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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1103-1110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined immunodeficiency (CID), due to mutations in TFRC gene that encodes the transferrin receptors (TfR1), is a rare monogenic disorder. In this study, we further characterize the clinical and immunological phenotypes in a cohort of eight patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical and immunological features of patients diagnosed with a TFRC gene mutation between 2015 and 2019 in three tertiary centers. RESULTS: Eight patients from six unrelated families were enrolled. The patients had a median age of 7 years (4-32 years). All patients presented with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic diarrhea, and failure to thrive in early life. Less common features were skin abscesses, conjunctivitis, global developmental delay, optic nerve atrophy, vitiligo, multinodular goiter, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like symptoms. All patients had intermittent neutropenia and 87% of the patients had recurrent thrombocytopenia. Anemia was found in 62%. All patients had hypogammaglobinemia and one had a persistent high IgM level. All patients had impaired function of T cells. The same homozygous missense mutation c.58T>C:p.Y20H, in the TFRC gene, was detected in all patients. Stem cell transplantation from matched donors was successful in two patients. Five patients did not receive stem cell transplantation, and they are on prophylactic treatment. One patient died due to severe sepsis and neurological complications. CONCLUSION: This report provides a large cohort with a long follow up of patients with this disease. Our cohort showed variable disease severity.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117824

RESUMO

Background: Inhibitor of kappa kinase 2 (IKK2) deficiency is a recently described combined immunodeficiency. It undermines the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation pathway. Methods: The clinical and immunological data of four patients diagnosed with combined immunodeficiency (CID) from two related Saudi families were collected. Autozygosity mapping of all available members and whole exome sequencing of the index case were performed to define the genetic etiology. Results: The patients had early onset (2-4 months of age) severe infections caused by viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. They all had hypogammaglobulinemia and low absolute lymphocyte count. Their lymphocytes failed to respond to PHA mitogen stimulation. A novel homozygous non-sense mutation in the IKBKB gene, c.850C>T (p. Arg284*) was identified in the index patient and segregated with the disease in the rest of the family. He underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a fully matched sibling with no conditioning. The other three patients succumbed to their disease. Interestingly, all patients had delayed umbilical cord separation. Conclusion: IKK2 deficiency causes CID with high mortality. Immune reconstitution with HSCT should be considered as early as possible. Delayed umbilical cord separation in CID patients may be a clue to IKK2 deficiency.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111619

RESUMO

We investigated the molecular and cellular basis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in six patients with otofaciocervical syndrome type 2 who failed to attain T cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite successful engraftment in three of them. We identified rare biallelic PAX1 rare variants in all patients. We demonstrated that these mutant PAX1 proteins have an altered conformation and flexibility of the paired box domain and reduced transcriptional activity. We generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated them into thymic epithelial progenitor cells and found that they have an altered transcriptional profile, including for genes involved in the development of the thymus and other tissues derived from pharyngeal pouches. These results identify biallelic, loss-of-function PAX1 mutations as the cause of a syndromic form of SCID due to altered thymus development.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/genética , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/imunologia , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/patologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Timo/patologia
5.
Blood ; 135(12): 954-973, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932845

