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1.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774748

RESUMO

Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), including implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), are part of guideline- indicated treatment for a subset of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Current technological advancements in CIEDs have allowed the detection of specific patient physiologic parameters used for forecasting clinical decompensation through algorithmic, multiparameter remote monitoring. Other recent emerging technologies, including cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) and baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), may provide symptomatic or physiologic benefit in patients without an indication for CRT. Our goal in this state-of-the-art review is to describe the commercially available new technologies, purported mechanisms of action, evidence surrounding their clinical role, limitations, and future directions. Finally, we underline the need for standardized workflow and close interdisciplinary management of this population to ensure the delivery of high-quality care.

2.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774749

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) continues to be a major contributor of morbidity and mortality for men and women alike, yet how the predisposition for, course and management of HF differ between men and women remains underexplored. Sex differences in traditional risk factors as well as sex-specific risk factors influence the prevalence and manifestation of HF in unique ways. The pathophysiology of HF differs between men and women and may explain sex-specific differences in clinical presentation and diagnosis. This in turn contributes to variation in response to both pharmacologic and device/surgical therapy. This review examines sex-specific differences in HF spanning prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, presentation, and therapies with a specific focus on highlighting gaps in knowledge with calls to action for future research efforts.

3.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 2(5): 455-462, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667960

RESUMO

Background: Atrioventricular (AV)-synchronous single-chamber leadless pacing using a mechanical atrial sensing algorithm produced high AV synchrony in clinical trials, but clinical practice experience with these devices has not yet been described. Objective: To describe pacing outcomes and programming changes with AV-synchronous leadless pacemakers in clinical practice. Methods: Consecutive patients without persistent atrial fibrillation who received an AV-synchronous leadless pacemaker and completed follow-up between February 2020 and April 2021 were included. We evaluated tracking index (atrial mechanical sense followed by ventricular pace [AM-VP] divided by total VP), total AV synchrony (sum of AM-ventricular sense [AM-VS], AM-VP, and AV conduction mode switch), use of programming optimization, and improvement in AV synchrony after optimization. Results: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 69 ± 16.8 years, 24 (48%) were women, 24 (48%) had complete heart block, and 17 (34%) required ≥50% pacing. Mean tracking index was 41% ± 34%. Thirty-five patients (70%) received ≥1 programming change. In 36 patients with 2 follow-up visits, tracking improved by +9% ± 28% (P value for improvement = .09) and +18% ± 19% (P = .02) among 15 patients with complete heart block. Average total AV synchrony increased from 89% [67%, 99%] to 93% [78%, 100%] in all patients (P = .22), from 86% [52%, 98%] to 97% [82%, 99%] in those with complete heart block (P = .04), and from 73% [52%, 80%] to 78% [70%, 85%] in those with ≥50% pacing (P = .09). Conclusion: In patients with AV-synchronous leadless pacemakers, programming changes are frequent and are associated with increased atrial tracking and increased AV synchrony in patients with complete heart block.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668928

