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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arábia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087706

RESUMO

Copper sulfate (CuSO4) as industrial effluent is intentionally or unintentionally released into water bodies and accumulates in the fish. Because of its numerous applications, CuSO4 can be hazardous to non-target creatures, producing direct alterations in fish habitats. Acacetin is a flavonoid present in all vascular plants that are extensively dispersed in plant pigments and responsible for many natural hues. However, the impact of acacetin on mitigating the toxic effect of CuSO4 in the in-vivo conditions is not known. The toxicity of acacetin was determined by measuring the survival, deformities and heart rate after treatment with various concentrations to larvae. The protective effect of acacetin was also observed in CuSO4 exposed zebrafish larvae by reducing malformation, mortality rate and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the acacetin-protected larvae from CuSO4 effects through the molecular mechanism by suppressing pro-inflammatory genes (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1) and upregulating antioxidant genes (GPx, GST and GR). Overall, our findings suggest that acacetin can act as a protective barrier against CuSO4-induced inflammation in an in-vivo zebrafish larval model.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre , Flavonas , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Larva , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Água , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(3): 1559-1564, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280581

RESUMO

The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most widespread viral infections of humans. HBV causes acute and chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis leads to hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a significant cause of death. DNA-based immunization programs to control the spread of Hepatitis B in developing countries are costly and require special storage and transportation. The alternative way is to express Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in plants to develop oral vaccines. In this study, HBsAg gene was isolated, cloned, and then transformed in tomato plants. The transgenic tomato plants were confirmed through RT-qPCR. HBsAg expression was analysed in mature green and red stages of tomato fruit through quantitative real-time PCR. It was observed that expression of HBsAg was high in matured red tomato as compared to mature green. The present study is the first step to developing Solanum lycopersicum as an edible vaccine production system in this world region.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257023, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195173

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Peixes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

RESUMO

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153451

RESUMO

Abstract The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar as variações sazonais de peixes e crustáceos em relação à composição taxonômica, riqueza de espécies e diversidade no habitat de praias arenosas. Para esse fim, investigamos a área da lagoa Sonmiani Hor durante quatro estações distintas, ou seja, monção nordeste (NE), pré-monção, monção sudoeste (SW) e pós-monção, por um ano. Durante cada transporte, a rede foi puxada cerca de 100 m ao longo da praia, a 0,5 m de profundidade. Os resultados mostraram uma forte correlação linear entre o índice de diversidade e a equitabilidade de peixes (r = 0,978). O índice de diversidade apresentou forte correlação negativa com a abundância e a biomassa (r = -0,978 e -0,972, respectivamente). Os atributos físicos, como temperatura da água da superfície do mar e salinidade, apresentaram forte efeito negativo sobre o conjunto de espécies (r = -0,981 e -0,943, respectivamente). A temperatura média do ar e da água teve uma diferença de aproximadamente 3 °C durante a monção NE e a pré-monção. No entanto, salinidade, pH e condutividade elétrica não apresentaram variabilidade sazonal significativa. A respeito dos índices ecológicos, as espécies de peixes apresentaram maior diversidade (H' = 3,19) durante a monção SW, enquanto a menor diversidade observada foi na pré-monção (H' = 1,58). A equitabilidade e a riqueza de espécies, no entanto, permaneceram mais perceptíveis durante a monção SW (J' = 0,81). O número total de peixes e crustáceos foi de 4.799, com 3.813 peixes e 986 crustáceos. Foram registradas 27 famílias de peixes e 5 famílias de crustáceos, com 30 gêneros e 38 espécies de peixes, além de 10 gêneros e 17 espécies de crustáceos. Liza subviridis apresentou a maior abundância entre as espécies de peixes amostradas. Em conclusão, as espécies de peixes constituíram uma parte significativa da fauna costeira na área de estudo. As variações sazonais apresentaram variações distintas na composição e diversidade das espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Biodiversidade , Salinidade
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730605

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Água do Mar
9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5860-5864, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588901

