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1.
Circulation ; 141(7): 499-500, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065776
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960344

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984466

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

4.
Europace ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995197

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

5.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e2-e154, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085023

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

6.
Circulation ; 141(1): 10-20, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with oral anticoagulants has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We investigated the risk of bleeding and major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation taking NSAIDs and apixaban or warfarin. METHODS: The ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation; n=18 201) compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation at an increased risk of stroke. Patients in ARISTOTLE without severe renal (creatine clearance ≤30 mL/min) or liver disease were included in this analysis (n=17 423). NSAID use at baseline, NSAID use during the trial (incident NSAID use), and never users were described. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart failure hospitalization, stroke or systemic embolism, and all-cause mortality. NSAID use during the trial, and the interaction between randomized treatment, was analyzed using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those with baseline NSAID use (n=832 [4.8%]), incident NSAID use (n=2185 [13.2%]), and never users were similar in median age (age [25th, 75th]; 70 [64, 77] versus 70 [63, 75] versus 70 [62, 76]). Those with NSAID use at baseline and incident NSAID use were more likely to have a history of bleeding than never users (24.5% versus 21.0% versus 15.6%, respectively). During a median follow-up (25th, 75th) of 1.8 (1.4, 2.3) years and when excluding those taking NSAID at baseline, we found that incident NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61 [95% CI, 1.11-2.33]) and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.16-2.48]), but not gastrointestinal bleeding. No significant interaction was observed between NSAID use and randomized treatment for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of patients in the ARISTOTLE trial took NSAIDs. Incident NSAID use was associated with major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, but not with gastrointestinal bleeding. The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin appeared not significantly to be altered by NSAID use. This study warrants more investigation of the effect of NSAIDs on the outcomes of patients treated with apixaban. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

7.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e155-e205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102616

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

8.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(2): 187-195, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867773

RESUMO

Most implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are implanted for the purpose of primary prevention of sudden cardiac death among older patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Shared decision-making prior to device implantation is guideline-recommended and payer-mandated. This article summarizes patient and provider attitudes toward device placement, device efficacy and effectiveness, potential periprocedural complications, long-term events such as shocks, quality of life, costs, and shared decision-making principles and recommendations. Most patients eligible for an ICD anticipate more than 10 years of survival. Physicians are less likely to offer an ICD to patients ≥80 years of age given a perceived lack of benefit. There is a dearth of data from randomized clinical trials addressing device efficacy among older patients; there is a need for more research in this area. However, currently available data support the use of ICDs irrespective of age provided life expectancy exceeds 1 year. Advanced age is independently associated with complications at the time of device placement but not the risk of device infection. The risk of inappropriate shock may be comparable or lower than that of younger patients. While quality of life is generally not adversely impacted by an ICD, a subset of patients experience post-traumatic stress disorder. ICDs are cost-effective from societal and health care sector perspectives; however, out-of-pocket costs vary according to insurance type and level. Shared decision-making encounters may be incremental and iterative in nature. Providers are encouraged to partner with their patients, providing them counsel tailored to their values, preferences, and clinical presentation inclusive of age.

9.
Am Heart J ; 220: 59-67, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a higher prevalence of sudden cardiac death (SCD), black individuals are less likely than whites to have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implanted. Racial differences in ICD utilization is in part explained by higher refusal rates in black individuals. Decision support can assist with treatment-related uncertainty and prepare patients to make well-informed decisions. METHODS: The Videos to reduce racial disparities in ICD therapy Via Innovative Designs (VIVID) study will randomize 350 black individuals with a primary prevention indication for an ICD to a racially concordant/discordant video-based decision support tool or usual care. The composite primary outcome is (1) the decision for ICD placement in the combined video groups compared with usual care and (2) the decision for ICD placement in the racially concordant relative to discordant video group. Additional outcomes include knowledge of ICD therapy and SCD risk; decisional conflict; ICD receipt at 90 days; and a qualitative assessment of ICD decision making in acceptors, decliners, and those undecided. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to assessing the efficacy of decision support on ICD acceptance among black individuals, VIVID will provide insight into the role of racial concordance in medical decision making. Given the similarities in the root causes of racial/ethnic disparities in care across health disciplines, our approach and findings may be generalizable to decision making in other health care settings.

10.
Am Heart J ; 220: 29-40, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765933

RESUMO

Myocarditis is a major cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in young adults. Cardiac magnetic resonance is the established tool for the diagnosis of myocarditis, and late gadolinium enhancement detected on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the strongest independent predictor of SCD, all-cause mortality, and cardiac mortality. Several other factors have been associated with SCD or cardiac transplantation including New York Heart Association functional class III/IV, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction <35%, and right ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. A fragmented QRS and a prolonged QTc interval on an electrocardiogram are predictors of VAs. The postulated mechanism of VA in acute myocarditis is ion channel dysfunction and inflammation that alter intracellular signaling, producing interstitial edema and fibrosis and thereby causing conduction abnormalities. VAs in chronic myocarditis are generally due to scar-mediated reentry. Treatment of myocarditis is tailored toward supportive care and symptomatic relief. The subset of patients who develop DCM should be treated with heart failure medications according to professional guideline recommendations. Indications for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator are similar to those for nonischemic cardiomyopathy; however, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator should be held in the acute phase of myocarditis to allow left ventricular ejection fraction recovery, and a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator may be beneficial for some patients. Antiarrhythmic medications are reserved for patients with symptomatic nonsustained or sustained VAs. Radiofrequency ablation appears to be an effective treatment option for VAs; however, more data on its safety and effectiveness are needed. This review addresses risk factors of SCD and VAs in patients with myocarditis with special emphasis on treatment and prevention of these outcomes.

