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1.
Am Heart J ; 220: 41-50, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770656

RESUMO

Many therapies have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF) in controlled settings, but there are limited data available to inform best practices for hospital and post-discharge quality improvement initiatives. The CONNECT-HF study is a prospective, cluster-randomized trial of 161 hospitals in the United States with a 2×2 factorial design. The study is designed to assess the effect of a hospital and post-discharge quality improvement intervention compared with usual care (primary objective) on HF outcomes and quality-of-care, as well as to evaluate the effect of hospitals implementing a patient-level digital intervention compared with usual care (secondary objective). The hospital and post-discharge intervention includes audit and feedback on HF clinical process measures and outcomes for patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) paired with education to sites and clinicians by a trained, nationally representative group of HF and quality improvement experts. The patient-level digital intervention is an optional ancillary study and includes a mobile application and behavioral tools that are intended to facilitate improved use of guideline-directed recommendations for self-monitoring and self-management of activity and medications for HFrEF. The effects of the interventions will be measured through an opportunity-based composite score on quality and time-to-first HF readmission or death among patients with HFrEF who present to study hospitals with acute HF and who consent to participate. The CONNECT-HF study is evaluating approaches for implementing HF guideline recommendations into practice and is one of the largest HF implementation science trials performed to date.

2.
Am Heart J ; 218: 84-91, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715434

RESUMO

Advanced age is directly related to worse outcomes following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and higher complication rates from antithrombotic therapies and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Often excluded from clinical trials, seniors presenting with STEMI remain an understudied population despite contributing to 140,000 hospital admissions annually. The SAFE-STEMI for Seniors study is a prospective, multicenter, unblinded, randomized clinical trial designed to examine the efficacy and safety of instantaneous wave-free ratio-guided complete revascularization in multivessel disease, while also investigating other components of STEMI care for patients ≥60 years including the efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting stents for primary PCI and transradial PCI with the Glidesheath Slender and TR band. The SAFE-STEMI trial represents North America's first and only prospective randomized investigational device exemption study to use a Coordinated Registry Network infrastructure with collaborative partnering across industry manufacturers, promoting both efficiency and reduced cost of evidence development for regulatory decisions related to both diagnostic and therapeutic technologies in a single study design. The study has been powered to evaluate 2 independent co-primary end points in a population of older patients with STEMI: (1) third-generation drug-eluting stents for primary PCI and (2) instantaneous wave-free ratio-guided complete revascularization versus infarct-related artery-only revascularization.

3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(10): 878-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the impact of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on first and recurrent hospitalization in this population. BACKGROUND: In the STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial, CABG reduced all-cause death and hospitalization in patients with and ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction <35%. METHODS: A total of 1,212 patients were randomized (610 to CABG + optimal medical therapy [CABG] and 602 to optimal medical therapy alone [MED] alone) and followed for a median of 9.8 years. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations were analyzed as time-to-first-event and as recurrent event analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1,212 patients, 757 died (62.4%) and 732 (60.4%) were hospitalized at least once, for a total of 2,549 total all-cause hospitalizations. Most hospitalizations (66.2%) were for cardiovascular causes, of which approximately one-half (907 or 52.9%) were for heart failure. More than 70% of all hospitalizations (1,817 or 71.3%) were recurrent events. The CABG group experienced fewer all-cause hospitalizations in the time-to-first-event (349 CABG vs. 383 MED, adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74 to 0.98; p = 0.03) and in recurrent event analyses (1,199 CABG vs. 1,350 MED, HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94; p < 0.001). This was driven by fewer total cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations (744 vs. 968; p < 0.001, adjusted HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.81; p = 0.001), the majority of which were due to HF (395 vs. 512; p < 0.001, adjusted HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005). We did not observe a difference in non-CV events. CONCLUSIONS: CABG reduces all-cause, CV, and HF hospitalizations in time-to-first-event and recurrent event analyses. (Comparison of Surgical and Medical Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease [STICH]; NCT00023595).

