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BMC Genomics ; 20(Suppl 8): 546, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307400


BACKGROUND: Short-read resequencing of genomes produces abundant information of the genetic variation of individuals. Due to their numerous nature, these variants are rarely exhaustively validated. Furthermore, low levels of undetected variant miscalling will have a systematic and disproportionate impact on the interpretation of individual genome sequence information, especially should these also be carried through into in reference databases of genomic variation. RESULTS: We find that sequence variation from short-read sequence data is subject to recurrent-yet-intermittent miscalling that occurs in a sequence intrinsic manner and is very sensitive to sequence read length. The miscalls arise from difficulties aligning short reads to redundant genomic regions, where the rate of sequencing error approaches the sequence diversity between redundant regions. We find the resultant miscalled variants to be sensitive to small sequence variations between genomes, and thereby are often intrinsic to an individual, pedigree, strain or human ethnic group. In human exome sequences, we identify 2-300 recurrent false positive variants per individual, almost all of which are present in public databases of human genomic variation. From the exomes of non-reference strains of inbred mice, we identify 3-5000 recurrent false positive variants per mouse - the number of which increasing with greater distance between an individual mouse strain and the reference C57BL6 mouse genome. We show that recurrently miscalled variants may be reproduced for a given genome from repeated simulation rounds of read resampling, realignment and recalling. As such, it is possible to identify more than two-thirds of false positive variation from only ten rounds of simulation. CONCLUSION: Identification and removal of recurrent false positive variants from specific individual variant sets will improve overall data quality. Variant miscalls arising are highly sequence intrinsic and are often specific to an individual, pedigree or ethnicity. Further, read length is a strong determinant of whether given false variants will be called for any given genome - which has profound significance for cohort studies that pool datasets collected and sequenced at different points in time.

Clin Immunol ; 207: 40-42, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301515


Mutations in MYD88 cause susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections through impaired signaling downstream of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and IL-1 receptors. We studied a patient presenting with neutropenia, delayed umbilical cord separation, BCG adenitis, andP. aeruginosapneumonia. Next-generation DNA sequencing identified a novel homozygous truncation mutation in MYD88 that abolishes MyD88 expression. The patient's dermal fibroblasts had severely impaired IL-6 production after stimulation with ligands for the MyD88-dependent receptors TLR2, TLR4 and IL-1R, while responses to ligands for the MyD88-independent receptors TLR3 and TNF-α were preserved. Notably, secretion of TNF-α, which is essential for BCG control, was also impaired after LPS stimulation. In this first report of BCG infection in MyD88 deficiency, data suggest that MyD88-dependent TNF-α production contributes to control of mycobacterial disease.

Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472485


Several types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndromes (HPS) represent a group of immunodeficiency syndromes that feature both leukocyte defects with partial albinism of hair, skin, and eyes. These conditions share defects in genes that encode proteins involved in the biogenesis, function, and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. Mutations in AP3D1 which encode the main subunit AP-3(δ) were recently reported on one individual and led to Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type 10 (HPS10; OMIM 617050). HPS10 is a severe condition that manifests with symptoms of oculocutaneous albinism, neurodevelopmental delays, platelet dysfunction, and immunodeficiency. Herein we report on three affected individuals who presented with severe seizures, developmental delay, albinism, and immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing identified homozygosity for a deleterious sequence variant of high impact in AP3D1, c.1978delG, predicting p.Ala660Argfs*54 (NM_001261826.3). We further demonstrated an abnormal storage pathway in the platelets. The current study represents a second confirmation report and implicates AP3D1 mutations as a cause of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type 10.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(2): 195-204, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329106


BACKGROUND: Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare disorder worldwide where diabetes is diagnosed in the first 6 months of life. However, Oman has a relatively high incidence of NDM. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the genetic etiologies underlying NDM and their prevalence in Oman. We collected a cohort of 24 NDM patients, with and without genetic diagnosis, referred to our center from 2007 to 2015. All patients without a genetic diagnosis were tested for mutations in 23 NDM-associated genes using a custom-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel and methylation analysis of the 6q24 locus. RESULTS: A genetic abnormality was detected in 15/24 (62.5%) of our Omani NDM patients. We report the detection of 6q24 methylation abnormalities and KCNJ11 mutations for the first time in Omani NDM patients. Unlike Western populations where NDM is predominantly due to mutations in the KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS genes, NDM due to homozygous GCK gene mutations were most prevalent in Oman, having been observed in seven out of 15 NDM patients in whom we established the genetic etiology. This reflects the high degree of consanguinity which makes recessive conditions more likely. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are likely to impact any future strategy to introduce genetic testing for NDM disorders within the national healthcare system in Oman.

Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Mutação , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Consanguinidade , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Éxons , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/química , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/química , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/química , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Prevalência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
Clin Transl Immunology ; 6(5): e144, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690850


Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-responsive vesicle trafficking, beach and anchor-containing protein (LRBA) cause immune deficiency and inflammation. Here, we are reporting a novel homozygous mutation in LRBA allele in 7-year-old Omani boy, born to consanguineous parents. He presented with type 1 diabetes, autoimmune haematological cytopenia, recurrent chest infections and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. The patient was treated with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) with good outcome every 2 weeks for a period of 3 months. He developed complete IgG deficiency, but remarkably, histological examination revealed germinal centres and plasma cells in lymphoid and inflamed lung tissue. Further charatecterisation showed these cells to express IgM but not IgG. This ex vivo analysis suggests that LRBA mutation confers a defect in class switching despite plasma cell formation.