RESUMO

MHC class II deficiency is a rare, but life-threatening, primary combined immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curative treatment for this condition, but transplant survival in the previously published result was poor. We analyzed the outcome of 25 patients with MHC class II deficiency undergoing first HCT at Great North Children's Hospital between 1995 and 2018. Median age at diagnosis was 6.5 months (birth to 7.5 years). Median age at transplant was 21.4 months (0.1-7.8 years). Donors were matched family donors (MFDs; n = 6), unrelated donors (UDs; n = 12), and haploidentical donors (HIDs; n = 7). Peripheral blood stem cells were the stem cell source in 68% of patients. Conditioning was treosulfanbased in 84% of patients; 84% received alemtuzumab (n = 14) or anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 8) as serotherapy. With a 2.9-year median follow-up, OS improved from 33% (46-68%) for HCT before 2008 (n = 6) to 94% (66-99%) for HCT after 2008 (n = 19; P = .003). For HCT after 2008, OS according to donor was 100% for MFDs and UDs and 85% for HIDs (P = .40). None had grade III-IV acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Latest median donor myeloid and lymphocyte chimerism were 100% (range, 0-100) and 100% (range, 64-100), respectively. Latest CD4+ T-lymphocyte number was significantly lower in transplant survivors (n = 14) compared with posttransplant disease controls (P = .01). All survivors were off immunoglobulin replacement and had protective vaccine responses to tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae. None had any significant infection or autoimmunity. Changing transplant strategy in Great North Children's Hospital has significantly improved outcomes for MHC class II deficiency.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prognóstico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doadores não Relacionados
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 192-202, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene AK2 encodes the phosphotransferase adenylate kinase 2 (AK2). Human variants in AK2 cause reticular dysgenesis, a severe combined immunodeficiency with agranulocytosis, lymphopenia, and sensorineural deafness that requires hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for survival. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the mechanisms underlying recurrent sinopulmonary infections and hypogammaglobulinemia in 15 patients, ranging from 3 to 34 years of age, from 9 kindreds. Only 2 patients, both of whom had mildly impaired T-cell proliferation, each had a single clinically significant opportunistic infection. METHODS: Patient cells were studied with next-generation DNA sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry, and assays of lymphocyte and mitochondrial function. RESULTS: We identified 2 different homozygous variants in AK2. AK2G100S and AK2A182D permit residual protein expression, enzymatic activity, and normal numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes. All but 1 patient had intact hearing. The patients' B cells had severely impaired proliferation and in vitro immunoglobulin secretion. With activation, the patients' B cells exhibited defective mitochondrial respiration and impaired regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and quality. Although activated T cells from the patients with opportunistic infections demonstrated impaired mitochondrial function, the mitochondrial quality in T cells was preserved. Consistent with the capacity of activated T cells to utilize nonmitochondrial metabolism, these findings revealed a less strict cellular dependence of T-cell function on AK2 activity. Chemical inhibition of ATP synthesis in control T and B cells similarly demonstrated the greater dependency of B cells on mitochondrial function. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients demonstrate the in vivo sequelae of the cell-specific requirements for the functions of AK2 and mitochondria, particularly in B-cell activation and antibody production.

7.
Metabolites ; 9(11)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718082

RESUMO

Bi-allelic mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) are responsible for a rare autosomal recessive primary combined immunodeficiency syndrome, characterized by atopic dermatitis, elevated serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, recurrent severe cutaneous viral infections, autoimmunity, and predisposition to malignancy. The molecular link between DOCK8 deficiency and atopic skin inflammation remains unknown. Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and DOCK8 deficiency share some clinical symptoms, including eczema, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE levels. Increased serum IgE levels are characteristic of, but not specific to allergic diseases. Herein, we aimed to study the metabolomic profiles of DOCK8-deficient and AD patients for potential disease-specific biomarkers using chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS). Serum samples were collected from DOCK8-deficient (n = 10) and AD (n = 9) patients. Metabolomics profiling using CIL LC-MS was performed on patient samples and compared to unrelated healthy controls (n = 33). Seven metabolites were positively identified, distinguishing DOCK8-deficient from AD patients. Aspartic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid (3HAA, a tryptophan degradation pathway intermediate) were up-regulated in DOCK8 deficiency, whereas hypotaurine, leucyl-phenylalanine, glycyl-phenylalanine, and guanosine were down-regulated. Hypotaurine, 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid, and glycyl-phenyalanine were identified as potential biomarkers specific to DOCK8 deficiency. Aspartate availability has been recently implicated as a limiting metabolite for tumour growth and 3HAA; furthermore, other tryptophan metabolism pathway-related molecules have been considered as potential novel targets for cancer therapy. Taken together, perturbations in tryptophan degradation and increased availability of aspartate suggest a link of DOCK8 deficiency to oncogenesis. Additionally, perturbations in taurine and dipeptides metabolism suggest altered antixidation and cell signaling states in DOCK8 deficiency. Further studies examining the mechanisms underlying these observations are necessary.