4.
N. Engl. j. med. ; 381(8): 739-748, ago., 2019. graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of assessment of myocardial viability in identifying patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who might benefit from surgical revascularization remains controversial. Furthermore, although improvement in left ventricular function is one of the goals of revascularization, its relationship to subsequent outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 601 patients who had coronary artery disease that was amenable to coronaryartery bypass grafting (CABG) and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, we prospectively assessed myocardial viability using single-photonemission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG and receive medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 months of follow-up in 318 patients. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. RESULTS: CABG plus medical therapy was associated with a lower incidence of death from any cause than medical therapy alone (182 deaths among 298 patients in the CABG group vs. 209 deaths among 303 patients in the medical-therapy group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.90). However, no significant interaction was observed between the presence or absence of myocardial viability and the beneficial effect of CABG plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone (P=0.34 for interaction). An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed only among patients with myocardial viability, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was no association between changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and subsequent death. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the concept that myocardial viability is associated with a long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of viable myocardium was associated with improvement in left ventricular systolic function, irrespective of treatment, but such improvement was not related to long-term survival. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Estudos Prospectivos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Emissão de Fóton Único de Sincronização Cardíaca
5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 739-748, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of assessment of myocardial viability in identifying patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who might benefit from surgical revascularization remains controversial. Furthermore, although improvement in left ventricular function is one of the goals of revascularization, its relationship to subsequent outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 601 patients who had coronary artery disease that was amenable to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, we prospectively assessed myocardial viability using single-photon-emission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG and receive medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 months of follow-up in 318 patients. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. RESULTS: CABG plus medical therapy was associated with a lower incidence of death from any cause than medical therapy alone (182 deaths among 298 patients in the CABG group vs. 209 deaths among 303 patients in the medical-therapy group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.90). However, no significant interaction was observed between the presence or absence of myocardial viability and the beneficial effect of CABG plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone (P = 0.34 for interaction). An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed only among patients with myocardial viability, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was no association between changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and subsequent death. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the concept that myocardial viability is associated with a long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of viable myocardium was associated with improvement in left ventricular systolic function, irrespective of treatment, but such improvement was not related to long-term survival. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Coração/fisiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 36-41, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial showed superiority of coronary artery bypass plus medical treatment (CABG) over medical treatment alone (MED) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. In previous publications, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to CABG was associated with worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to analyse if prior PCI influenced outcomes in STICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients in the STICH trial (n = 1212), followed for a median time of 9.8 years, were included in the present analyses. In the total population, 156 had a prior PCI (74 and 82, respectively, in the MED and CABG groups). In those with vs. without prior PCI, the adjusted hazard-ratios (aHRs) were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.74-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.11) for CV mortality, and 1.43 (95% CI = 1.15-1.77) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG without prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.70-0.95) for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for CV mortality and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.80) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG with prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.50-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.81 (95% CI = 0.49-1.36) for CV mortality and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41-0.90) for CV hospitalization. There was no evidence of interaction between randomized treatment and prior PCI for any endpoint (all adjusted p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the STICH trial, prior PCI did not affect the outcomes of patients whether they were treated medically or surgically, and the superiority of CABG over MED remained unchanged regardless of prior PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00023595.