11.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744331

RESUMO

Catheter ablation has brought major advances in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). As evidenced by multiple randomized trials, AF catheter ablation can reduce the risk of recurrent AF and improve quality of life. In some studies, AF ablation significantly reduced cardiovascular hospitalizations. Despite the existing data on AF catheter ablation, numerous knowledge gaps remain in relation to this intervention. This report is based on a recent virtual workshop convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to identify key research opportunities in AF ablation. We outline knowledge gaps related to emerging technologies, the relationship between cardiac structure and function and the success of AF ablation, patient subgroups in whom clinical benefit from ablation varies, and potential platforms to advance clinical research in this area. This report also considers the potential value and challenges of a sham ablation randomized trial. Prioritized research opportunities are identified and highlighted to empower relevant stakeholders to collaborate in designing and conducting effective, cost-efficient, and transformative research to optimize the use and outcomes of AF ablation.

12.
Am Heart J ; 217: 131-139, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654943

RESUMO

The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) is a completely extrathoracic device that has recently been FDA approved for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in select populations. Although the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (TV-ICD) has a proven mortality benefit in multiple patient populations, there are significant risks both with implantation and years after its placement. The S-ICD may help prevent some of these complications. Currently, the S-ICD is typically implanted in patients with prior device infection or at an increased risk for an infection, younger patients with difficult venous access related to either hemodialysis or difficult cardiac anatomy, patients who live active lifestyles, and those who may outlive the TV-ICD leads. There is an absolute contraindication for S-ICD implantations for patients who need pacing either for ventricular tachycardia or bradycardia because this device cannot perform these functions. To date, there are no randomized controlled trial (RCT) data evaluating the safety and efficacy of this relatively new device. Observational studies of both the S-ICD alone and in comparison with the TV-ICD have showed promising results, including a decrease in lead-related and periprocedural complications as well as a high level of effectiveness at terminating ventricular arrhythmias. These analyses over time may have contributed to the evolution and comfortability with the S-ICD system, as physicians are more often referring for and/or implanting this device for patients with appropriate indications. Furthermore, inappropriate shock rates with the S-ICD have decreased over time especially with dual zone programming. This review summarizes the results of a multitude of observational studies with respect to patient selection for the S-ICD, complication rates, appropriate and inappropriate shock rates, and programming. This review also tackles current ongoing randomized trials. Although the results of ongoing trials will be helpful, there is still a continued need to evaluate the efficacy of the S-ICD in broader patient populations including patients with several comorbidities and older patients so that more patients can be considered for this potentially lifesaving device.

14.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports on the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) cumulatively demonstrate a low rate of complications, but clinical experience with this technology is limited compared with transvenous devices. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze S-ICD complications reported to the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. METHODS: We reviewed all S-ICD events reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience submitted over 24 months (from February 2016 through February 2018) through a prospective and standardized approach at a time when an estimated 15,000 S-ICDs were in service. RESULTS: After removing duplicate entries and nonclinical events (n = 493), 1604 events remained. A total of 542 instances of infection were reported with system removal in 414/542 (77.5%). Inappropriate shocks occurred in 550 patients, and 382 (69%) were attributed to oversensing; in response, 254 (56%), 147 (33%), and 80 (18%) patients underwent system reprogramming, removal, or revision, respectively. There were 15 deaths, and causes included defibrillation failure during follow-up (n = 2), ventricular fibrillation induced by the device (n = 4), device-device interaction resulting in undersensing (n = 1), procedure-related complications (n = 4), and uncertain etiology (n = 4). There were 137 reports of system migration, and in 57 (42%) of these, there were associated inappropriate shocks. System migration events were managed with a combination of system revision (69 [51%]), reprogramming (25 [18%]), and system removal (44 [32%]). CONCLUSION: Several S-ICD complications have been reported that appear to be related to the ICD's design and function over time. A better understanding of these complications may help inform patient selection, implant technique, and postimplantation management.

