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1.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729030

RESUMO

Background: The ongoing global outbreak of new corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) has been recognized as global public health concern since it causes high morbidity and mortality every day. Due to the rapid spreading and re-emerging, we need to find a potent drug against SARS-CoV-2. Synthetic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, remdisivir have paid more attention and the effects of these drugs are still under investigation, due to their severe side effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was performed to identify the potential inhibitor against main protease SARS-CoV-2 6LU7. Objective: In this study, RO5, ADME properties, molecular dynamic simulations and free binding energy prediction were mainly investigated. Results: The molecular docking study findings revealed that andrographolide had higher binding affinity among the selected natural diterpenoids compared to co-crystal native ligand inhibitor N3. The persistent inhibition of Ki for diterpenoids was analogous. Furthermore, the simulations of molecular dynamics and free binding energy findings have shown that andrographolide possesses a large amount of dynamic properties such as stability, flexibility and binding energy. Conclusion: In conclusion, findings of the current study suggest that selected diterpenoids were predicted to be the significant phytonutrient-based inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 6LU7 (Mpro). However, preclinical and clinical trials are needed for the further scientific validation before use.

2.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5657-5661, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588876

RESUMO

Background: Prehypertension is a precursor to hypertension status. Psychological distress has been identified earlier among hypertensives; however, there is little evidence for the presumptive relationship between prehypertension and psychological distress. Objective: The study aimed to assess the psychological wellbeing of the Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia population, using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and correlating it with prehypertensive patients in the same population. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the population of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, was carried out between January and June of 2016. With an 85 percent response rate, a total of 1016 participants participated in the study. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between prehypertension and psychological distress. Results: The findings of the adjusted analysis demonstrated that, on average prehypertensive patients were more distressed psychologically than non-hypertensive patients (unstandardized Beta regression coefficient = 3.600; P-value 0.025). Similarly, on average women were found to be more psychologically distressed than men (unstandardized Beta = 1.511, P-value 0.002). Civil workers and unemployed individuals were more psychologically distressed than employed individuals (unstandardized Beta = 1.326, P-value 0.041) while adjusting for the sociodemographic and other variables such as BMI, diabetes status, cholesterol, and smoking status. Conclusion: The current study shows that as compared to normotensive patients, self-rated mental wellbeing and psychological wellbeing are all considerably poorer among prehypertensive patients. To prevent individuals from having negative psychological outcomes and their long-term complications, the Government of Saudi Arabia needs to concentrate on prehypertensive, female, and unemployed individuals. Well-designed longitudinal studies, primarily in Saudi Arabia, are needed in the future to research the cause and impact of poor mental health and prehypertension.

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(8): 4342-4347, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354418

RESUMO

Background: Burns are a deleterious, but largely preventable health problem foisting physical, economic, social, emotional, and relational issues worldwide. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sultan Center for Health Services, and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University hospital in Al Kharj in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study included patients who presented themselves to the emergency department of the targeted hospitals with at least one documented burn injury between October 2018 and October 2019. The patients were followed from presentation to discharge. The etiology, location, severity, and options of treatment offered to them were recorded. The SPSS version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data as means, frequencies, and standard deviations. Categorical variables were compared using the Pearson's chi-square test. Results: 180 patients with burn injuries were included in the study. The majority were adolescents and adults under the age of 40 (n = 171). The prevalence of first-degree burns was 12.8%, that of second-degree burns was 71.1%, and that of third-degree burns was 16.1%. The most common cause, area, and type of treatment were hot water injuries (36.1%), upper limbs (62.2%), and skin debridement respectively. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults are the most frequently affected by burns while skin debridement was the most common treatment offered to the patients. In this context emergency hospital staff was required to be adequately equipped and trained.

4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(8): 4683-4690, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354455

RESUMO

Background: Refractive error is an important preventable cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. In adult life, reduced vision can potentially affect the academic performance, choice of occupation and socio-economic status. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of refractive errors and related visual impairment among undergraduate male students in Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was employed in the current work. After obtaining an informed consent; each eligible student was asked to fill a self-constructed survey and have screened in the college premises for visual acuity and refractive error. Candidates detected with defective vision have been referred for further examination at well-equipped ophthalmology clinic in the University Hospital. Results: A total of 420 undergraduate students, with age ranged from 18 to 30 years, have participated in the current study. About 25.0% of the participants have used spectacles at the time of examination. Positive family history of spectacles use was found in 71.4%. Our study showed that visual acuity in the better eye was low in 34.76% of the participants. Seventy-eight students (18.6%) of the total participants reported defective vision and have fulfilled refractometric examination. Of the examined students 83.3% were found to have refractive errors. Astigmatism, 52.6%, was the most frequently encountered refractive error among the participants; followed by myopia, 26.9%; and hypermetropia 2.6%. Conclusion: The current study confirms that refractive error is an important preventable cause of visual impairment. Significant portion of the examined participants were found to have refractive errors recommending further work to improve visual status in undergraduate students.