8.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1311-1327, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040185

RESUMO

Interleukin-2, which conveys essential signals for immunity, operates through a heterotrimeric receptor. Here we identify human interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) ß chain (IL2RB) gene defects as a cause of life-threatening immune dysregulation. We report three homozygous mutations in the IL2RB gene of eight individuals from four consanguineous families that cause disease by distinct mechanisms. Nearly all patients presented with autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, bowel inflammation, dermatological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and cytomegalovirus disease. Patient T lymphocytes lacked surface expression of IL-2Rß and were unable to respond to IL-2 stimulation. By contrast, natural killer cells retained partial IL-2Rß expression and function. IL-2Rß loss of function was recapitulated in a recombinant system in which IL2RB mutations caused reduced surface expression and IL-2 binding. Stem cell transplant ameliorated clinical symptoms in one patient; forced expression of wild-type IL-2Rß also increased the IL-2 responsiveness of patient T lymphocytes in vitro. Insights from these patients can inform the development of IL-2-based therapeutics for immunological diseases and cancer.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Imunidade/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Mutação/genética , Alelos , Autoimunidade/genética , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Lentivirus/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 414-420, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the limiting factors for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is graft versus host disease (GVHD). The EBMT/ESID guidelines for HSCT in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recommend no GVHD prophylaxis for a matched sibling donor (MSD). OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of GVHD in MSD HSCT for SCID patients compared to matched related donor (MRD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compares MSD with MRD and the outcome of GVHD in all SCID patients who underwent HSCT between 1993 and 2013. All statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS statistics software. RESULTS: One hundred forty-five SCID patients underwent 152 HSCTs while 82 (54%) received GVHD prophylaxis. GVHD occurred in 48 patients (31.5%); 20/48 (42%) had GVHD prophylaxis compared to 28/48 (58%) that did not, P = 0.022. Acute GVHD occurred at a higher trend in MSD, 37/120 (30.8%), compared to MRD, 6/32 (18.8%), P = 0.17. We also analyzed the outcome according to the period of HSCT. The first period was 1993 to 2003, 48 HSCTs, 43 MSD, 5 MRD; all patients had GVHD prophylaxis, and there was no difference in GVHD. The second period was 2004 to 2013: of 104 HSCTs, 77 had MSD and 27 had MRD; GVHD prophylaxis was used in 22.1% of MSD and 63% of MRD, P = 0.000. GVHD was significantly higher in the MSD (40.2%) compared to MRD (18.5%) patients, P = 0.041. CONCLUSION: GVHD prophylaxis in MSD transplant should be considered in SCID patients.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

12.
Allergy ; 74(2): 370-379, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are a clinically overlapping, heterogeneous group of inborn errors of immunity characterized by elevated serum IgE level, eosinophilia, atopy, and immune dysregulation. Deficiency of DOCK8 protein is potentially a life-threatening autosomal recessive HIES and only curable with bone marrow transplantation. Hence, the diagnosis of DOCK8 deficiency is critical and should be sought at an early stage to initiate definitive therapy. METHODS: Serum samples from patients with DOCK8 deficiency and atopic dermatitis were profiled on a cytokine/chemokine panel for potential differential expression. RESULTS: CXCL10 and TNF-A were upregulated in DOCK8 patients when compared to AD, possibly contributing toward increased susceptibility to infections and cancer. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was significantly downregulated in a subgroup of DOCK8-deficient and AD patients, while IL-31 expression was comparable between both DOCK8-deficient and AD cohorts, possibly contributing toward pruritus seen in both groups. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive cytokine profile in HIES patients reveals distinctive biomarkers that differentiate between the DOCK8-deficient and AD patients. The unique expression profile of various inflammatory cytokines in patients with DOCK8 deficiency vs atopic dermatitis likely reflects disease-specific perturbations in multiple cellular processes and pathways leading to a predisposition to infections and allergies seen in these patients. These data agree with the role for EGF replacement therapy in EGF-deficient individuals with AD as well as DOCK8 deficiency through a potential shared pathway. In addition, these novel biomarkers may be potentially useful in distinguishing DOCK8 deficiency from AD allowing early-targeted treatment options.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 117: 613-619, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005381