7.
JAMA ; 321(13): 1261-1274, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874766

RESUMO

Importance: Catheter ablation is effective in restoring sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation (AF), but its effects on long-term mortality and stroke risk are uncertain. Objective: To determine whether catheter ablation is more effective than conventional medical therapy for improving outcomes in AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Catheter Ablation vs Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation trial is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial involving 126 centers in 10 countries. A total of 2204 symptomatic patients with AF aged 65 years and older or younger than 65 years with 1 or more risk factors for stroke were enrolled from November 2009 to April 2016, with follow-up through December 31, 2017. Interventions: The catheter ablation group (n = 1108) underwent pulmonary vein isolation, with additional ablative procedures at the discretion of site investigators. The drug therapy group (n = 1096) received standard rhythm and/or rate control drugs guided by contemporaneous guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. Among 13 prespecified secondary end points, 3 are included in this report: all-cause mortality; total mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization; and AF recurrence. Results: Of the 2204 patients randomized (median age, 68 years; 37.2% female; 42.9% had paroxysmal AF and 57.1% had persistent AF), 89.3% completed the trial. Of the patients assigned to catheter ablation, 1006 (90.8%) underwent the procedure. Of the patients assigned to drug therapy, 301 (27.5%) ultimately received catheter ablation. In the intention-to-treat analysis, over a median follow-up of 48.5 months, the primary end point occurred in 8.0% (n = 89) of patients in the ablation group vs 9.2% (n = 101) of patients in the drug therapy group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 [95% CI, 0.65-1.15]; P = .30). Among the secondary end points, outcomes in the ablation group vs the drug therapy group, respectively, were 5.2% vs 6.1% for all-cause mortality (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.60-1.21]; P = .38), 51.7% vs 58.1% for death or cardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.93]; P = .001), and 49.9% vs 69.5% for AF recurrence (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.60]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AF, the strategy of catheter ablation, compared with medical therapy, did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. However, the estimated treatment effect of catheter ablation was affected by lower-than-expected event rates and treatment crossovers, which should be considered in interpreting the results of the trial. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00911508.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Parada Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(8): 893-902, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal noninvasive test (NIT) for patients with diabetes and stable symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether a diagnostic strategy based on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is superior to functional stress testing in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes (CV death or myocardial infarction [MI]) among symptomatic patients with diabetes. METHODS: PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) was a randomized trial evaluating an initial strategy of CTA versus functional testing in stable outpatients with symptoms suggestive of CAD. The study compared CV outcomes in patients with diabetes (n = 1,908 [21%]) and without diabetes (n = 7,058 [79%]) based on their randomization to CTA or functional testing. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes (vs. without) were similar in age (median 61 years vs. 60 years) and sex (female 54% vs. 52%) but had a greater burden of CV comorbidities. Patients with diabetes who underwent CTA had a lower risk of CV death/MI compared with functional stress testing (CTA: 1.1% [10 of 936] vs. stress testing: 2.6% [25 of 972]; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.38; 95% confidence interval: 0.18 to 0.79; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in nondiabetic patients (CTA: 1.4% [50 of 3,564] vs. stress testing: 1.3% [45 of 3,494]; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.54; p = 0.887; interaction term for diabetes p value = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic patients presenting with stable chest pain, a CTA strategy resulted in fewer adverse CV outcomes than a functional testing strategy. CTA may be considered as the initial diagnostic strategy in this subgroup. (PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain [PROMISE]; NCT01174550).

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 373-381, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698316

