the association of parabens, antimicrobials, bisphenols, benzophenones and bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers with T2DM. Urine samples were collected from 54 T2DM cases and 47 non-diabetic individuals (controls), aged 28-68 years old, during 2015-2016. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate odd ratios (ORs) for the association between diabetes and EDC exposures after adjusting for confounders including age, gender, nationality, smoking status and occupation. Age from 40 to 59 years (OR 5.56, 95% CI 2.20-14.0) and smoking status (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.25-6.79) showed significant positive associations with T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that T2DM cases had high urinary levels of parabens (i.e., methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB)), bisphenols (i.e., bisphenols A (BPA) and F (BPF)), and benzophenone (i.e., 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP)) relative to the controls. Individuals in the 4th quartile for urinary concentrations of MeP, EtP, PrP, 4-HB and BPF and in the 3rd quartile for BPA and 4-OH-BP showed over a 6-fold increase in the odds of having diabetes compared with those in the first quartile. Overall, our study shows that urinary levels of multiple phenolic EDCs were associated with increased risk for diabetes. Further prospective studies are required to verify these associations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fenóis/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
10.
Afr Health Sci ; 18(3): 681-688, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603001

RESUMO

Background: Hemophilia is an inherited genetic disease characterized by the inability to coagulate blood after injury. The rationale of the current study was to evaluate serum proteins S and C and correlate to kidney function test in hemophilic patients for early diagnosis of abnormality in renal function. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 80 males subjects divided into four groups. Group I: Control: Healthy subjects. Group II: Renal dysfunction (serum Creatinine >2mg/dl): Group III: Hemophilic patients. Group IV: Hemophilic patients with renal disorder. Serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, protein C and protein S level were determined. Resuts: Protein C and S levels showed a significant decrease in hemophilic/and with renal dysfunction (P < 0.001, p<0.001). The level of plasma protein C and S levels were positively correlated with increased urinary albumin (P < 0.01). Urinary albumin was increased about 15 folds in hemophilic patients with renal dysfunction and nephrotic patients as compared with the control group. The cut-off value in 90% patients at the hemophilic patients with renal dysfunction 70%. Positive correlations were observed between urinary albumin (r=0.66), and creatinine (r=0.73). Conclusion: These biomarkers showed good predictive values with regard to ROC-AUC (0.41 and 0.75 for Proteins C and S, respectively).


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/complicações , Nefropatias/sangue , Proteína C/análise , Proteína S/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Hemofilia A/sangue , Humanos , Nefropatias/etiologia , Masculino , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Ureia/sangue
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate the role of carnitine in combination with vitamin E in protection against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were grouped into 5 (each 10 rats): Group I. Control fed a standard diet. Group III: Rats were injected with vitamin E (100 IU/kg bw, i.p) daily. Group IV: Rats were given carnitine (20 mg/kg bw, i.p) daily. Group V: Rats were injected with both vitamin E (100 IU/kg bw, i.p) and carnitine (20 mg/kg bw, i.p) daily. On 7th, 8th, and 9th day, rats in groups (II-V) were injection i.p with ISO (55mg/kg b.w for successive three days). The treatment with carnitine and vitamin E were continuous for 21 days. RESULTS: Canirine combined with vitamin E significantly increased coronary flow (CF) (P<0.001) in rats injected with ISO. The recovery of rate pressure product (RPP) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were significantly improved in treated rats in comparison to untreated. The rats administrated with ISO resulted in a significant elevation of serum enzymes (CK-MB and LDH) compared with control group (p<0.001). However, it returned to about normal. ISO administration resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) as compared with control (p<0.001) and a significant reduction in the activities of GSPxase and GSRase (p<0.001) compared with control group. The levels of cardiac inflammatory markers interleukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were markedly elevated in rats injected with ISO compared with control group. Vitamin E combined with carnitine reversed these effects. However, pretreatment with vitamin E or carnitine or combined together showed a significant reduction in MDA and NO (p<0.001) and a significant elevation in the activities of GSPxase and GSRase (p<0.001) as compared to ISO injected group. The combined effect was more significant than individual ones. CONCLUSION: Vitamin E combined with carnitine exerts potential protective effect against MI through suppression of inflammatory mediators and enhancement of antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoproterenol/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Carnitina/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Vitamina E/farmacologia
12.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med ; 14(1): 272-277, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body overweight and obesity were considered as a risk factor for many systemic diseases as diabetic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. The lipoic acid and Co Q are considered as coenzymes needed for enhancement metabolic rate. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-obese effect of lipoic acid alone or combined with Co-Q in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety male albino rats (100-150g) were used in this study, divided into six groups (15 each). Group I: Normal rats fed normal diet. Group II: Rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Group III: Rats fed HFD were given lipoic acid (10 µg/kg b w/day) intra-gastric by stomach tube. Group IV: Rats fed HFD were given Co-Q (10 µg/kg b.w/day) intra-gastric. Group V: Rats fed HFD were given lipoic acid (50 mg/kg b w/day) and Co-Q (10 µg/kg b. w/day). Group VI: Rats were given orlistat intra-gastric (10 mg/kg b w/day) as positive control for 6 weeks. Serum was subjected for determination of lipid profile, liver function tests atherogenic factor and lipoprotein lipase. RESULTS: It was found that treatment with lipoic acid or Co-Q or combined showed increase in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.001) and reduction of atherogenic effect and obesity index (P <0.001). The effect of combined gives good results than orlistat or individual treatment. CONCLUSION: lipoic acid combined with Co-Q increase fat oxidation and prevent fat accumulation. The consumption of lipoic acid daily promotes fat oxidation and prevents its accumulation in visceral tissues. Further studies should be carried out to examine the mechanistic signals of these nutrients that helps in weight management.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tióctico/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Afr Health Sci ; 17(4): 1059-1069, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937877