5.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 895-902, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and coronary angiographic characteristics of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the patterns and determinants of CAD treatment in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 242 patients at 3 hospitals in KSA between June 2018 and June 2019. We included all patients aged ≥18 years diagnosed with CAD on angiography. We carried out a multinomial logistic regression to ascertain the determinants of treatment patterns and treatment modalities. Covariates for this multivariate analysis were selected based on univariate regressions. RESULTS: The study population had a mean ± standard deviation of 58.3 ± 11.8 years, and 66.1% were male. The most frequent cardiovascular risk factor was diabetes (58.7%). Lesions involving the left anterior descending were reported among 68.6%, left circumflex among 51.2%, and right coronary arteries (RCA) among 48.8% of our patients. The most common treatment was the best medical therapy (lifestyle modifications and medical management), prescribed to 69.8% of patients. Patients aged ≤60 years with the left main disease or disease of the ramus had a higher likelihood of undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Contrarily, patients with RCA lesions were more likely to undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CONCLUSION: Patient age and anatomical localization of coronary atherosclerotic lesions were the main determinants of treatment with CABG or PCI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(7): 3669-3677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220217

RESUMO

In diabetic condition, endogenous glucose synthesis will be elevated due to defect in the action of vital enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, which is the main cause for hyperglycemia. The current study was designed to explore the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of Sesbania grandiflora flower (SGF) extract by evaluating the concentration of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), hemoglobin (Hb), glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activities in diabetic rats. The study found to lower the level of glucose, HbA1C and simultaneously ameliorated concentrations of C-peptide, insulin, hemoglobin (Hb), glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activities in SGF treated (250 mg/kg body weight for 45 days) diabetic rats. Moreover, SGF administered diabetic rats showed diminished consumption of food and water at the same time improved body weight. The results obtained from the present study were compared with glibenclamide treated (600 µg/kg body weight) diabetic rats. SGF were supplemented to normal rats to rule out toxic effect of SGF, to explore any significant alteration in the above parameters. Hence, the results depict that SGF modulated the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activities through ameliorating the secretion of insulin and diminishing the level of glucose concentration in STZ-induced diabetic rats by its bioactive compounds.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 16(13): 1792-1806, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107160

RESUMO

The kinetics of oxidative cracking of n-hexane to light olefins using the lattice oxygen of VOx /SrO-γAl2 O3 catalysts has been investigated. Kinetic experiments were conducted in a CREC Riser Simulator (CERC: Chemical Reactor Engineering Center), which mimics fluidized bed reactors. The catalyst's performance is partly attributed to the moderate interaction between active VOx species and the SrO-γAl2 O3 support. This moderate interaction serves to control the release of lattice oxygen to curtail deep oxidation. The incorporation of basic SrO component in the support also helped to moderate the catalyst's acidity to checkmate excessive cracking. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was applied to formulate the rate equations. The intrinsic kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the kinetic model using a nonlinear regression algorithm at a 95% confidence interval, implemented in MATLAB. n-Hexane transforms to olefins at a specific reaction rate of 1.33 mol/gcat.s and activation energy of 119.2 kJ/mol. These values when compared with other duplets (i. e., ki° and EA ) for paraffins to olefins, show that indeed olefins are stable products of the oxidative conversion of n-hexane over VOx /SrO-γAl2 O3 under a fluidized bed condition. Values of activation energy for all COx formation routes indicate that intermediate paraffins are likely to be cracked to form CH4 than to be converted directly to COx . On the other hand, olefins may transform partly, and directly to COx (E9 =9.65 kJ/mol) than to form CH4 (E8 =89.1 kJ/mol) in the presence of excess lattice oxygen. Overall, olefins appear to be stable to deep oxidation due to the role of SrO in controlling the amount of lattice oxygen of the catalyst at the reaction temperature.