RESUMO

AIMS: The landmark STICH trial found that surgical revascularization compared to medical therapy alone improved survival in patients with heart failure (HF) of ischaemic aetiology and an ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35%. However, the interaction between the burden of medical co-morbidities and the benefit from surgical revascularization has not been previously described in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The STICH trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00023595) enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with coronary artery disease amenable to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and an EF ≤ 35%. Eligible participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive medical therapy (MED) (n = 602) or MED/CABG (n = 610). A modified Charlson co-morbidity index (CCI) based on the availability of data and study definitions was calculated by summing the weighted points for all co-morbid conditions. Patients were divided into mild/moderate (CCI 1-4) and severe (CCI ≥ 5) co-morbidity. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between CCI and outcomes and the interaction between severity of co-morbidity and treatment effect. The study population included 349 patients (29%) with a mild/moderate CCI score and 863 patients (71%) with a severe CCI score. Patients with a severe CCI score had greater functional limitations based on 6-min walk test and impairments in health-related quality of life as assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. A total of 161 patients (Kaplan-Meier rate = 50%) with a mild/moderate CCI score and 579 patients (Kaplan-Meier rate = 69%) with a severe CCI score died over a median follow-up of 9.8 years. After adjusting for baseline confounders, patients with a severe CCI score were at higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.19-1.74; P < 0.001). There was no interaction between CCI score and treatment effect on survival (P = 0.756). CONCLUSIONS: More than 70% of patients had a severe burden of medical co-morbidities at baseline, which was independently associated with increased risk of death. There was not a differential benefit of surgical revascularization with respect to survival based on severity of co-morbidity.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005531, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) demonstrated a survival benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score and the EuroSCORE-2 (ES2) are used for risk assessment in cardiac surgery, with little information available about their accuracy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. We assessed the ability of the STS score and ES2 to evaluate 30-day postoperative mortality risk in STICH and a contemporary cohort (CC) of patients with a left ventricle ejection fraction ≤35% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting outside of a trial setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: The STS and ES2 scores were calculated for 814 STICH patients and 1246 consecutive patients in a CC. There were marked variations in 30-day postoperative mortality risk from 1 patient to another. The STS scores consistently calculated lower risk scores than ES2 (1.5 versus 2.9 for the CC and 0.9 versus 2.4 for the STICH cohort), and underestimated postoperative mortality risk. The STS and ES2 scores had moderately good C statistics: CC (0.727, 95% CI: 0.650-0.803 for STS, and 0.707, 95% CI: 0.620-0.795 for ES2); STICH (0.744, 95% CI: 0.677-0.812, for STS and 0.736, 95% CI: 0.665-0.808 for ES2). Despite the CC patients having higher STS and ES2 scores than STICH patients, mortality (3.5%) was lower than that of STICH (4.8%), suggesting a possible decrease in postoperative mortality over the past decade. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day postoperative mortality risk of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with left ventricular dysfunction varies markedly. Both the STS and ES2 score are effective in evaluating risk, although the STS score tend to underestimate risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00023595.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
12.
Clin Trials ; : 1740774518812776, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: The US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel Initiative is well positioned to support pragmatic clinical trials. FDA-Catalyst combines direct contact with health plan members and/or providers with data in the Sentinel infrastructure. Here, we describe the rationale, feasibility analyses, and lessons learned from the planning phase of the first large pragmatic trial conducted using the Sentinel Initiative's delivery system capabilities-IMplementation of a randomized controlled trial to imProve treatment with oral AntiCoagulanTs in patients with Atrial Fibrillation (the IMPACT-AFib trial). METHODS:: During the planning phase, we convened representatives from five commercial health plans, FDA, study coordinating centers, and a patient representative for protocol development, institutional review board preparation, and other activities. Administrative claims data from the plans were included in a retrospective cohort analysis to assess sample size for the trial. Members ≥30 years old with ≥365 days of medical/pharmacy coverage, ≥2 diagnosis codes for atrial fibrillation, a guideline-based indication for oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention, and no evidence of oral anticoagulant use in the 365 days prior to the index atrial fibrillation diagnosis in 2013 were included. Exclusions for the analysis included other conditions requiring anticoagulation, history of intracranial hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleed. We calculated rates of oral anticoagulant use, transient ischemic attack or stroke, and bleeding in the 365 days following the index atrial fibrillation diagnosis. RESULTS:: A total of 44,786 members with atrial fibrillation with no evidence of recent oral anticoagulant use were identified. In total, 87% (n = 38,759) were classified as having a guideline-based indication for oral anticoagulants. Of those, 33% (n = 12,867) had a new oral anticoagulant dispensed during the following year, 15% (n = 5917) were hospitalized for stroke or transient ischemic attack, and 9% (n = 3469) for bleeding events. This information was used to develop the trial protocol including sample size, power calculations, and level of randomization. CONCLUSION:: Sentinel infrastructure generated preliminary data that supported planning and implementation of a large pragmatic trial embedded in health plans. This planning identified unanticipated challenges that must be addressed in similar trials.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(18): 1824-1833, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether quality improvement initiatives across multiple ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) systems translated to faster first medical contact (FMC)-to-device times for patients presenting with cardiogenic shock (CS). BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing contemporary rates of achieving guideline-directed FMC-to-device times for STEMI patients with CS. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, the American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator project established a protocol-guided approach to STEMI reperfusion systems in 484 U.S. hospitals. The study was stratified by CS versus no CS at presentation and performed Cochrane-Armitage tests to evaluate trends of achieving FMC-to-device time targets. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed the association between achieving guideline-directed FMC-to-device times and mortality. RESULTS: Among 23,785 STEMI patients, 1,993 (8.4%) experienced CS at presentation. For direct presenters, patients with CS were less likely to achieve the 90-min FMC-to-device time compared with no-CS patients (37% vs. 54%; p < 0.001). For transferred patients, CS patients were even less likely to reach the 120-min FMC-to-device time compared with no-CS patients (34% vs. 47%; p < 0.0001). The Accelerator intervention did not result in improvements in the FMC-to-device times for direct-presenting CS patients (p for trend = 0.53), although there was an improvement for transferred patients (p for trend = 0.04). Direct-presenting patients arriving within 90 min had lower mortality rates compared with patients who reached after 90 min (20.49% vs. 39.12%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 40% of STEMI patients presenting with CS achieved guideline-directed FMC-to-device targets; delays in reperfusion for direct-presenting patients were associated with higher mortality.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 39(26): 2460-2468, 2018 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931092