RESUMO

Background: The goal of this study was to analyze the association between the FTO rs17817449 (G>T), G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T and Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) A822G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with obesity in Saudi subjects. Methods: The subjects were divided into 2 groups according to BMI: Obese (BMI> 29.9) and non- obese control (BMI<24.9). Genotyping of the target genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). Results: We demonstrated the association of the FTO genotype TT with increased weight, BMI and leptin levels in both males and females. However, there was no association of genotype TT with fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Regarding GNB3 rs5443 polymorphism, the likelihood of obesity was linked to the TT genotype which was also associated with increased leptin levels. On the other hand, the SNP of MC4R A822G did not exhibit any significant association with obesity among studied subjects and showed only the presence of homozygous AA genotype. Conclusion: The polymorphism of FTO gene rs17817449 and GNB3 gene rs5443 (C825T) may be a genetic determinant of obesity in Saudi population whereas impact of MC4R Asn274Ser change could not be detected.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Afr Health Sci ; 17(4): 1204-1210, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937894

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown that Na+-K+ ATPase activity was altered in disrupted red blood cell membranes and this enzyme is believed to be the site of active transport of Na+ and K+ in intact red blood cells. The enzyme is often referred to as Na+-K+ pump because it pumps Na+ out and K+ into the cell against gradients with the concomitant hydrolysis of intracellular ATP. Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the possibility of using Na+-K+-ATPase activity as a biomarker for the diagnosis of individuals with different physiological conditions. Materials and methods: The activity of Na+-K+ ATPase was determined in blood samples collected from different pathological and physiological conditions such as pregnancy, smoking, diabetes and renal dysfunction compared with healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Results: The Na+-K+ ATPase activity in pregnancy (0.094 ± 0.0051 µM Pi/min. mg protein), smoking (0.064 ± 0.0011 µM), diabetes (0.047 µM 0.002 µM) and kidney disease (0.069 ± 0.0014 µM) was higher compared to the measurements in healthy individuals (0.0081 ± 0.0031 µM). Conclusion: Na+-K+ATPase specific activity is a biomarker for the diagnosis of individuals with different physiological diseases.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Eritrócitos , Nefropatias/enzimologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fumar
15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 8(8)2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974568

RESUMO

The advantages of photo polymerization methods compared to thermal techniques are: rapid cure reactions, low energy demands, solvent free requirements and room temperature use. In order to form a macromer, polycaprolactone (PCL) was cross-linked via ultraviolet power with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. Different methods of characterization were carried out: estimation of swelling capacity, adhesive capacity (using aminated substrates), surface energy (by contact angle), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared. In addition to these experiments, we carried out dynamical mechanical thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and thermorphology characterizations of PCL. Thus, it has been concluded that the prepared macromer could be transformed into membranes that were effective as a medical adhesive. The degree of cross linking has been estimated using two different techniques: swelling of the samples and photo cross linking of the samples with different periods of irradiation at relatively high UV-power (600 mW/cm²).

16.
Afr Health Sci ; 15(1): 90-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese postmenopausal Saudi women, (36 uncontrolled, 29 controlled). The following serum biochemical parameters were evaluated [fasting blood glucose (FBG), total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pi), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-(OH)2 Vitamin D3, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen (PICP) and cathepsin k (Cath K)]. RESULTS: Serum OC levels were significantly decreased in diabetic obese postmenopausal group compared to their respective healthy group (P < 0.004). PICP and Cath K were significantly elevated in diabetic postmenopausal group compared to the healthy group (P < 0.024 & 0.001). A significant elevation in 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3, Ca and Pi levels in diabetic obese postmenopausal patients group compared to the healthy group. However, a non-significant changes was observed in serum PTH level between different groups. CONCLUSION: In this study, the changes in the biochemical parameters and bone turnover markers in obese women are strong risk factors for diabetes development that may contribute to osteopenia and osteoporosis. The study showed the strong effect of T2DM on biochemical markers of bone turnover in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 15(10): 1845-53, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22348990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few data exist looking at vitamin D status and bone health in school-aged boys and girls from Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to determine the extent of poor vitamin D status in school boys and girls aged 6-18 years and to examine if there was any difference in status with age, physical activity and veiling and concomitant effects on bone. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS: A total of 150 boys (7-16 years) and 150 girls (6-18 years) from local schools were divided into age categories: 6-9 years (elementary school); 10-12 years (secondary school); 13-14 years (middle years); 15-18 years (high school). RESULTS: Vitamin D status was significantly lower in girls than boys in all age groups (P < 0.01), with the 15-18-year-old girls having the lowest level (22.0 (SD 9.4) nmol/l) in comparison to the 15-18-year-old boys (39.3 (SD 14.0) nmol/l) and the 6-9-year-old girls (41.2 (SD 9.3) nmol/l). Parathyroid hormone status was highest in the 15-18-year-old girls in comparison to boys of the same age. A total of 64 % of 15-18-year-old girls had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status <25 nmol/l in comparison to 31 % in the 13-14 years age category, 26 % in the 10-12 years category and 2.5 % in the 6-9 years category. No boys had 25OHD status <25 nmol/l. Fully veiled girls had lower 25OHD status than partly veiled or unveiled girls (P < 0.05). Low 25OHD and high parathyroid hormone was associated with lower bone mass in the 6-9 years and 13-14 years age groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest significant hypovitaminosis D in older adolescent females, which is a cause for concern given that there is currently no public health policy for vitamin D in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Cálcio/deficiência , Cálcio/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Vestuário , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
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