8.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(5): 2783-2788, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012319

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the association between mental well-being between obese (classes 1 and 2), over-weight and non-obese population-based individuals. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1019 Saudi nationals aged ≥ 18 years participated in the survey. BMI scores were used to categorize participants into three groups: Obese, overweighted and non-obese/non-overweight. Mental well-being was evaluated by using the validated Arabic version of the General Health Questionnaire version 12 (GHQ-12). Results: We used total GHQ score (Mean=12; SD=5.23) to compare mental well-being between the four BMI class categories. The overall one-way ANOVA model was statistically significant (F = 7.018, d = 6, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, diabetes and smoking statuses we found that higher psychological distress (as evident by a higher total GHQ score) was associated with higher BMI. The unstandardized Beta regression coefficient = 2.627; P = 0.034). Females were more likely to have higher psychological distress than males (unstandardized Beta = 1.466, P = 0.003). Job status whether being unemployed or 'civilian' (civil worker) was significantly associated with higher psychological distress (unstandardized Beta = 1.405, P = 0.041). Being diabetic has a 1.6 times higher risk of psychological distress (unstandardized Beta = 1.604, P = 0.027). Conclusion: The study highlights the public health implications of psychological distress amongst individuals with overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabia. Future longitudinal studies should explore the temporality of this relationship.

9.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e13, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family medicine practitioners (FMP) take care of a varied range of patients with undifferentiated conditions over a lifetime. Although it was incepted in Saudi Arabia in 1980, limited data exists on FMP. This paper explores what family physicians deem relevant. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among FMP in Saudi Arabia in 2018-2019 who responded to an online questionnaire that listed 20 activities usually done by FMP asking them to rate their meaningfulness on a 5-point Likert Scale, and select the top 3 they would like to spend the most and the least time on. Chi-square statistics were used to compare preference for time spent on these six activities by participant characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 415 survey participants, the majority were male (246) and had a Bachelor's degree (176). The management of risk conditions, follow-up of chronic illnesses and running preventive health clinics were listed as most meaningful. The majority wished to spend more time on managing health risks, handling daily common complaints and follow-up of chronic illnesses and less time on terminal care activities (46.8%), emergency care (32.3%) and addiction medicine (23.4%). Bachelor's degree holders wished to spend more time on emergency care compared to Diploma, Board-certified and Fellowship holders (63%, 21%, 10% and 5%, respectively; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The activities preferred by FMP align with prevailing disease epidemiology. Variations in preferences of 'managing emergencies' reflect the varied format of training. Training of FMP should be standardized and further studies investigate reasons for specific preferences.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Médicos de Família , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 6682094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747320