RESUMO

Aims: Harmonized Assessment by Randomized Multicentre Study of OrbusNEich's Combo StEnt (HARMONEE) (NCT02073565) was a randomized pivotal registration trial of the Combo stent, which combined sirolimus and an abluminal bioabsorbable polymer with a novel endoluminal anti-CD34+ antibody coating designed to capture endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and promote percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) site healing. Methods and results: Clinically stabilized PCI subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive Combo or everolimus-eluting stents (EES). Between February 2014 and June 2016, 572 subjects with 675 coronary lesions underwent 1-year angiography and fractional flow reserve, with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the first 140 patients. The primary clinical endpoint was non-inferior 1-year target vessel failure (TVF). The primary mechanistic endpoint of EPC capture activity was superior strut coverage by OCT. Target vessel failure occurred in 7.0% Combo (20/287) vs. 4.2% EES (12/285), a 2.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.0%, 6.5%] difference, meeting the non-inferiority hypothesis (P = 0.02). There were no cardiac deaths, with one stent thrombosis observed in the EES group. Quantitative coronary angiography late loss with Combo was equivalent to EES. Optical coherence tomography strut coverage at 1 year was superior with Combo vs. EES [91.3% (95% CI 88.7%, 93.8%) vs. 74.8% (95% CI 70.0%, 79.6%), P < 0.001], with homogeneous tissue in 81.2% vs. 68.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Combo stent demonstrated non-inferior 1-year TVF and late loss in a randomized comparison to EES, with superior strut-based tissue coverage by OCT as a surrogate of EPC capture technology activity.

15.
Am Heart J ; 199: 192-199, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754661

RESUMO

The Catheter Ablation Versus Anti-arrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (CABANA,NCT00911508)(1) trial is testing the hypothesis that the treatment strategy of percutaneous left atrial catheter ablation for the purpose of eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF) is superior to current state-of-the-art pharmacologic therapy. This international 140-center clinical trial was designed to randomize 2200 patients to a strategy of catheter ablation versus state-of-the-art rate or rhythm control drug therapy. Inclusion criteria include: 1) age> 65, or ≤65 with≥ 1 risk factor for stroke, 2) documented AF warranting treatment, and 3) eligibility for both catheter ablation and≥ 2 anti-arrhythmic or≥ 2 rate control drugs. Patients were followed every 3 to 6 months (median 4 years) and underwent repeat trans-telephonic monitoring, Holter monitoring, and CT/MR in a subgroup of patient studies to assess the impact of treatment on AF recurrence and atrial structure. With 1100 patients in each treatment arm, CABANA is projected to have 90% power for detecting a 30% relative reduction in the primary composite endpoint of total mortality, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. Secondary endpoints include total mortality; mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization; a combination of mortality, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure or acute coronary artery events; cardiovascular death alone; and heart failure death, as well as AF recurrence, quality of life, and cost effectiveness. At a time when AF incidence is rising rapidly, CABANA will provide critical evidence with which to guide therapy and shape health care policy related to AF for years to come.

