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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

RESUMO

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153451

RESUMO

Abstract The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar as variações sazonais de peixes e crustáceos em relação à composição taxonômica, riqueza de espécies e diversidade no habitat de praias arenosas. Para esse fim, investigamos a área da lagoa Sonmiani Hor durante quatro estações distintas, ou seja, monção nordeste (NE), pré-monção, monção sudoeste (SW) e pós-monção, por um ano. Durante cada transporte, a rede foi puxada cerca de 100 m ao longo da praia, a 0,5 m de profundidade. Os resultados mostraram uma forte correlação linear entre o índice de diversidade e a equitabilidade de peixes (r = 0,978). O índice de diversidade apresentou forte correlação negativa com a abundância e a biomassa (r = -0,978 e -0,972, respectivamente). Os atributos físicos, como temperatura da água da superfície do mar e salinidade, apresentaram forte efeito negativo sobre o conjunto de espécies (r = -0,981 e -0,943, respectivamente). A temperatura média do ar e da água teve uma diferença de aproximadamente 3 °C durante a monção NE e a pré-monção. No entanto, salinidade, pH e condutividade elétrica não apresentaram variabilidade sazonal significativa. A respeito dos índices ecológicos, as espécies de peixes apresentaram maior diversidade (H' = 3,19) durante a monção SW, enquanto a menor diversidade observada foi na pré-monção (H' = 1,58). A equitabilidade e a riqueza de espécies, no entanto, permaneceram mais perceptíveis durante a monção SW (J' = 0,81). O número total de peixes e crustáceos foi de 4.799, com 3.813 peixes e 986 crustáceos. Foram registradas 27 famílias de peixes e 5 famílias de crustáceos, com 30 gêneros e 38 espécies de peixes, além de 10 gêneros e 17 espécies de crustáceos. Liza subviridis apresentou a maior abundância entre as espécies de peixes amostradas. Em conclusão, as espécies de peixes constituíram uma parte significativa da fauna costeira na área de estudo. As variações sazonais apresentaram variações distintas na composição e diversidade das espécies de peixes.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105668

RESUMO

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Humanos , Estações do Ano
6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175007

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.

8.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(9): 2403-2409, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884423

RESUMO

Aedes mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, Aedes (Ae.) aegypti larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of Ricinus communis (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). Ae. aegypti larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC50 = 46.22 ppm and LC90 = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.

9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(10): 2747-2755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994734

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant (p > 0.05) except for decreased cholesterol (p < 0.05) and increased A/G ratio (p < 0.05) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05) as well as reduced caecal and ileal Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria (Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and E. coli) were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.

10.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(2): 713-719, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210693

RESUMO

The study is to scrutinize andrographolides with Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory potential, its molecular mechanism against streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers such as Kynurenine metabolites, retinal histopathological changes have been studied. Further, IDO gene expression and docking studies have been performed. Andrographolide treated rats have been reducing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls Kynurenine metabolites with an improvement in the level of GSH and expression of IDO as revealed by morphological changes in inner and outer nuclear layer of the retina. The current results of this study have been generated information about an activity of the andrographolide in the essential pocket of IDO. Our results explain, involving IDO and andrographolide would constitute an attempt to identify natural products with therapeutic value and further studies in this direction would be of immense significance in the administration of diabetes and its related problems.

11.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(1): 251-260, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889845

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the level of contamination and genotoxic impact through micronucleus assay and histopathology in Wallago attu and Cirrhinus mrigala procured from the polluted site of the River Chenab at industrial and sewage waste disposal. The water sample was found viciously contaminated with heavy metals i.e. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Hg, Zn, Sn, Cu while all other physio-chemical variables crossed the suggested limits of WHO. The heavy metals load induced histopathological alterations were correlated to environmental degradation and the productivity of this biological system. W. attu and C. mrigala harvested from contaminated sites of the river indicated higher intensity of DNA damage through micronucleus induction and nuclear abnormalities with 5.46 ±â€¯0.17, 1.23 ±â€¯0.08 and 4.2 ±â€¯0.11, 0.4 ±â€¯0.04‰ respectively. Muscle sections of W. attu and C. mrigala harvested from the polluted section of river demonstrated the necrosis, degeneration of muscle fibers, intra-fibular edema and release of the blood into the tissues due to the bursting of blocked of the blood vessels. Dermal layers showed degeneration of the collagen bundles those were found loose or collapsed in some regions. Photomicrography also revealed vacuolar degeneration in muscle tissues and atrophy of muscle bundles. Intra fibular edema and splitting of muscle fibers were also seen along with bioaccumulation of toxicants. W. attu showed maximum incidence of alterations with highest histopathological alteration index related to environmental degradation. Control fish samples showed normal muscle tissues with normal equally spaced muscle bundles and myotomes.

