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1.
Vet World ; 12(5): 706-712, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327908

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is reported in Iraq since 1937 and occurs as a devastating seasonal epidemic. This study intended to explore the epidemiology of FMD in Iraq during 2011-2016, through assessment of outbreak reports among cow, buffalo, and small ruminants (sheep and goat) in 15 Iraqi governorates except for Kurdistan region. Materials and Methods: The reported data regarding FMD cases were collected from veterinary hospitals in 15 Iraqi governorates and were analyzed. Results: The results revealed annual FMD outbreaks in cow, buffalo, and small ruminants in Iraqi governorates with variability in the numbers of the infected and dead animals. The total number of infected animals increased in 2016 compared to 2015 due to the illegal importation of FMD-infected cows at the end of 2015. The prevalence rates of FMD were 68.7%, 46.6%, and 30.3% in cattle, buffalo, and small ruminants, respectively, in 2016, while this was 18.4%, 19.9%, and 17.3%, respectively, in 2015. Conclusion: This study approved the reemergence and endemic nature of FMD in Iraqi livestock. Prompt procedures and a new future strategy need to be implemented to control the increasing incidences of FMD in Iraq.

2.
Vet World ; 12(1): 119-125, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936664

RESUMO

Aim: Rats are accused in disseminating many zoonotic diseases. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria from internal organs of rats captured in Baghdad City, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 black rats (R. rattus) were trapped from different areas in Baghdad city. Rats were kept in individual plastic cages for 3 h before euthanizing. Deep pharyngeal swab, intestinal content, urine, and pieces of the liver and spleen, lung, kidney, and brain were obtained aseptically. The specimens were inoculated into peptone water and incubated at 37°C for 24 h for enrichment. A loopful of each specimen was then subcultured onto MacConkey Agar, Blood Agar, and Mannitol Salt Agar. CHROMagar O157 H7 and CHROMagar Listeria were used to detect Escherichia coli 157:7 and Listeria spp., respectively. Biochemical tests on analytical profile index, microscopic examination, and commercial kit for latex agglutination test for serotyping E. coli O157:H7 were used. Results: Mixed bacterial isolates were recorded as 116, 52, 36, 28, 18, 6, and 4 from intestinal contents, deep pharyngeal, liver and spleen, urine, lung, brain, and kidney, respectively. Microorganisms included E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli O157:H7, Enterobacter cloacae, Listeria spp., Klebsiella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Aeromonas spp., Brucella spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia fergusonii, Micrococcus spp., Morganella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas luteola, and Streptobacillus spp. The highest bacterial prevalence (88; 73.33%) was recorded for E. coli, where 68 isolates were identified from the intestinal contents. Of these, four isolates were E. coli O157:H7. Conclusion: Rats are important carriers and transmitters of a number of pathogens and can disseminate these microorganisms to humans and animals.

3.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(2): [e152987], ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025072

RESUMO

Dirofilaria immitis, the cause of heartworm infestation (HWI) or dirofilariasis, affects members of the Canidae and remains a worldwide clinical problem. In Iraq, dirofilariasis was believed absent until 2009, when the Karbala Governorate was reported as an endemic area for canine dirofilariasis. Consequently, this study intended to investigate the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis in police dogs in one police academy in Iraq and to study the gross and histopathological changes in 5 dead dogs, as well as to identify the species of the causative parasite using PCR technique. Thirty-nine police dogs, aged between 6 months and 12 years were included in this study. For the microfilariae investigation, 5 ml blood samples were collected from all dogs in EDTA tubes and examined by Knott's method. The systemic necropsy performed in five dead dogs showed severe clinical signs of dirofilariasis and tissue specimens were sent for routine histopathological processing. For the molecular analysis, adult worms of the detected Dirofilaria spp. were used for DNA extraction and amplification of the cox1 gene. Fifteen of 39 (38.46%) dogs were diagnosed with moderate to severe microfilariasis. The dead dogs revealed typical severe clinical signs of dirofilariasis. Moreover, typical gross and histopathological changes were also seen, accompanied by generalized thromboembolic lesions, suggesting the occurrence of the caval syndrome. The PCR investigation confirmed that D. immitis was the species present in Iraq. In conclusion, this study establishes that Iraq is a newly reported endemic area for dirofilariasis. Moreover, the infestation occurring in these cases most probably happened inside Iraq. The authors recommend doing further epidemiological studies concerning the occurrence of D. immitis in local dogs as well as in the imported dogs in all Iraqi governorates to better understand the epidemiological map of this disease and to introduce an active treatment and preventive program. Awareness and education regarding this disease should be provided to the veterinarians, dog guiders and people in direct contact with dogs, as this disease is one of the important zoonotic diseases.(AU)