RESUMO

Importance: Respiratory fluoroquinolone antibiotics are some of the most common medications with QT interval-prolonging potential prescribed to patients with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure-individuals who have a very high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). To date, there have been no large-scale, population-specific studies evaluating the cardiac safety of respiratory fluoroquinolones in the hemodialysis population. Objective: To investigate the cardiac safety of respiratory fluoroquinolones among individuals with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study examining safety using an active comparator new-user design was conducted using administrative claims data from a US-wide kidney failure registry from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016, including 264 968 Medicare beneficiaries receiving in-center maintenance hemodialysis. Data analysis was performed from January 4 to August 16, 2021. Exposures: Respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin or moxifloxacin) vs amoxicillin-based (amoxicillin or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid) antibiotic treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sudden cardiac death within 5 days of outpatient initiation of a study antibiotic. Inverse probability of treatment-weighted survival models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), risk differences (RDs), and corresponding 95% CIs. Death due to a cause other than SCD was treated as a competing event. Fracture was considered as a negative control outcome. Results: The study cohort included 264 968 unique in-center hemodialysis patients and 626 322 study antibiotic treatment episodes: 251 726 respiratory fluoroquinolone treatment episodes (40.2%) and 374 596 amoxicillin-based treatment episodes (59.8%). Of the 264 968 patients, 135 236 (51.0%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 61 (15) years. Respiratory fluoroquinolone vs amoxicillin-based antibiotic treatment was associated with a higher relative and absolute 5-day risk of SCD (weighted HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.57-2.41; and weighted RD per 100 000 treatment episodes, 44.0; 95% CI, 31.0-59.2). Respiratory fluoroquinolone vs amoxicillin-based antibiotic treatment was not associated with the 5-day risk of fracture. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, compared with amoxicillin-based antibiotic treatment, respiratory fluoroquinolone treatment was associated with a higher short-term risk of SCD among patients with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure. This finding suggests that decisions between the use of respiratory fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin-based antibiotics should be individualized, with prescribers considering both the clinical benefits and potential cardiac risks.

5.
Resuscitation ; 168: 75-83, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with sudden cardiac arrest occurring in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI-SCA) are believed to be at similar risk of death after revascularization compared with MI patients without SCA (MI-no SCA). Among patients with anterior MI, we examined whether those with MI-SCA were at greater risk of all-cause mortality or sudden cardiac death (SCD) than MI-no SCA patients. METHODS: The Home Automated External Defibrillator Trial enrolled patients with anterior MI who had not received or were candidates for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Our cohort included patients with a reported SCA event, in the acute phase of an MI, prior to HAT trial enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models examined the adjusted association between MI-SCA versus MI-no SCA patients and all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We also determined whether the relationship between prior SCA and outcomes changed with subsequent events (syncope, revascularization, and recurrent MI) during follow-up. RESULTS: Of 6849 patients, 650 (9.5%) had MI-SCA before trial enrollment. Approximately 48% of patients had the MI-SCA event ≤1 year prior to enrollment; 71% of SCA events were in-hospital. MI-SCA patients were younger, more frequently white, and had higher rates of prior PCI versus MI-no SCA patients. There were no differences in adjusted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.65-1.38]) or SCD (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.68-1.83) for MI-SCA vs. MI-no SCA. After ICD implantation, MI-SCA patients experienced higher all-cause mortality risk (HR 5.01, 95% CI 1.05-23.79) versus MI-no SCA patients; there was no mortality difference between MI-SCA and MI-no SCA patients without ICD implantation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.60-1.31), [interaction p = 0.035]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MI-SCA had similar adjusted risk of all-cause mortality and SCD compared with MI-no SCA. After ICD implantation, MI-SCA patients had higher mortality compared with MI-no SCA patients.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Parada Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Fatores de Risco
7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 66: 37-45, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332660

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy requiring replacement by means of the surgical or transcatheter approach. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has quickly become a viable and often preferred treatment strategy compared to surgical aortic valve replacement. However, transcatheter heart valve system deployment not infrequently injures the specialized electrical system of the heart, leading to new conduction disorders including high-grade atrioventricular block and complete heart block (CHB) necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI), which may lead to deleterious effects on cardiac function and patient outcomes. Additional conduction disturbances (e.g., new-onset persistent left bundle branch block, PR/QRS prolongation, and transient CHB) currently lack clearly defined management algorithms leading to variable strategies among institutions. This article outlines the current understanding of the pathophysiology, patient and procedural risk factors, means for further risk stratification and monitoring of patients without a clear indication for PPI, our institutional approach, and future directions in the management and evaluation of post-TAVR conduction disturbances.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Potenciais de Ação , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 66: 80-85, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332663

RESUMO

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) frequently coexist, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options for patients with AF and HFrEF are limited due to few antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) choices and historically equivocal effects of procedural interventions on mortality. However, recent randomized trials examining catheter ablation (CA) in AF patients with HFrEF have shown a beneficial effect on arrhythmic burden and HF symptoms, as well as an improvement in mortality. This review focuses on the role of CA for AF patients with HFrEF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(11): 1275-1284, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379072

