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3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013252, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians must balance the risks of bleeding and thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in people with an indication for anticoagulation. The potential of non-vitamin K antagonists (NOACs) to prevent bleeding complications is promising, but evidence remains limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence from randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in people with an indication for anticoagulation. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and two clinical trials registers in February 2019. We checked bibliographies of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared NOACs and vitamin K antagonists for people with an indication for anticoagulation who underwent PCI. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently checked the results of searches to identify relevant studies, assessed each included study, and extracted study data. We conducted random-effects, pairwise analyses using Review Manager 5 and network meta-analyses (NMA) using the R package 'netmeta'. We ranked competing treatments by P scores, which are derived from the P values of all pairwise comparisons, and allow ranking of treatments on a continuous 0 to 1 scale. MAIN RESULTS: We identified nine RCTs that met the inclusion criteria, but four were ongoing trials, and were not included in this analysis. We included five RCTs, with 8373 participants, in the NMA (two RCTs compared apixaban to a vitamin K antagonist, two RCTs compared rivaroxaban to a vitamin K antagonist, and one RCT compared dabigatran to a vitamin K antagonist). Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests little or no difference between NOACs and vitamin K antagonists in death from cardiovascular causes (not reported in the dabigatran trial), myocardial infarction, stroke, death from any cause, and stent thrombosis. Apixaban (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95), high dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), and low dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92) probably reduce the risk of recurrent hospitalisation compared with vitamin K antagonists. No studies looked at health-related quality of life. Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests that NOACs may be safer than vitamin K antagonists in terms of bleeding. Both high dose dabigatran (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.97), and low dose dabigatran (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.70) may reduce major bleeding more than vitamin K antagonists. High dose dabigatran (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), low dose dabigatran (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.75), apixaban (RR 0,67 , 95% Cl 0.51 to 0.88), high dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83), and low dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.88) probably reduce non-major bleeding more than vitamin K antagonists. The results from the NMA were inconclusive between the different NOACs for all primary and secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests no meaningful difference in efficacy outcomes between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonists following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. NOACs probably reduce the risk of recurrent hospitalisation for adverse events compared with vitamin K antagonists. Low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests that dabigatran may reduce the rates of major and non-major bleeding, and apixaban and rivaroxaban probably reduce the rates of non-major bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists. Our network meta-analysis did not show superiority of one NOAC over another for any of the outcomes. Head to head trials, directly comparing NOACs against each other, are required to provide more certain evidence.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD000203, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic antipsychotic drug treatment may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a long-term movement disorder. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist drugs, which have intense sedative properties and may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: 1. Primary objectiveThe primary objective was to determine whether using non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs for at least six weeks was clinically effective for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or other chronic mental illnesses.2. Secondary objectivesThe secondary objectives were as follows.To examine whether any improvement occurred with short periods of intervention (less than six weeks) and, if this did occur, whether this effect was maintained at longer periods of follow-up.To examine whether there was a differential effect between the various compounds.To test the hypothesis that GABA agonist drugs are most effective for a younger age group (less than 40 years old). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (last searched April 2017), inspected references of all identified studies for further trials, and, when necessary, contacted authors of trials for additional information. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs in people with antipsychotic-induced TD and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected and critically appraised studies, extracted and analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous data we calculated mean differences (MD). We assumed that people who left early had no improvement. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies that randomised 343 people. Overall, the risk of bias in the included studies was unclear, mainly due to poor reporting; allocation concealment was not described, generation of the sequence was not explicit, participants and outcome assessors were not clearly blinded. For some studies we were unsure if data were complete, and data were often poorly or selectively reported.Data from six trials showed that there may be a clinically important improvement in TD symptoms after GABA agonist treatment compared with placebo at six to eight weeks follow-up (6 RCTs, n = 258, RR 0.83, CI 0.74 to 0.92; low-quality evidence). Data from five studies showed no difference between GABA agonist treatment and placebo for deterioration of TD symptoms (5 RCTs, n = 136, RR 1.90, CI 0.70 to 5.16; very low-quality evidence). Studies reporting adverse events found a significant effect favouring placebo compared with baclofen, sodium valproate or progabide for dizziness/confusion (3 RCTs, n = 62 RR 4.54, CI 1.14 to 18.11; very low-quality evidence) and sedation/drowsiness (4 RCTS, n = 144, RR 2.29, CI 1.08 to 4.86; very low-quality evidence). Studies reporting on akathisia (RR 1.05, CI 0.32 to 3.49, 2 RCTs, 80 participants), ataxia (RR 3.25, CI 0.36 to 29.73, 2 RCTs, 95 participants), nausea/vomiting (RR 2.61, CI 0.79 to 8.67, 2 RCTs, 64 participants), loss of muscle tone (RR 3.00, CI 0.15 to 59.89, 1 RCT, 10 participants), seizures (RR 3.00, CI 0.24 to 37.67, 1 RCT, 2 participants), hypotension (RR 3.04, CI 0.33 to 28.31, 2 RCTs, 119 participants) found no significant difference between GABA drug and placebo (very low-quality evidence). Evidence on mental state also showed no effect between treatment groups (6 RCTS, n = 121, RR 2.65, CI 0.71 to 9.86; very low-quality evidence) as did data for leaving the study early (around 10% in both groups, 6 RCTS, n = 218, RR 1.47, CI 0.69 to 3.15; very low-quality evidence). No study reported on social confidence, social inclusion, social networks, or personalised quality of life, a group of outcomes selected as being of particular importance to patients. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain about the evidence of the effects of baclofen, progabide, sodium valproate or tetrahydroisoxazolopyridinol (THIP) for people with antipsychotic-induced TD. Evidence is inconclusive and unconvincing. The quality of data available for main outcomes ranges from very low to low. Any possible benefits are likely to be outweighed by the adverse effects associated with their use.


Assuntos
Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/etiologia , Agonistas GABAérgicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análogos & derivados , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD005154, 2017 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) frequently are symptomatic and present to the emergency department for treatment. Although vagal manoeuvres may terminate SVT, they often fail, and subsequently adenosine or calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are administered. Both are known to be effective, but both have a significant side effect profile. This is an update of a Cochrane review previously published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To review all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compare effects of adenosine versus CCAs in terminating SVT. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trial registers in July 2017. We checked bibliographies of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include all RCTs that compare adenosine versus a CCA for patients of any age presenting with SVT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently checked results of searches to identify relevant studies and resolved differences by discussion with a third review author. At least two review authors independently assessed each included study and extracted study data. We entered extracted data into Review Manager 5. Primary outcomes were rate of reversion to sinus rhythm and major adverse effects of adenosine and CCAs. Secondary outcomes were rate of recurrence, time to reversion, and minor adverse outcomes. We measured outcomes by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and assessed the quality of primary outcomes using the GRADE approach through the GRADEproGDT website. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two new studies for inclusion in the review update; the review now includes seven trials with 622 participants who presented to an emergency department with SVT. All included studies were RCTs, but only three described the randomisation process, and none had blinded participants, personnel, or outcome assessors to the intervention given. Moderate-quality evidence shows no differences in the number of people reverting to sinus rhythm who were treated with adenosine or CCA (89.7% vs 92.9%; OR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 2.68; participants = 622; studies = 7; I2 = 36%). Low-quality evidence suggests no appreciable differences in major adverse event rates between CCAs and adenosine. Researchers reported only one case of hypotension in the CCA group and none in the adenosine group (0.66% vs 0%; OR 3.09, 95% CI 0.12 to 76.71; participants = 306; studies = 3; I2 = 0%). Included trials did not report length of stay in hospital nor patient satisfaction. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence shows no differences in effects of adenosine and calcium channel antagonists for treatment of SVT on reverting to sinus rhythm, and low-quality evidence suggests no appreciable differences in the incidence of hypotension. A study comparing patient experiences and prospectively studied adverse events would provide evidence on which treatment is preferable for management of SVT.