12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(1): 335-340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889855

RESUMO

The study was implemented to actuate the qualitative and quantitative phyto constituents of Iresine herbstii extracts and its antiviral efficacy against avian ND virus. Among four tested solvents, the ethanolic extract of Iresine herbstii revealed the presence of highest quantity of all tested phytochemicals while petroleum ether extract showed the least. Folin-Ciocalteu method assessed the range of TPC extended from 81.01 ±â€¯0.67 to 126.35 ±â€¯0.45 µg GAE/mg. Acetonic extract showed the highest amount among all extracts and petroleum ether possessed the lower quantity. TFC ranged from 54.37 ±â€¯0.45 to 88.12 ±â€¯0.26 µg QE/mg followed by colorimetric method. From all extract ethanolic extract showed highest quantity and petroleum ether revealed the lower. HPLC analysis of ethanolic extract of I. herbstii confesses the presence six bioactive components by using the HP5-MS column. To check the antiviral potential of plants, different prepared treatments of plant extract and live virus were inoculated at 9 days old SPF embryonated chicken eggs. Results exposed that all plant extracts produce antiviral activity against NDV in ovo according to their potential and phytochemical profile. The highest survival rate was observed in the ethanolic extract at 400 µg/mL and acetonic extract at 300 µg/mL as it controls the NDV activity completely, evidence of absence of embryo death and HA titre. Dichloromethane and petroleum ether could not inhibit the virus completely. 600 µg/mL concentration was proved as toxic in all extracts except petroleum ether extract which showed a dose dependent pattern.

13.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(1): 441-447, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889868

RESUMO

Extensive application of pesticide in agricultural field affects the enzymatic activity of non-target animals, including fishes. In this study, the impact of sublethal concentration of fenvalerate on marker enzymes of freshwater Zebra fish was evaluated. Pesticide-induced stress can specifically affect non target fishes, through elevated level of reactive oxygen species which is responsible for biochemical, cell metabolism and physiological activities. The oxidative stress mediated by fenvalerate at sub lethal concentrations after 28 days of exposure of Zebra fish. Following 28 days of exposure of pesticide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, aspartate amino transferases, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were assessed. Results revealed reduction of superoxide dismutase activity after 28 days of exposure in sub lethal concentration of fenvalerate in liver and gills. In liver, catalase activity was found to be less in fenvalerate exposed fish than control fish. In liver, increase of 75.75% aspartate amino transferase and 38% increase in alanine amino transferase in gills. SGPT activity was relatively higher than SGOT suggests more contribution of phyruvalate than oxaloacetate formation. Fenvalerate induced changes in acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and gills of Zebra fish after four weeks of exposure. Fenvalerate induced expression of various stress proteins in gill, liver, followed by muscle. Some proteins lost its intensity due to fenvalerate toxicity. Result revealed that enzyme assays and SDS-PAGE analysis for protein subunits determination is relevant tool to monitor stress in freshwater ecosystem. The findings suggest that in monitoring fenvalerate toxicity programme, enzyme activities can be potent diagnostic tool for fenvalerate induced toxicity.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 823-828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778486

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brânquias , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 651-658, Nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001484

RESUMO

Abstract The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Resumo A avaliação organoléptica e a análise aproximada de Clarias gariepinus e Cyprinus carpio foram determinadas em peixe fresco e refrigerado a duas temperaturas diferentes (-21 °C e 4 °C) por um período de seis semanas. Um painel de doze juízes treinados avaliou a cor (ao vivo), textura, maciez e sabor da carne de peixe após dois minutos de cozimento a vapor. O escore médio revelou um declínio geral nas propriedades organolépticas, como cor, textura, frescor e sabor de C. gariepinus e C. carpio armazenados a duas temperaturas em comparação com o peixe fresco. A análise imediata revelou uma maior diminuição nos teores de proteína bruta e lipídios e aumento no teor de cinzas em C. gariepinus e C. carpio nas duas temperaturas de armazenamento em comparação com o músculo do peixe fresco. O teor de umidade diminuiu nas amostras de músculo de peixe de ambas as espécies de peixes armazenadas a -21 °C, mas aumentou nas amostras armazenadas a 4 °C. O pH dos peixes aumentou nas duas temperaturas armazenadas. Houve diferenças significativas (P <0,05) na composição organoléptica e próxima do gelo armazenado e fresco C. gariepinus e C. carpio, a mesma temperatura e entre as duas temperaturas diferentes. A qualidade do músculo do peixe armazenado a 4 °C deteriorou-se mais rapidamente do que a temperatura de -21 °C. Assim, a temperatura e duração do armazenamento têm efeitos adversos na qualidade nutricional da carne de peixe.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato , Carpas , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Refrigeração/normas , Temperatura Baixa , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Carne/análise , Carne/normas
16.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 26(2): 363-367, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485178