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial contaminant that poses severe threats to human and animal health. Vitexin (VIT) is a polyphenolic flavonoid of characteristic pharmacological properties. We explored the curative role of vitexin on Cd-induced mitochondrial-dysfunction in rat renal tissues. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into four groups and designated as control, Cd, Cd + vitexin and vitexin treated groups. The results showed that Cd exposure increased urea and creatinine levels while decreased creatinine clearance. Cd reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione content in the Cd exposed group. Cd exposure significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in rat kidney. Cd also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the mitochondrial TCA-cycle enzymes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and malate-dehydrogenase activities. Besides, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, including NADH-dehydrogenase, coenzyme Q-cytochrome reductase, succinic-coenzyme Q, and cytochrome c-oxidase activities were also decreased under Cd exposure. Cd exposure also damaged the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, VIT treatment potentially reduced the detrimental effects of Cd in the kidney of rats. In conclusion, our study indicated that the VIT could attenuate the Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(6): 3438-3447, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121882

RESUMO

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight (p < 0.05) were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved (p < 0.05) villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and Escherichia coli in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed Lactobacillus spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105668

RESUMO

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Humanos , Estações do Ano
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(4): 2267-2271, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911941

RESUMO

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in Cirrhinus mrigala. The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC50) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175007

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Fragmentação do DNA , Brânquias
17.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(9): 2403-2409, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884423

RESUMO

Aedes mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, Aedes (Ae.) aegypti larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of Ricinus communis (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). Ae. aegypti larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC50 = 46.22 ppm and LC90 = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.

18.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(10): 2747-2755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994734

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant (p > 0.05) except for decreased cholesterol (p < 0.05) and increased A/G ratio (p < 0.05) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05) as well as reduced caecal and ileal Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria (Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and E. coli) were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.

19.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(2): 713-719, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210693

RESUMO

The study is to scrutinize andrographolides with Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory potential, its molecular mechanism against streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers such as Kynurenine metabolites, retinal histopathological changes have been studied. Further, IDO gene expression and docking studies have been performed. Andrographolide treated rats have been reducing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls Kynurenine metabolites with an improvement in the level of GSH and expression of IDO as revealed by morphological changes in inner and outer nuclear layer of the retina. The current results of this study have been generated information about an activity of the andrographolide in the essential pocket of IDO. Our results explain, involving IDO and andrographolide would constitute an attempt to identify natural products with therapeutic value and further studies in this direction would be of immense significance in the administration of diabetes and its related problems.

20.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(1): 251-260, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889845

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the level of contamination and genotoxic impact through micronucleus assay and histopathology in Wallago attu and Cirrhinus mrigala procured from the polluted site of the River Chenab at industrial and sewage waste disposal. The water sample was found viciously contaminated with heavy metals i.e. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Hg, Zn, Sn, Cu while all other physio-chemical variables crossed the suggested limits of WHO. The heavy metals load induced histopathological alterations were correlated to environmental degradation and the productivity of this biological system. W. attu and C. mrigala harvested from contaminated sites of the river indicated higher intensity of DNA damage through micronucleus induction and nuclear abnormalities with 5.46 ±â€¯0.17, 1.23 ±â€¯0.08 and 4.2 ±â€¯0.11, 0.4 ±â€¯0.04‰ respectively. Muscle sections of W. attu and C. mrigala harvested from the polluted section of river demonstrated the necrosis, degeneration of muscle fibers, intra-fibular edema and release of the blood into the tissues due to the bursting of blocked of the blood vessels. Dermal layers showed degeneration of the collagen bundles those were found loose or collapsed in some regions. Photomicrography also revealed vacuolar degeneration in muscle tissues and atrophy of muscle bundles. Intra fibular edema and splitting of muscle fibers were also seen along with bioaccumulation of toxicants. W. attu showed maximum incidence of alterations with highest histopathological alteration index related to environmental degradation. Control fish samples showed normal muscle tissues with normal equally spaced muscle bundles and myotomes.

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