A Dirofilaria immitis, causadora da infestação pelo verme do coração (IVC) ou dirofilariose afeta os membros da família Canidae e ainda é um problema clínico mundial. Até o ano de 2009, acreditava-se que o Iraque fosse livre da dirofilariose, porém nessa ocasião a governadoria de Kerbala foi relatada como uma área endêmica de dirofilariose. Assim, o presente trabalho foi realizado para investigar a ocorrência da Dirofilaria immitis em cães policiais em uma academia de polícia do Iraque, estudar as alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas em cinco cães mortos, bem como, identificar as espécies do parasita causador com o emprego da técnida de PCR. Trinta e nove cães policiais com 6 meses a 12 anos de idade foram incluídos no estudo. Amostras de sangue de cinco mililitros foram colhidas por animal, em tubos com EDTA e foram examinadas pelo método de Knott. A necropsia sistêmica foi realizada em cinco cães que haviam apresentado sinais clínicos severos de dirofilariose e espécimens dos seus tecidos foram enviados para o processamento histopatológico de rotina. Para a análise molecular dos vermes adultos de Dirofilaria spp, foi empregada a extração do DNA e a amplificação do gene cox1. Quinze de 39(38,46%) cães foram diagnosticados com uma microfilariase variável de moderada para severa. As alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas foram acompanhadas por lesões generalizadas tromboembólicas sugestivas da ocorrência da síndrome da veia cava. A investigação de PCR confirmou que a D.immitisera a espécie presente no Iraque. A conclusão do estudo estabeleceu que o Iraque deve passar a ser considerado como uma nova área endêmica da dirofilariose. Além da infestação registrada nos casos descritos é provável que ela também esteja presente em outras regiões do Iraque. Os autores recomendam a realização de estudos epidemiológicos para investigar a ocorrência de D.immitis tanto nos cães locais bem como em cães importados em todas as governadorias do Iraque, para ser construído o mapa epidemiológico da distribuição da doença e implantadas as ações de tratamento e de um progrma preventivo. Ações de educação em saúde sobre a doença deverão ser dirigidas para os veterinários, tratadores de cães e para pessoas em geral que tenham contato com os cães, pois esta doença é uma importante zoonose.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Dirofilaria immitis/classificação , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Cães/parasitologia , Microfilárias/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(2): [e154854], ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025115

RESUMO

Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants. Tis study intends to describe the clinical signs, gross and histopathological features seen in 25 afected lambs in an outbreak of congenital arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly in Al-Muthanna governorate, Iraq afer a large number of stillbirths and musculoskeletal deformities from October 2017 to May 2018. Skeletal muscle hypoplasia was seen in the limbs of the afected lambs accompanied with severe arthrogryposis and gross visible brain malformations. In addition, fetal mummifcations, stillbirths, and dead lambs were also seen. Te most histopathological features in muscle fbers were degenerative lesions and absences of cross-striation accompanied with mild infltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in severely afected lambs. Te meninges of afected lambs revealed fused membranes with focal areas of fbrous thickenings and necrotic debris. In conclusion, according to clinical signs, gross and histopathological investigations, Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants and could be the cause of this outbreak, although future studies must be performed to confrm the etiology of this outbreak. Moreover, other causes of hydrocephalus or cerebellar malformation, such as Schmallenberg virus, bluetongue virus and border disease virus and teratogenic plants that lead to arthrogryposis, have to be investigated. Also, the authorities should take prevention and control measurements to stop the replication of arthropod vectors.(AU)


O presente trabalho descreve os sinais clínicos, as lesões macroscópicas e os aspectos histológicos observados em 25 cordeiros acometidos em um surto de artrogripose congênita com hidrocéfalo ou hidrocefalia registrado no Iraque, governadoria Al-Muthama após a ocorrência de nascimentos prematuros e deformidades músculo-esqueléticas no período compreendido entre outubro de 2017 e maio de 2018. A hipoplasia músculo-esquelética foi observada nos membros dos cordeiros afetados, acompanhada de severa artrogripose e malformações cerebrais, grosseiras visíveis, além de mumifcações fetais, nascimentos prematuros e morte de cordeiros. Os principais aspectos histopatológicos nas fbras musculares foram lesões degenerativas e ausências da estriação cruzada acompanhada de leve infltração de neutróflos e células mononucleares dos cordeiros severamente afetados. As meninges dos cordeiros afetados apresentaram fusão de membranas com áreas focais de espessamento fbroso e debris necróticos. O vírus Akabane, um membro do gênero Orthobunyavirus, da família Bunyaviridae, causa anormalidades congênitas e artrogripose com hidrocéfalo e hidrocefalia em ruminantes e poderá vir a ser a causa do presente surto. Os autores recomendam a realização de novos estudos com investigações epidemiológicas e isolamento do agente causal. Contudo, outras causas de hidrocéfalo ou malformações cerebrais como as determinadas pelo vírus Schmallenberg, vírus da língua azul e vírus da doença de border, bem como de plantas teratogênicas que determinam a artrogripose, também deverão ser investigadas. As autoridades sanitárias deverão tomar medidas de prevenção e controle para bloquear a replicação do vírus em artrópodes vetores.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Artrogripose/genética , Ovinos/anormalidades , Ovinos/genética
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e154854, out. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046878