RESUMO

Genetic variation in fish stocks decreasing due to water pollution in the freshwater rivers, streams and canals. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and polymorphism in Oreochromis niloticus collected from the Wadi Hanefah Riyadh, Saudi Arabia by using RAPD-PCR. Total thirty fish specimens were harvested from each of four pre-determined locations of the reservoir which were designated as H1, H2, H3, and H4. Five random decamer primers were used to assess the diversity in the stock of O. niloticus. In this fish stock 48 bands were polymorphic and 12 were monomorphic. The maximum polymorphism (100%) was recorded in the fish samples procured from H4, followed by 88.75, 87.33 and 76.12% of the tilapia collected from H3, H2, and H4, respectively. Nei's genetic distance value was ranged as 0.0005 to 0.1006. Maximum and minimum genetic distance was recorded as 0.1006 and 0.005 in tilapia harvested from H1 and H2 locations. Average heterozygosity was ranged from 0.3009 to 0.3744. This information about the genetic polymorphism of O. niloticus may be used by the concerned authorities to evolve strategies to conserve the diversity of tilapia in the country.

17.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(2): 275-281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nanoparticles (NPs) have become very important owing to their various uses. In this research, an environmentally friendly biological technique was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles with Coriandrum sativum L. The objective of this research to use the source for the fabrication of silver NPs from C. sativum L., and to check the activity of the fabricated silver NPs was determined versus a couple of gram negative and a couple of gram positive bacteria in the presence of antibiotic viz. gentamicin to judge their impact. METHODOLOGY: A silver nitrate solution, which served as the reducing and capping agent, was mingled with coriander leaf extract. The solution's temperature and pH were maintained at 75°C and 8.6, respectively. The observed mean particle size (z-average) and polydispersity index were 390.2nm and 0.452, respectively. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using different techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) analysis. The globular shape of the silver nanoparticles was depicted in SEM illustrations. RESULTS: XRD data revealed the mean size of the particles was 11.9nm. The FTIR analysis showed the existence of various functional groups, including CO and OH. When their antibacterial ability was tested, it was found that the fabricated Ag NPs inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Pasteurella multocida, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, with a greater effect against B. subtilis and P. multocida compared to E. aerogenes and S. aureus. CONCLUSION: It has been concluded small silver NPs benefited from a higher surface area ratio, as shown by the results of experiments where smaller particles had a better bactericidal proficiency than large silver-based NPs. Silver-based NPs infiltrate bacterial cells, as well as interfere with their exterior membrane. Silver ions also have the potential to interact with bacterial DNA, inhibiting the reproductive system of the cell.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Coriandrum/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Prata/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
18.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 651-658, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379239

RESUMO

The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Assuntos
Carpas , Peixes-Gato , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Carne/análise , Carne/normas , Refrigeração/normas
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(3): 81, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25655128

RESUMO

A study of the levels of six pesticide residues (endosulfan, carbofuran, cypermethrin, profenofos, triazophos, and deltamethrin) was conducted to determine possible environmental and health risks in surface waters, sediment, and fish Catla catla. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The total concentration of pesticides in water, sediment, and fish ranged from 0.005 to 3.17 µg/l, 0.61 to 23.06 ng/g dry weight, and 0.35 to 19.15 µg/g lipid-normalized units, respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, endosulfan and profenofos were the most dominant pesticides recorded in fish tissue and sediment samples. Profenofos and cypermethrin, meanwhile, were the most abundant pesticides recorded in water samples at these sites. Cypermethrin and triazophos were not detected in the sediment samples. The concentration of endosulfan, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were higher than the permissible limits for fish set by international agencies and pose a potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem and a consequent hazard to human health.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ecossistema , Endossulfano/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Risco , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
J Cell Biochem ; 115(12): 2077-88, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25043709

RESUMO

Besides cytological and molecular applications, Paramecium is being used in water quality assessment and for determination of saprobic levels. An unambiguous identification of these unicellular eukaryotes is not only essential, but its ecological diversity must also be explored in the local environment. 18SrRNA genes of all the strains of Paramecium species isolated from waste water were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison of the nucleotide sequences of these strains with 23 closely related Paramecium species from GenBank Database enabled identification of Paramecium multimicronucleatum and Paramecium jenningsi. Some isolates did not show significant close association with other Paramecium species, and because of their unique position in the phylogenetic tree, they were considered new to the field. In the present report, these isolates are being designated as Paramecium caudatum pakistanicus. In this article, secondary structure of 18SrRNA has also been analyzed as an additional and perhaps more reliable topological marker for species discrimination and for determining possible phylogenetic relationship between the ciliate species. On the basis of comparison of secondary structure of 18SrRNA of various isolated Paramacium strains, and among Paramecium caudatum pakistanicus, Tetrahymena thermophila, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens, it can be deduced that variable regions are more helpful in differentiating the species at interspecific level rather than at intraspecific level. It was concluded that V3 was the least variable region in all the organisms, V2 and V7 were the longest expansion segments of D. melanogaster and there was continuous mutational bias towards G.C base pairing in H. sapiens.


Assuntos
Paramecium caudatum/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Genes de Protozoários , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Tipagem Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Paramecium caudatum/classificação , Paramecium caudatum/citologia , Filogenia
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