RESUMO

Multiplexed biosensors hold great promise for early diagnosis of diseases where the detection of multiple biomarkers is required. Hyper Immunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with mutations either in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), dedicator of cytokinesis 8 DOCK8) or phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) genes. Yet, the diagnosis of HIES is challenged by the complexity of the existing laboratory assays. Here, we report for the first time the development of a multiplexed electrochemical immunosensor for the simultaneous detection of DOCK8, STAT3 and PGM3 proteins. The immunosensor was constructed on carbon array electrodes that were first modified by electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The array electrodes were then used to immobilize specific antibodies for the three proteins after the functionalization of the electrodes with cysteamine/glutaraldehyde linkers. The simultaneous detection of the DOCK8, PGM3 and STAT3 proteins was successfully realized by the immunosensor with respective limits of detections of 3.1, 2.2 and 3.5 pg/ml. The immunosensor has shown good sensitivity as well as selectivity against other proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Moreover, the immunosensor was successfully applied in human serum samples showing capability to distinguish the HIES from the control samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Ouro/química , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fosfoglucomutase/sangue , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/sangue
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 782, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713328

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) copy number analysis is an efficient tool for population-based newborn screening (NBS) for SCID and other T cell lymphopenias. We sought to assess the incidence of SCID among Saudi newborn population and examine the feasibility of using targeted next generation sequencing PID gene panel (T-NGS PID) on DNA isolated from dried blood spots (DBSs) in routine NBS programs as a mutation screening tool for samples with low TREC count. Punches from 8,718 DBS collected on Guthrie cards were processed anonymously for the TREC assay. DNA was extracted from samples with confirmed low TREC count, then screened for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by real-time polymerase chain reaction and for mutations in PID-related genes by T-NGS PID panel. Detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Sixteen out of the 8,718 samples were confirmed to have low TREC copy number. Autosomal recessive mutations in AK2, JAK3, and MTHFD1 were confirmed in three samples. Two additional samples were positive for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. In this study, we provide evidence for high incidence of SCID among Saudi population (1/2,906 live births) and demonstrate the feasibility of using T-NGS PID panel on DNA extracted from DBSs as a new reliable, rapid, and cost-effective mutation screening method for newborns with low TREC assay, which can be implemented as part of NBS programs for SCID.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 278-282, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing congenitally affected individuals to diseases caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains and environmental mycobacteria. IL-12p40 deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD resulting in impaired IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity. Most of the reported patients with IL-12p40 deficiency originate from Saudi Arabia (30 of 52) and carry the recurrent IL12B mutation c.315insA (27 of 30). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on three patients from two unrelated kindreds from Saudi Arabia with disseminated disease caused by a BCG vaccine substrain. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation, p.W60X, in exon 3 of the IL12B gene, resulting in complete IL12p40 deficiency. This mutation is recurrent due to a new founder effect. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides evidence for a second founder effect for recurrent mutations of IL12B in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/terapia , Linhagem , Arábia Saudita , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 203, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479355

RESUMO

Combined immunodeficiencies are a heterogeneous collection of primary immune disorders that exhibit defects in T cell development or function, along with impaired B cell activity even in light of normal B cell maturation. CARMIL2 (RLTPR) is a protein involved in cytoskeletal organization and cell migration, which also plays a role in CD28 co-signaling of T cells. Mutations in this protein have recently been reported to cause a novel primary immunodeficiency disorder with variable phenotypic presentations. Here, we describe seven patients from three unrelated, consanguineous multiplex families that presented with dermatitis, esophagitis, and recurrent skin and chest infections with evidence of combined immunodeficiency. Through the use of whole exome sequencing and autozygome-guided analysis, we uncovered two mutations not previously reported (p.R50T and p.L846Sfs) in CARMIL2. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the biallelic frameshift mutation is under negative selection, likely due to nonsense-mediated RNA decay and leading to loss of detectable protein upon immunoblotting. Protein loss was also observed for the missense mutation, and 3D modeling suggested a disturbance in structural stability due to an increase in the electrostatic energy for the affected amino acid and surrounding residues. Immunophenotyping revealed that patient Treg counts were significantly depressed, and that CD4+ T cells were heavily skewed towards the naïve status. CD3/CD28 signaling impairment was evidenced by reduced proliferative response to stimulation. This work broadens the allelic heterogeneity associated with CARMIL2 and highlights a deleterious missense alteration located outside the leucine-rich repeat of the protein, where all other missense mutations have been reported to date.