RESUMO

Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants. This study intends to describe the clinical signs, gross and histopathological features seen in 25 affected lambs in an outbreak of congenital arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly in Al-Muthanna governorate, Iraq after a large number of stillbirths and musculoskeletal deformities from October 2017 to May 2018. Skeletal muscle hypoplasia was seen in the limbs of the affected lambs accompanied with severe arthrogryposis and gross visible brain malformations. In addition, fetal mummifications, stillbirths, and dead lambs were also seen. The most histopathological features in muscle fibers were degenerative lesions and absences of cross-striation accompanied with mild infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in severely affected lambs. The meninges of affected lambs revealed fused membranes with focal areas of fibrous thickenings and necrotic debris. In conclusion, according to clinical signs, gross and histopathological investigations, Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants and could be the cause of this outbreak, although future studies must be performed to confirm the etiology of this outbreak. Moreover, other causes of hydrocephalus or cerebellar malformation, such as Schmallenberg virus, bluetongue virus and border disease virus and teratogenic plants that lead to arthrogryposis, have to be investigated. Also, the authorities should take prevention and control measurements to stop the replication of arthropod vectors.(AU)


O presente trabalho descreve os sinais clínicos, as lesões macroscópicas e os aspectos histológicos observados em 25 cordeiros acometidos em um surto de artrogripose congênita com hidrocéfalo ou hidrocefalia registrado no Iraque, governadoria Al-Muthama após a ocorrência de nascimentos prematuros e deformidades músculo-esqueléticas no período compreendido entre outubro de 2017 e maio de 2018. A hipoplasia músculo-esquelética foi observada nos membros dos cordeiros afetados, acompanhada de severa artrogripose e malformações cerebrais, grosseiras visíveis, além de mumificações fetais, nascimentos prematuros e morte de cordeiros. Os principais aspectos histopatológicos nas fibras musculares foram lesões degenerativas e ausências da estriação cruzada acompanhada de leve infiltração de neutrófilos e células mononucleares dos cordeiros severamente afetados. As meninges dos cordeiros afetados apresentaram fusão de membranas com áreas focais de espessamento fibroso e debris necróticos. O vírus Akabane, um membro do gênero Orthobunyavirus, da família Bunyaviridae, causa anormalidades congênitas e artrogripose com hidrocéfalo e hidrocefalia em ruminantes e poderá vir a ser a causa do presente surto. Os autores recomendam a realização de novos estudos com investigações epidemiológicas e isolamento do agente causal. Contudo, outras causas de hidrocéfalo ou malformações cerebrais como as determinadas pelo vírus Schmallenberg, vírus da língua azul e vírus da doença de border, bem como de plantas teratogênicas que determinam a artrogripose, também deverão ser investigadas. As autoridades sanitárias deverão tomar medidas de prevenção e controle para bloquear a replicação do vírus em artrópodes vetores.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Artrogripose/veterinária , Ovinos/anormalidades , Orthobunyavirus/patogenicidade
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 7(24): 1476-1483, jan.-mar. 2008. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: lil-510944

RESUMO

The role of p53 mutation in oral cancer cases has not been studied in Malaysia. This study was designed to focus on over expression of p53 nuclear protein and gene mutation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases in Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM). Twenty randomly selected cases previously diagnosed as oral SCC lesions in HUSM since 2002 were included in this study. Patient’s folders were reviewed to study clinical history and tumor staging. Extracted DNA amplified using PCR. Gene sequencing had done to detect genetic mutation. Protein overexpression detected using the Streptavidin-biotin Peroxidase technique. P53 gene mutations, analyzed within exons 5- 8, were observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%) of oral SCC. The positive nuclear staining by immunohistochemical was observed in 18 cases (18/20, 90%). These data indicate the highly incidence of p53 protein overexpression as well as specific mutations in oral SCC patients in Malaysia. However this preliminary study had been based on analysis of relatively few cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, so further study require to including large number of cases from different states in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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