RESUMO

Importance: Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) has emerged as an alternative to anticoagulation for select patients with atrial fibrillation; however, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of LAAO, and sex-specific subanalyses are limited. Objective: To evaluate the sex differences in the baseline characteristics of patients undergoing LAAO implant and in the in-hospital outcomes after LAAO implant. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 49 357 patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry LAAO Registry undergoing LAAO with the Watchman device between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2019, were included in this study. Exposure: Female or male sex. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were aborted or canceled procedure, major adverse event, any adverse event, prolonged hospital stay longer than 1 day, and death. Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess sex differences in in-hospital adverse events. Results: In this cohort study of 49 357 patients (mean [SD] age, 76.1 [8.0] years), 20 388 women (41.3%) and 28 969 (58.7%) men underwent LAAO. Compared with men, women were older and had a higher prevalence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, prior stroke, and uncontrolled hypertension but a lower prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. After multivariable adjustment, there were no differences in aborted or canceled procedures between women and men (613 [3.0%] vs 851 [2.9%]; odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% CI, 0.90-1.13). Women were more likely than men to experience any adverse event (1284 [6.3%] vs 1144 [3.9%]; P < .001; OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.49-1.77; P < .001) or major adverse event (827 [4.1%] vs 567 [2.0%]; P < .001; OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.82-2.34; P < .001) owing to pericardial effusion requiring drainage (241 [1.2%] vs 144 [0.5%]) or major bleeding (349 [1.7%] vs 244 [0.8%]). Women were also more likely than men to experience a hospital stay longer than 1 day (3272 [16.0%] vs 3355 [11.6%]; P < .001; adjusted OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54; P < .001) or death (adjusted OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.31-3.09; P = .001), although death was rare and absolute differences were minimal (58 [0.3%] vs 37 [0.1%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that, compared with men, women have a significantly higher risk of in-hospital adverse events after LAAO. Further research aimed at risk reduction, particularly strategies to reduce the risk of pericardial effusion and major bleeding, in women undergoing LAAO is warranted.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021566, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351783