Assuntos
Dermatite/genética , Esofagite/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite/imunologia , Esofagite/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Arábia Saudita , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Tunis Med ; 96(10-11): 672-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDs) is a set of 330 rare hereditary diseases that increase susceptibility to infections, allergies, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. North American registries give higher prevalence than Maghreb ones, whereas consanguinity is high. The purpose of this study is to compare prevalence and coverage rate of Maghreb PID registries with estimates based on USA. METHODS: We searched the prevalence of PIDs in the Maghreb registers. Next, we estimated the expected values based on recent publications. Finally, we calculated the coverage rate of the Maghreb registries compared to the new estimates and we evaluated the impact of consanguinity. RESULTS: The total number is N1 = 2456 patients. The current Maghreb PID Prevalence is 2.56 / 100,000 inhabitants (population of 94,804,694 Million in 2017). Tunisia leads with a prevalence of 8.70 followed by Morocco 2.09, Libya 1.65 and Algeria 1.46/100.000 habitants. We did not find values for Mauritania. If we extrapolate the prevalence of the USA to the Maghreb population, the number of patients in the Maghreb would be N2 = 27,588 and the coverage rate (N1 / N2) would be 8.90%. This low coverage rate is however better than the World average (1.21%), that of Latin America 1.19% and Africa 0.36%. The Maghreb prevalence is close to that of the Arab world 2.04 / 100,000 (population of 391,449,544 in 2017). Using the incidence found in the USA, the number of patients would be 9765 new patients per year in the Maghreb and 40,319 in Arab countries. CONCLUSION: PID Maghreb patients number is very low compared to global estimates, whereas consanguinity is very high. Special attention should be given to PIDs by governments and research teams in this region.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto/normas , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 21(1): 208-213, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and genetic features of the first cases of chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome in an Arab population and to compare them with patients of C1q deficient systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of patients with CANDLE syndrome and C1q deficient SLE seen at a single tertiary hospital. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical and laboratory features, histopathology and imaging findings, and response to therapeutic intervention. Descriptive data were summarized. RESULTS: Three patients from unrelated families fulfilled the clinical manifestations of CANDLE syndrome. The disease onset was within the first 4 months of age. Two patients had uncommon features including uveitis, pulmonary involvement, aseptic meningitis and global delay. Skin biopsy showed heterogeneous findings. Genomic DNA screening was homozygous for mutation in PSMB8, (NM_004159.4:c.212C>T, p.T71M) in one patient and inconclusive for the other two patients. The comparison group was three patients with familial C1q deficient SLE from three unrelated families, who were born to consanguineous parents with at least one affected sibling. They presented with extensive mucocutaneous lesions, discoid rash and scarring alopecia. They required frequent admissions due to infections. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of CANDLE syndrome in an Arab population; our patients had heterogeneous phenotypic and genetic features with overlap manifestations with C1q deficient SLE. Both are monogenic interferonopathies. However, C1q deficient SLE had more systemic inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q/genética , Lipodistrofia/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Síndrome de Sweet/genética , Adolescente , Árabes/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complemento C1q/deficiência , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lipodistrofia/diagnóstico , Lipodistrofia/etnologia , Lipodistrofia/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sweet/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sweet/etnologia , Síndrome de Sweet/imunologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(6): 575-581, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-homologous end joining gene 1 (NHEJ1) defect is a rare form of primary immune deficiency. Very few cases have been described from around the world. PURPOSE: We are reporting the first family from the Arabian Gulf with three siblings presenting with combined immunodeficiency (CID), microcephaly, and growth retardation due to a novel NHEJ1 splice site mutation, in addition to a review of the previously published literature on this subject. METHODS: Patients' clinical, immunological, and laboratory features were examined. Samples were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The pathogenic change in NHEJ1 was confirmed by Sanger sequencing, then further assessed at the RNA and protein levels. RESULTS: Patients were found to have a homozygous splice site mutation immediately downstream of exon 3 in NHEJ1 (c.390 + 1G > C). This led to two distinct mRNA products, one of which demonstrated skipping of the last 69 basepairs (bp) of exon 3 while the other showed complete skipping of the entire exon. Although both deletions were in-frame, immunoblotting did not reveal any NHEJ1 protein products in patient cells, indicating a null phenotype. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with CID, microcephaly, and growth retardation should be screened for NHEJ1 gene mutations. We discuss our data in the context of one of our patients who is still alive at the age of 30 years, without transplantation, and who is the longest known survivor of this disease.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Criança , Família , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Irmãos
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