RESUMO

Background: Only few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of headaches among the Saudi population. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of headache and to explore its associated risk factors Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The multistage sampling technique was used to enroll 1200 population-based participants who were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about headaches, demographics, and several other parameters such as smoking status and different chronic and psychological illnesses. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the association. Results: The overall prevalence of headaches in this study was 3%. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that females were more likely to have headaches than males (odds ratio (OR) 0.735, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.612-1.341; P=0.024). Being a current smoker was also significantly associated with higher "odds" of having headache (OR = 1.319, 95% CI = 0.932-2.462; P=0.037). Participants who were overweight had a significantly higher risk of headache (OR = 1.631, 95% CI = 1.48-1.854; P=0.037). Nonmarried people were significantly more likely to have headache pain, compared to married individuals (OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.646-2.317; P=0.047). Conclusion: The prevalence of headaches was 3%, and four significant associated factors were identified: females, nonmarried, smoking, and overweight. The temporality of the relationship between these factors and headache cannot be confirmed in this cross-sectional study; so future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these potential causal relationships.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita
11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 91, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating multifactorial degenerative rheumatic disease affecting millions of people around the globe. The osteoarthritis quality of life scale (OAQoL), originally produced in the English language, is an important tool used to assess the overall impact of OA and its treatment on the patient's quality of life. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to translate and validate the OAQoL in the Arabic language in order to use it on the Saudi population. METHODOLOGY: A bilingual panel comprising four healthcare professionals and one external certified medical translator translated the English version of the OAQoL to the Arabic language. A back translation was subsequently performed by two English-speaking translators and any differences were resolved by conferring with the original panel. The qualitative research was performed through cognitive debriefing interviews (CDIs) with 59 native Arabic patients who had clinically and radiologically confirmed osteoarthritis of any joint. The internal consistency of the 22 items was derived by leveraging the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. RESULTS: 59 participants were included in the study, and more than half (52.5%) of them were men. The response rate was 100% and the mean time taken to answer the questionnaire was 10.5 min. The average Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's Alpha were determined to be 0.93 each, indicating that all the items in the OAQoL were significantly interrelated. CONCLUSION: The translated Arabic version of the OAQoL questionnaire used in this study is a reliable and consistent tool that showed good comprehensibility and internal consistency.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Traduções
12.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 20(1): 23, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is one of the major determinants for the experience progression, and recovery of chronic pain. However, it is unclear whether physical pain in specific body sites could be predictive of psychological illness. In this study, we aim to investigate the link between chronic pain in specific anatomical sites and psychological distress represented in the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 items). METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Kharj region of Saudi Arabia. We included 1003 participants. Data were collected using the GHQ-12, and a subjective report on eight anatomical pain sites. Data analysis used statistical software SPSS version 26.0 for Windows statistical package. RESULTS: Chronic musculoskeletal pain in the neck and head regions was significantly associated with higher psychological distress. Other sites (back, lower limb, chest, abdominal and upper limb pain) were not associated with psychological distress. In multiple regression analysis, chronic 'general' pain was significantly associated with higher psychological distress (unstandardized Beta regression coefficient = 2.568; P < 0.0001). The patients with younger age were more likely to develop negative psychological disorders (unstandardized Beta = - 3.137; P = 0.038). Females were more likely to have higher psychological distress than males (unstandardized Beta = 2.464, P = 0.003). Single (not-married) people have a higher risk of psychological distress than married people (unstandardized Beta = 2.518, P = 0.025). Also, job type/status whether being unemployed (not working) or 'civilian' (civil servant/worker) was positively and significantly associated with an increased probability of psychological distress (unstandardized Beta = 1.436, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Chronic 'general' pain was significantly associated with negative psychological disorders. The government of Saudi Arabia needs to focus on patients with chronic 'general' pain, females, young and unmarried individuals as potentially 'high-risk' population subgroups for adverse psychological disorders, and subsequent long-term complications.

13.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 34(2): 177-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654356

RESUMO

Background: Preoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) may affect the management of bariatric patients although this is not consistent universally. The present prospective study evaluated the effect of preoperative EGD findings in obese Saudi patients, including upper digestive symptoms (UDS) and comorbidities, on their planned surgery. Methods: From January 2018 to May 2019, we conducted a 4-center retrospective observational study to evaluate the endoscopic findings among Saudi patients aged 18-65 years with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2. Preoperative data included UDS, comorbidities, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection assessed during a histopathological examination, and EGD findings. Results: 717 patients underwent EGDs, and 432 underwent bariatric surgery. The mean BMI was 44.3±6.3 kg/m2, and the mean age was 27.8±11.8 years. The overall UDS prevalence was 49%, with the most frequent being gastroesophageal reflux disease 54% (387/717), followed by dyspepsia 44% (315/717). H. pylori infection was detected in 287/672 (42.4%) patients. The total percentage of patients with normal EGD was 36% (258/717). A delayed bariatric procedure was performed in 15% of the patients for the following reasons: 2.3% had large polyps of >1 cm (either hyperplastic or cystic polyps); 1.62% had esophagitis grade C and D based on the Los Angeles classification; 0.7% had Barrett's esophagus; and 5.7% had peptic ulcer disease. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed that obesity carries a profound health burden with a significant impact on health expenditures. Routine preoperative EGD in the obese Saudi population appears to be mandatory to identify factors that may change, delay, or postpone the bariatric procedure.

14.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; 45(2): 92-101, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567949