16.
Am Heart J ; 199: 51-58, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few therapies are available for the safe and effective treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure. Bucindolol is a non-selective beta-blocker with mild vasodilator activity previously found to have accentuated antiarrhythmic effects and increased efficacy for preventing heart failure events in patients homozygous for the major allele of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism (ADRB1 Arg389Arg genotype). The safety and efficacy of bucindolol for the prevention of AF or atrial flutter (AFL) in these patients has not been proven in randomized trials. METHODS/DESIGN: The Genotype-Directed Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Bucindolol and Metoprolol Succinate for Prevention of Symptomatic Atrial Fibrillation/Atrial Flutter in Patients with Heart Failure (GENETIC-AF) trial is a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded "seamless" phase 2B/3 trial of bucindolol hydrochloride versus metoprolol succinate, for the prevention of symptomatic AF/AFL in patients with reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF). Patients with pre-existing HFrEF and recent history of symptomatic AF are eligible for enrollment and genotype screening, and if they are ADRB1 Arg389Arg, eligible for randomization. A total of approximately 200 patients will comprise the phase 2B component and if pre-trial assumptions are met, 620 patients will be randomized at approximately 135 sites to form the Phase 3 population. The primary endpoint is the time to recurrence of symptomatic AF/AFL or mortality over a 24-week follow-up period, and the trial will continue until 330 primary endpoints have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: GENETIC-AF is the first randomized trial of pharmacogenetic guided rhythm control, and will test the safety and efficacy of bucindolol compared with metoprolol succinate for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic AF/AFL in patients with HFrEF and an ADRB1 Arg389Arg genotype. (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01970501).

17.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000752, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531766

RESUMO

Background: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may decrease mortality, but it is not known whether CABG improves functional capacity. Objective: To determine whether CABG compared with medical therapy alone (MED) increases 6 min walk distance in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease amenable to revascularisation. Methods: The Surgical Treatment in Ischemic Heart disease trial randomised 1212 patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction to CABG or MED. A 6 min walk distance test was performed both at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment at 4, 12, 24 and/or 36 months in 409 patients randomised to CABG and 466 to MED. Change in 6 min walk distance between baseline and follow-up were compared by treatment allocation. Results: 6 min walk distance at baseline for CABG was mean 340±117 m and for MED 339±118 m. Change in walk distance from baseline was similar for CABG and MED groups at 4 months (mean +38 vs +28 m), 12 months (+47 vs +36 m), 24 months (+31 vs +34 m) and 36 months (-7 vs +7 m), P>0.10 for all. Change in walk distance between CABG and MED groups over all assessments was also similar after adjusting for covariates and imputation for missing values (+8 m, 95% CI -7 to 23 m, P=0.29). Results were consistent for subgroups defined by angina, New York Heart Association class ≥3, left ventricular ejection fraction, baseline walk distance and geographic region. Conclusion: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction CABG compared with MED alone is known to reduce mortality but is unlikely to result in a clinically significant improvement in functional capacity. Trial registration number: NCT00023595.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(32): 2942-2955, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579168