RESUMO

There has been sustained focus on the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and heart failure; yet, apart from stroke prevention, the evidence base for the secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence, AF progression, and AF-related complications is modest. Although there are multiple observational studies, there are few large, robust, randomized trials providing definitive effective approaches for the secondary prevention of AF. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of AF nationally and internationally, the AF field needs transformative research and a commitment to evidenced-based secondary prevention strategies. We report on a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute virtual workshop directed at identifying knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the secondary prevention of AF. Once AF has been detected, lifestyle changes and novel models of care delivery may contribute to the prevention of AF recurrence, AF progression, and AF-related complications. Although benefits seen in small subgroups, cohort studies, and selected randomized trials are impressive, the widespread effectiveness of AF secondary prevention strategies remains unknown, calling for development of scalable interventions suitable for diverse populations and for identification of subpopulations who may particularly benefit from intensive management. We identified critical research questions for 6 topics relevant to the secondary prevention of AF: (1) weight loss; (2) alcohol intake, smoking cessation, and diet; (3) cardiac rehabilitation; (4) approaches to sleep disorders; (5) integrated, team-based care; and (6) nonanticoagulant pharmacotherapy. Our goal is to stimulate innovative research that will accelerate the generation of the evidence to effectively pursue the secondary prevention of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Projetos de Pesquisa , Prevenção Secundária , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Composição Corporal , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Prioridades em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
13.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(2): e183-e353, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972115
15.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 66: 53-60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been demonstrated to improve heart failure (HF) symptoms, reverse LV remodeling, and reduce mortality and HF hospitalization (HFH) in patients with a reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). Prior studies examining outcomes based on right ventricular (RV) lead position among CRT patients have provided mixed results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies comparing RV apical (RVA) and non-apical (RVNA) lead position in CRT. METHODS: Our meta-analysis was constructed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE. Eligible studies reported on at least one of the following outcomes of interest: all-cause mortality, the composite endpoint of death and first HFH hospitalization, change in LVEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class improvement, and change in LV end systolic volume (LVESV). We performed meta-analysis summaries using a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model and conservatively used the Knapp-Hartung approach to adjust the standard errors of the estimated model coefficients. RESULTS: We included nine studies representing a total of 1832 patients. Of those, 1318 (72%) patients had RVA lead placement and 514 (28%) had RVNA lead placement. The mean age of patients was 65.5 ± 4.4 years, and they were predominantly men (69%-97%). There was no statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality by RVA vs. RVNA (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.32-1.89; I2 = 16.7%, p = 0.31), or in the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and first HFH (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.62-1.25; I2 = 0%, p = 0.84). Also, there was no difference between RVA and RVNA for NYHA class improvement (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.9-1.17; I2 = 0%, p = 0.99), change in LVEF (mean difference (MD) = 1.33, 95% CI -1.45 to 4.10; I2 = 47%; p = 0.093), and change in LVESV (MD = -1.11, 95% CI -3.34 to 1.12; I2 = 0%; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis shows that in CRT pacing, RV lead position does not appear to be associated with clinical outcomes or LV reverse remodeling. Further studies should focus on the relationship of RV lead vis-à-vis LV lead location, and its clinical importance.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Função Ventricular Direita , Idoso , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular
18.
Circulation ; 143(7): 613-614, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587661
19.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients in the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) had a significant improvement (> 10%) in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) during the course of the study, but the factors and outcomes associated with such improvement are uncertain. METHODS: We examined factors and rates of mortality, cause-specific mortality, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks associated with improvement in LVEF by analyzing patients in the SCD-HeFT who were randomized to placebo or an ICD and who had an LVEF checked during follow-up. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3.99 years, of 837 patients who had at least two follow-up LVEF measurements, 276 (33%) patients had > 10% improvement in LVEF and 561 (67%) patients had no significant change in LVEF. Factors significantly associated with LVEF improvement included female sex, white race, history of hypertension, a QRS duration < 120 ms, and beta-blocker use. Improvement in LVEF was associated with a significant improvement in survival. There was no significant association between improvement in LVEF and cause-specific death, but there was a significant association between improvement in LVEF and reduced risk of receiving appropriate ICD shocks. CONCLUSIONS: About a third of patients in this analysis, who were randomized to placebo or an ICD in SCD-HeFT, had a significant improvement in LVEF during follow-up; improvement in LVEF was associated with improved survival but not with cause-specific death, and with decreased likelihood of receiving appropriate ICD shocks.

20.
ASAIO J ; 67(2): 192-195, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512914

RESUMO

OptiVol (Medtronic PLC, Minneapolis, MN) is a diagnostic feature of some cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) based on changes in thoracic impedance (TI) over time. Changes in TI can predict heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and mortality in HF populations. However, the utility of this feature is unknown in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). To determine if OptiVol and TI correlate with clinical HF events in a population of LVAD patients, hospitalization outcomes were collected retrospectively from the electronic health records at a single academic medical center in 80 LVAD patients with an OptiVol-capable CIED. Demographics, medical history, and available clinical data were reviewed and reported. The primary outcomes of interest were TI and OptiVol trends before and after hospitalization, and association of trends before and after these events was evaluated. Most patients had a HeartMate II LVAD and most CIEDs were defibrillators, and 23 (29%) had at least one HF hospitalization during the study period. HF hospitalizations were preceded by signs of volume overload in Optivol (60%) and TI (78%) with recovery of these measures post hospitalization in 33% and 25% of patients, respectively. Monitoring of TI and OptiVol may be one effective component of HF management in LVAD patients as part of a comprehensive program.


Assuntos
Cardiografia de Impedância/instrumentação , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Líquidos Corporais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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