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the cartilage in the joints and could lead to disability. The protective effect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, resveratrol, against alterations to the knee articular cartilage ultrastructure induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with the inhibition of dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation has not been investigated before. Therefore, we modeled OA in rats 10 weeks post diabetic induction using a high carbohydrate and fat diet and a single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight), and the protective group of rats started resveratrol (30 mg/kg; orally) treatment 2 weeks before diabetic induction and continued on resveratrol until the end of the experiment at week 12. Blood chemistry analysis confirmed hyperglycemia (elevated glucose and glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c), dyslipidemia (elevated triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and upregulation of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α) biomarkers in the model group. In addition, using light and electron microscopy examinations, we also observed in the model group substantial damage to the articular cartilage and profound chondrocyte and territorial matrix ultrastructural alterations such as chondrocytes with degenerated nucleus and mitochondria, scarce cytoplasmic processes, and absence of the fine fibrillar appearance of territorial matrix. Resveratrol pretreatment significantly (p ≤ 0.0029) but not completely protected from T2DM-induced OA. We conclude that resveratrol protects against alterations to the articular cartilage ultrastructure induced secondary to T2DM in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of glycemia, hyperlipidemia, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Osteoartrite , Animais , Condrócitos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Articulação do Joelho , Ratos , Resveratrol/farmacologia
15.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is a condition that is prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients. Some physicians prescribe vitamin B12 or vitamin B complex supplements to improve symptoms, but studies have shown that there is little to no evidence of vitamin B12 being an effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy. Thus, this study aims to investigate local physicians' knowledge and tendency to prescribe vitamin B12 or vitamin B complex for the treatment or prevention of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted between May and November of 2019, in several primary healthcare centers in different cities of Saudi Arabia. A total of 412 physicians with a minimum of three years of experience answered a three-part questionnaire on their demographic information, their prescribing behavior, and their knowledge of the relationship between vitamin B12 or vitamin B complex and diabetic neuropathy. RESULTS: The study found that only 42% of the physicians believed that vitamin B12 supplementation did not prevent diabetic neuropathy, while only 52.7% found it to be an ineffective treatment for this condition. Moreover, 58.7% stated that they had indeed prescribed vitamin B12 or multivitamins as a form of treatment or prevention of diabetic neuropathy. 47.8% of the patients requested a vitamin B12 prescription 1-6 times from their physicians, while 31.6% of them requested it ≥ 7 times, with 42.5% of physicians agreeing that their prescriptions of vitamin B12 had been a result of patient demand more than clinical justification. Likewise, 43% of respondents were aware that vitamin B12 levels should be tested annually. Furthermore, a higher proportion of consultants chose not to prescribe vitamin B12 to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy than any other rank. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate a tendency of unnecessarily prescribing vitamin B12 supplementation for the prevention or treatment of diabetic neuropathy as well as a lack of knowledge on the matter among doctors in primary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study has also shown that it is patients who often request this prescription, adding pressure on their physicians to comply. Future studies should investigate hospitals in a greater number of Saudi cities and include less experienced residents and medical students.

16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 22, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is an important precursor to many cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. A report conducted by the American Heart Association showed the prevalence of HC to be 11.9%, with around 28.5 million adults age ≥ 20 years having high cholesterol levels. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HC and its associated risk factors among the general population of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the general population of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia in 2016. The representative sample consisted of 1019 individuals, who all participated on a voluntary basis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: The results of this study showed the prevalence of HC in the sample to be 12.5%. There was a significant moderate positive association between increasing age and the prevalence of HC (r = 0.240, P < 0.0001). Males had a significantly higher prevalence of HC (56.7%) compared to their female counterparts (43.3%) (X2 = 23.093, P ≤ 0.0001). BMI was positively and significantly associated with high cholesterol status. Participants in the overweight category had a significantly higher risk of HC (OR = 1.727; 95% CI = 1.58-1.914; P = 0.046). The non-obese (< 25 kg/m2) participants had an inverse significant association with the risk of hypercholesterolemia. (OR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.216-0.783; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: In this population-based study, the predominant risk factors of HC in Al-Kharj region were being of a Saudi nationality, male, having obesity, being unemployed, and being a civilian worker. There is a clear need for future screening studies of HC, as most previous studies have reported contradictory prevalence data (because they were conducted in different regions of KSA). Furthermore, well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed in the future to assess how the association between lifestyle behavioural factors such as dietary intake patterns and levels of physical activity may affect the relative risk of HC status.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
17.
Postgrad Med ; 133(3): 345-350, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317375

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain and hypertension are highly prevalent in both developing and developed countries. Although they may appear to be two separate phenomena, several studies in developed countries have found them associated at the population level. Studies in developing countries are scarce and association between pain with prehypertension are rarely explored. The objective of this study was to explore the potential association between prehypertension, hypertension, and chronic pain in a Saudi population.Methods: A cross-sectional general population-based study was conducted on a random sample of employees and university students over a period of 6 months from January 2016 to June 2016 in Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1200 general population adults (aged 18 years and above) were invited to participate in the study.Results: With a response rate of 85.9%, 1031 individuals were included in the final analysis. Among the general population of Al-Kharj, statistically significant association was found between age and chronic pain [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.764 [95% C.I. = 1.391-1.927], P < 0.0001] and between hypertension and chronic pain [(OR) = 1.039 [95% C.I. = 1.018-1.060], P < 0.0001], respectively. The association between prehypertension and chronic pain was not statistically significant [(OR) = 1.211 [95% C.I. = 0.879-1.668, P = 0.243].Conclusion: Results of this survey suggests a statistically significant relationship between hypertension (but not prehypertension) and chronic pain. The temporality of the relationship between hypertension and chronic needs to be explored in future longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 76(6): 304-313, 2020 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361706