RESUMO

Aims: It is recommended to perform atrial fibrillation ablation with continuous anticoagulation. Continuous apixaban has not been tested. Methods and results: We compared continuous apixaban (5 mg b.i.d.) to vitamin K antagonists (VKA, international normalized ratio 2-3) in atrial fibrillation patients at risk of stroke a prospective, open, multi-centre study with blinded outcome assessment. Primary outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2-5). A high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study quantified acute brain lesions. Cognitive function was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at baseline and at end of follow-up. Overall, 674 patients (median age 64 years, 33% female, 42% non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 49 sites) were randomized; 633 received study drug and underwent ablation; 335 undertook MRI (25 sites, 323 analysable scans). The primary outcome was observed in 22/318 patients randomized to apixaban, and in 23/315 randomized to VKA {difference -0.38% [90% confidence interval (CI) -4.0%, 3.3%], non-inferiority P = 0.0002 at the pre-specified absolute margin of 0.075}, including 2 (0.3%) deaths, 2 (0.3%) strokes, and 24 (3.8%) ISTH major bleeds. Acute small brain lesions were found in a similar number of patients in each arm [apixaban 44/162 (27.2%); VKA 40/161 (24.8%); P = 0.64]. Cognitive function increased at the end of follow-up (median 1 MoCA unit; P = 0.005) without differences between study groups. Conclusions: Continuous apixaban is safe and effective in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation at risk of stroke with respect to bleeding, stroke, and cognitive function. Further research is needed to reduce ablation-related acute brain lesions.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(3): 1256-1263, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to assess determinants of intubation time and evaluate its impact on 30-day and 1-year postoperative survival in Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used among the 1,446 surgical patients from the STICH trial who survived 36 hours after operation, in order to identify perioperative factors associated with 30-day and 1-year postoperative mortality. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with intubation time. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At 36 hours post-operation, 1,298 (out of 1,446) were extubated and 148 (10.2%) still intubated. Median postoperative intubation time was 11.4 hours. Among patients surviving 36 hours, a multivariable model was developed to predict 30-day (c-index = 0.88) and 1-year (c-index = 0.78) mortality. Intubation time was the strongest independent predictor of 30-day (hazard ratio [HR] 5.50) and 1-year mortality (HR 3.69). Predictors of intubation time >36 hours included mitral valve procedure, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular systolic volume index, creatinine, previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and age. Results were similar in patients surviving 24 hours post-operation, where intubation time was also the strongest predictor of 30-day (HR 4.18, c-index 0.87) and 1-year (HR 2.81, c-index 0.78) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Intubation time is the strongest predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality among patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing CABG. Combining intubation time with other mortality risk factors may allow the identification of patients at the highest risk for whom the development of specific strategies may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Circulation ; 137(4): 376-387, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional variations in reperfusion times and mortality in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction are influenced by differences in coordinating care between emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitals. Building on the Accelerator-1 Project, we hypothesized that time to reperfusion could be further reduced with enhanced regional efforts. METHODS: Between April 2015 and March 2017, we worked with 12 metropolitan regions across the United States with 132 percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospitals and 946 EMS agencies. Data were collected in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network)-Get With The Guidelines Registry for quarterly Mission: Lifeline reports. The primary end point was the change in the proportion of EMS-transported patients with first medical contact to device time ≤90 minutes from baseline to final quarter. We also compared treatment times and mortality with patients treated in hospitals not participating in the project during the corresponding time period. RESULTS: During the study period, 10 730 patients were transported to percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospitals, including 974 in the baseline quarter and 972 in the final quarter who met inclusion criteria. Median age was 61 years; 27% were women, 6% had cardiac arrest, and 6% had shock on admission; 10% were black, 12% were Latino, and 10% were uninsured. By the end of the intervention, all process measures reflecting coordination between EMS and hospitals had improved, including the proportion of patients with a first medical contact to device time of ≤90 minutes (67%-74%; P<0.002), a first medical contact to device time to catheterization laboratory activation of ≤20 minutes (38%-56%; P<0.0001), and emergency department dwell time of ≤20 minutes (33%-43%; P<0.0001). Of the 12 regions, 9 regions reduced first medical contact to device time, and 8 met or exceeded the national goal of 75% of patients treated in ≤90 minutes. Improvements in treatment times corresponded with a significant reduction in mortality (in-hospital death, 4.4%-2.3%; P=0.001) that was not apparent in hospitals not participating in the project during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: Organization of care among EMS and hospitals in 12 regions was associated with significant reductions in time to reperfusion in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction as well as in in-hospital mortality. These findings support a more intensive regional approach to emergency care for patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

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