15.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2420-2426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has mandated the use of shared decision-making (SDM) for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. SDM tools help facilitate quality SDM by presenting patients with balanced evidence-based facts related to risk and benefits. Perceptions of ICD implantation may differ based on patients' sex and race. OBJECTIVE: To determine if and how physicians are incorporating SDM in counseling patients about ICD and if they are aware of sex- and race-based differences in patients' perception of ICDs. METHODS: This was a pilot study involving an online survey targeting attending physicians who implant ICDs. Physicians were randomly selected by a computer-based program; 350 surveys were sent. RESULTS: Of the 124 (35%) respondents to the survey, 102 (84%) met the inclusion criteria, and of those, 99 (97%) were adult electrophysiologists. Most physicians (90, 88%) stated they engaged in SDM during the general consent process. Sixty-three (62%) physicians discuss end of life issues while obtaining general consent. Forty-four (43%) physicians said they use an existing SDM tool with the Colorado SDM tool being the most common (39, 89%). The majority of physicians were unaware of sex- and race-based differences in perceptions related to ICD implantation (sex 64, 63% and race 63, 62%). CONCLUSION: A vast majority of physicians are engaging in SDM; however less than half are using a formal SDM tool, and a minority of physicians were aware of sex- and race-based differences in patients' perception of ICD implantation. Sex- and race-based tools might help address this gap.

16.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(11): 1440-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with medical therapy, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure (HF) improves cardiovascular outcomes. Risk scores (CAAP-AF and APPLE) have been developed to predict the likelihood of AF recurrence after ablation, have not been validated specifically in patients with AF and HF. METHODS: We analyzed baseline characteristics, risk scores, and rates of AF recurrence 12 months postablation in a cohort of 230 consecutive patients with AF and HF undergoing PVI in the Duke Center for Atrial Fibrillation registry from 2009-2013. RESULTS: During a follow-up period of 12 months, 76 of 230 (33%) patients with HF experienced recurrent AF after ablation. The median APPLE and CAAP-AF scores were 1.5 ([Q1, Q3]: [1.0, 2.0]) and 4.0 ([Q1, Q3]: [3.0, 5.0]), respectively and were not different from those patients with and without recurrent AF. Freedom from AF was not different according to APPLE and CAAP-AF scores. Discrimination for recurrent AF with the CAAP-AF score was modest with a C-statistic of 0.60 (95% CI 0.52-0.67). Discrimination with the APPLE score was similarly modest, with a C-statistic of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.47-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Validated predictive risk scores for recurrent AF after catheter ablation exhibit limited predictive ability in cohorts of AF and HF. Additional tools are needed to facilitate risk stratification and patient selection for AF ablation in patients with concomitant HF.

18.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1540-1542, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476898
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1406-1412, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474328

RESUMO

Whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and thyroid disease are clinically distinct from those with AF and no thyroid disease is unknown. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anticoagulation for prevention of AF-related thromboembolic events in patients with thyroid disease has not been adequately studied. Patients enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation, which compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF (n = 18,201), were categorized by thyroid disease history at randomization (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and no thyroid disease). Adjusted hazard ratios derived from Cox models were used to compare outcomes by thyroid disease history. Associations between randomized treatment and outcomes by thyroid disease history were examined using Cox models with interaction terms. A total of 18,021/18,201 (99%) patients had available thyroid disease history at randomization: 1,656 (9%) had hypothyroidism, 321 (2%) had hyperthyroidism, and 16,044 (89%) had no thyroid disease. When compared with those without a history of thyroid disease, patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism were more likely to be female (60.4% vs 32.1%; 52.0% vs 32.1%; both p <0.0001). Patients with hypothyroidism were older (73 vs 70 years, p <0.0001) and more likely to have had previous falls (8.7% vs 4.3%, p <0.0001). There was no difference in clinical outcomes by thyroid disease history. The benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin was similar regardless of thyroid disease history (interaction p >0.10). In conclusion, despite differences in baseline characteristics of patients with and without thyroid disease, their clinical outcomes were similar. The benefit of apixban compared with warfarin was preserved regardless of thyroid disease history.

20.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(9): e007414, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the publication of several randomized clinical trials comparing catheter ablation (CA) with medical therapy (MT) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the superiority of one strategy over another is still questioned by many. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, we compared the efficacy and safety of CA with MT for AF. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other online sources for randomized controlled trials of AF patients that compared CA with MT. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular hospitalizations and recurrence of atrial arrhythmia. Subgroup analyses stratified by the presence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, type of AF, age, and sex were performed. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model, and Mantel-Haenszel method was used to pool RR. RESULTS: Eighteen randomized controlled trials comprising 4464 patients (CA, n=2286; MT, n=2178) were included. CA resulted in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.88; P=0.003) that was driven by patients with AF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.76; P=0.0009). CA resulted in significantly fewer cardiovascular hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81; P=0.002) and fewer recurrences of atrial arrhythmias (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.33-0.53; P<0.00001). Subgroup analyses suggested that younger patients (age, <65 years) and men derived more benefit from CA compared with MT. CONCLUSIONS: CA is associated with all-cause mortality benefit, that is driven by patients with AF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. CA reduces cardiovascular hospitalizations and recurrences of atrial arrhythmia for patients with AF. Younger patients and men appear to derive more benefit from CA.

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