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Limited data is available in Saudi Arabia (SA) regarding the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms and its subtypes, as defined by the ROME IV criteria. This study evaluated the burden of self-reported FD symptoms in the adult general population of SA and the current clinical practices. Methods: A web-based national cross-sectional health survey of the general population of SA was conducted using the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adults with additional questions on the presence of symptoms compatible with functional heartburn (FH) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The quality of life and somatization questionnaires were also included. Results: Overall, 3,114 adults completed the questionnaire, but 303 (9.7%) were excluded due to inconsistent responses. Of the 2,811 consistent responders, 532 (18.3%) fulfilled the Rome IV criteria for FD symptoms. These were distributed into the FD subtypes as follows: 208 (7.4%) had postprandial distress syndrome, 228 (8.1%) had epigastric pain syndrome, and 96 (3.4%) had the overlapping variant. IBS-like symptoms were reported in 232 (44%) and FH in 102 (19%) 19% (102) of the subjects with functional dyspepsia. H. pylori-associated dyspepsia was reported by 25% (87/348). High somatization, lower quality of life scores, younger age, and female sex were associated more with the FD symptoms participants than those without. Approximately 1/5 respondents used over-the-counter medications to relieve the FD symptoms. Conclusions: In this population-based survey, FD affected almost 1/5 of the responding adult population in SA, which was less than previously reported.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Estudos Transversais , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Cidade de Roma , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193968

RESUMO

Introduction: fall-related injuries are an important health concern around the globe, imposing an immense economic burden. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interventions and outcomes associated with fall-related injuries in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: a cross-sectional study including 264 patients with fall-related injuries was conducted at the King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sultan Centre for Health Care and other hospitals in Al Kharj from March 01, 2019 to November 30, 2019. The patients were recruited, identified at the point of presentation to the emergency department and followed through the triage, admission and discharge processes. The researchers analysed the participant´s clinical notes on the electronic health record (EHR) to obtain information relevant to the study, including demographic information, the injury patterns and their management. Results: most patients studied were children under the age of 10 (25.7%). The vast majority (96.9%) of patients fell from a height, while the rest fell from a height onto a sharp object. Most of them (90.9%) had experienced no shock symptoms. Upper limb injuries had the highest prevalence (37.8%), followed by lower limb injuries (22.7%), head injuries (19.7%) and skull fractures (13.6%). Invasive surgery, blood transfusions, admission to intensive care (ICU) and thoracostomy (chest tube) were required by 74%, 3%, 3% and 2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: fall-related injuries may result in invasive surgery, chest drain insertion, or ICU admission, increasing the burden on the healthcare system.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209178

RESUMO

Introduction: medication without prescription is a growing public health concern or phenomenon worldwide. This cross-sectional study was designed to study the trends of self-medication among Saudi population. Methods: a prospective, cross-sectional study including 2004 participants was carried out from different family clinics across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The clinicians used a self-designed questionnaire to collect the data, using stringent inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The questionnaire recorded participants' demographics and included several closed-ended and open-ended questions with options to choose from. The results were gathered, inserted into an excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS version 23. The analyzed information was presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: our research showed that 924 respondents (46.1%) found it difficult to reach a hospital. Another 45.2% considered the inefficiency of health centers in providing necessary care as the main reason for self-medication. Other causes of self-medication included a lack of medical insurance, insurance not covering the costs for the drugs, and symptoms of the disease being mild enough for not going to the hospital. Analgesics were the most commonly self-administered drugs (84.58%), followed by antipyretics (71.26%), cough syrups (46.86%), eye drops (35.98%), antibiotics (35.28%), flu medication (32.83%), heartburn medication (23.15%), medicines for joint pain (15.02%), and so on. Conclusion: the majority of Saudi Arabians engage in self-medication and rely on advice from friends and family most of the time, instead of consulting a health professional.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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