Assuntos
Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia Supraventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Verapamil/efeitos adversos , Verapamil/uso terapêutico
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 102(11): 1004-1013, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency a diagnosis is made in children with early developmental impairment (EDI), and the contribution made to diagnosis by specific investigations. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Community, neurodisability and neurology department at a UK tertiary centre. PARTICIPANTS: Children referred to determine the aetiology of EDI where a cause was not evident on history and examination. Participants were divided into two groups: EDI and no additional features (EDI-) and EDI with additional features (EDI+). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency a cause was found for the child's EDI and which tests contributed to a diagnosis. RESULTS: 699 participants, 68.8% boys, median age at investigation 2 years 8 months (range 3 months to 11 years 5 months). 61 (8.7%) of participants had no investigations, and children with EDI- were less likely to be investigated (χ2=12.5, p<0.05). A diagnosis was made in 166 children (23.7%) and was more frequent in EDI+ (EDI- 9.9%, EDI+ 27.3%, χ2=19.0; p<0.05). Full blood count, zinc protoporphyrin, renal or liver function, bone profile, biotinidase, creatine kinase or lead level revealed no diagnoses. The following investigations found causes for EDI: MRI (23.1%), microarray (11.5%), Fragile X (0.9%), plasma amino acids (1.2%), urine organic acids (0.9%) and thyroid function tests (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of 'screening' investigations for EDI do not contribute to a diagnosis, highlighting an area of cost saving for the NHS and reduced burden for patients and families. We propose a streamlined guideline for the investigation of EDI based on our data.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Reino Unido
8.
Evid Based Med ; 22(1): 9-11, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965267

RESUMO

Healthcare infrastructure and medical schools in Syria have been greatly compromised by military conflict and humanitarian disaster. Medical students and healthcare professionals reached out for remote learning opportunities. Surprisingly, they desired a curriculum in evidence-based medicine. We report on a curriculum that was delivered to 126 learners using an online remote delivery platform. This experience demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in disaster-stricken areas and underscores the importance of evidence-based medicine even under such conditions.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guerra , Currículo , Educação Médica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Síria
9.
Asian Spine J ; 10(5): 972-981, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790330

RESUMO

To review the evidence of thromboembolism incidence and prophylaxis in the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) 3-6 months post injury. All observational and experimental studies with any length of follow-up and no limitations on language or publication status published up to March 2015 were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcomes studied were incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the sub-acute phase of SCI. The secondary outcome was type of thromboprophylaxis. Our search identified 4305 references and seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. Five papers reported PE events and three papers reported DVT events in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Studies were heterogeneous in populations, design and outcome reporting, therefore a meta-analysis was not performed. The included studies report a PE incidence of 0.5%-6.0% and DVT incidence of 2.0%-8.0% in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Thromboprophylaxis was poorly reported. Spinal patients continue to have a significant risk of PE and DVT after the acute period of their injury. Clinicians are advised to have a low threshold for suspecting venous thromboembolism in the sub-acute phase of SCI and to continue prophylactic anticoagulation therapy for a longer period of time.

10.
Arch Dis Child ; 101(10): 953-6, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27083755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of colchicine in children with pericarditis. DESIGN: Systematic review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched for studies about colchicine in children with pericarditis (June 2015): Cochrane Central, Medline, EMBASE and LILACS. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All observational and experimental studies on humans with any length of follow-up and no limitations on language or publication status were included. The outcomes studied were recurrences of pericarditis and adverse events. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for non-randomised trials. RESULTS: Two case series and nine case reports reported the use of colchicine in a total of 86 children with pericarditis. Five articles including 74 paediatric patients were in favour of colchicine in preventing further pericarditis recurrences. Six studies including 12 patients showed that colchicine did not prevent recurrences of pericarditis. LIMITATIONS: No randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although colchicine is an established treatment for pericarditis in adults, it is not routinely used in children. There is not enough evidence to support or discourage the use of colchicine in children with pericarditis. Further research in the form of large double-blind RCTs is needed to establish the efficacy of colchicine in children with pericarditis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-Pericardiotomia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (1): CD007037, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers are an essential part of standard therapy in adult congestive heart failure and therefore, are expected to be beneficial in children. However, congestive heart failure in children differs from that in adults in terms of characteristics, aetiology, and drug clearance. Therefore, paediatric needs must be specifically investigated. This is an update of a Cochrane review previously published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of beta-adrenoceptor-blockers (beta-blockers) in children with congestive heart failure. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS up to November 2015. Bibliographies of identified studies were checked. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, controlled, clinical trials investigating the effect of beta-blocker therapy on paediatric congestive heart failure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted and assessed data from the included trials. MAIN RESULTS: We identified four new studies for the review update; the review now includes seven studies with 420 participants. Four small studies with 20 to 30 children each, and two larger studies of 80 children each, showed an improvement of congestive heart failure with beta-blocker therapy. A larger study with 161 participants showed no evidence of benefit over placebo in a composite measure of heart failure outcomes. The included studies showed no significant difference in mortality or heart transplantation rates between the beta-blocker and control groups. No significant adverse events were reported with beta-blockers, apart from one episode of complete heart block. A meta-analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional shortening (LVFS) data showed a very small improvement with beta-blockers.However, there were vast differences in the age, age range, and health of the participants (aetiology and severity of heart failure; heterogeneity of diagnoses and co-morbidities); there was a range of treatments across studies (choice of beta-blocker, dosing, duration of treatment); and a lack of standardised methods and outcome measures. Therefore, the primary outcomes could not be pooled in meta-analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to support or discourage the use of beta-blockers in children with congestive heart failure, or to propose a paediatric dosing scheme. However, the sparse data available suggested that children with congestive heart failure might benefit from beta-blocker treatment. Further investigations in clearly defined populations with standardised methodology are required to establish guidelines for therapy. Pharmacokinetic investigations of beta-blockers in children are also required to provide effective dosing in future trials.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carvedilol , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Propanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD010652, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium, the membranous sac surrounding the heart. Recurrent pericarditis is the most common complication of acute pericarditis, causing severe and disabling chest pains. Recurrent pericarditis affects one in three patients with acute pericarditis within the first 18 months. Colchicine has been suggested to be beneficial in preventing recurrent pericarditis. OBJECTIVES: To review all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effects of colchicine alone or combined, compared to any other intervention to prevent further recurrences of pericarditis, in people with acute or recurrent pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following bibliographic databases on 4 August 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 7 of 12, 2014 on The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to July week 4, 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to 2014 week 31), and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) 1990 to 1 Aug 2014. We did not apply any language or time restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of people with acute or recurrent pericarditis who are receiving colchicine compared to any other treatment, in order to prevent recurrences. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The first primary outcome was the time to recurrence, measured by calculating the hazard ratios (HRs). The second primary outcome was the adverse effects of colchicine. Secondary outcomes were the rate of recurrences at 6, 12 and 18 months, and symptom relief. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs, involving 564 participants in this review. We compared the effects of colchicine in addition to a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen, aspirin or indomethacin to the effects of the NSAID alone. Two comparable trials studied the effects of colchicine in 204 participants with recurrent pericarditis and two trials studied 360 people with acute pericarditis. All trials had a moderate quality for the primary outcomes. We identified two on-going trials; one of these trials examines acute pericarditis and the other assesses recurrent pericarditis.There was moderate quality evidence that colchicine reduces episodes of pericarditis in people with recurrent pericarditis over 18 months follow-up (HR 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.58). It is expected that at 18 months, the number needed to treat (NNT) is 4. In people with acute pericarditis, there was moderate quality evidence that colchicine reduces recurrence (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61) at 18 months follow-up. Colchicine led to a greater chance of symptom relief at 72 hours (risk ratio (RR) 1.4; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.56; low quality evidence). Adverse effects were mainly gastrointestinal and included abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The pooled RR for adverse events was 1.26 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.12). While the number of people experiencing adverse effects was higher in the colchicine than the control groups (9% versus 7%), the quality of evidence was low owing to imprecision, and there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups (P = 0.42). There was moderate quality evidence that treatment with colchicine led to more people stopping treatment due to adverse events (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.02 to 3.41). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Colchicine, as adjunctive therapy to NSAIDs, is effective in reducing the number of pericarditis recurrences in patients with recurrent pericarditis or acute pericarditis. However, evidence is based on a limited number of small trials. Patients with multiple resistant recurrences were not represented in any published or on-going trials, and it is these patients that are in the most need for treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva
14.
Avicenna J Med ; 4(3): 66-70, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24982827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palestinian refugees have been a displaced group of people since 1948, many of whom are living in refugee camps in the Middle East. They are entitled to free health care from the United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA). They show a higher prevalence of diabetes than the population in their host countries in the Middle East. This study examined the realities of care for diabetic patients in UNRWA health clinics in Damascus, Syria. The aim was three-fold: To investigate the level of diabetes care, to probe patients' level of general understanding of their disease and its management, and to search for areas of potential improvement. METHODS: Data on patient education and care was gathered over a 1 month period from August 4, 2008 to September 4, 2008 using questionnaires and direct observation of the workflow at the clinics. Clinic-led care was observed by the study team using checklists during patient visits. All of the clinic staff and sampled patients were interviewed. The main areas of care assessed were: Patient follow-up; examination of eyes and feet; availability of medications; and patient education. A total of 154 people with diabetes were sampled from three refugee camps situated around Damascus. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients, three doctors and seven nurses composed the sample of the study. Foot examinations were almost always neglected by health staff and eye examinations were not offered by the UNRWA clinics. Interviews with patients showed that: 67% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.59-0.70) had to buy their medication at their own expense at least once due to medication shortage in the UNRWA clinics, 48% (95% CI: 0.40-0.55) displayed poor knowledge regarding the cause and exacerbating factors of diabetes, 65% (95% CI: 0.56-0.72) had not heard of insulin, and 43% (95% CI: 0.35-0.51) did not know for how long they needed to take their medications.

15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (6): CD009991, 2013 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23740790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postnatal psychosis is a worldwide life-threatening condition that affects one to two in every 1000 new mothers. It has an abrupt onset within a month of childbirth. Affected new mothers rapidly develop frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and disorganised behaviours. Factors that increase the risk of postnatal psychosis include primiparous mothers who are single, women who are older, or with a past psychiatric history and family history of affective psychosis, prenatal depression and autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. The risk of a future postnatal recurrence is 25% to 57%. Preventive interventions for postnatal psychosis aim at identifying women with risk factors, early recognition of imminent psychosis through screening, and preventive drug therapy. Mood stabilisers, antipsychotic drugs and hormone therapy may be beneficial in the prevention of postnatal psychotic episodes in women at risk. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the best available evidence for interventions aimed at preventing postnatal psychosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in October 2012 using the search strategy of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials relevant to the prevention of postnatal psychosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors inspected all citations to ensure reliable selection. If we had included relevant trials, we planned to assess the methodological quality of identified trials using the criteria recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors would have independently extracted data. For homogenous dichotomous data, we planned to calculate the risk ratio (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and the number needed to treat to benefit/harm (NNTB/NNTH) on an intention-to-treat basis. MAIN RESULTS: There are no included studies in this review. The electronic search produced three relevant references, among which we identified two old planned trials that seem never to have started, and one which we excluded a study because it was a report of a case series. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This is not an empty review - it is a review full of unanswered questions. Despite growing interest in women's mental health, the literature in the area of postnatal psychosis is still very limited. It seems that clinicians have no choice but to continue with their current practices guided solely by varied clinical judgement. Women at risk of postnatal psychosis and their relatives are justified to be disappointed in the medical/research fraternity. A post hoc PubMed topic (not methodology-specific) search identified mainly case series. Policy makers have no trial-based evidence upon which to base their guidelines. Certainly, preventive interventions for postnatal psychosis are difficult to justify with confidence without well-designed, well-conducted, and well-reported randomised studies. Available publications suggest that such studies are possible and funders of research may wish to make this work a priority.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Puerperais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (4): CD000203, 2011 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21491376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic antipsychotic drug treatment may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a long-term movement disorder. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist drugs, which have intense sedative properties and may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of GABA agonist drugs (baclofen, gamma-vinyl-GABA, gamma-acetylenic-GABA, progabide, muscimol, sodium valproate and tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine (THIP) for people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses who also developed neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. SEARCH STRATEGY: We updated the previous Cochrane review by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Register (June 2010). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included reports if they were controlled trials dealing with people with neuroleptic-induced TD and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness who had been randomly allocated to either non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs with placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Working independently, we selected and critically appraised studies, extracted data and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the number needed to treat (NNT). For continuous data we calculated mean differences (MD). MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight small poorly reported studies for inclusion. For the outcome of 'no clinically important improvement in tardive dyskinesia' GABA agonist drugs were not clearly better than placebo (n = 108, 3 RCTs, RR 0.83 CI 0.6 to 1.1). Deterioration in mental state was more likely to occur in people receiving GABA medication (n = 95, 4 RCTs, RR 2.47 CI 1.1 to 5.4), but this effect was influenced by the decision to assign a negative outcome to those who left early before the end of the study. A greater proportion of people allocated GABA medication may fail to complete the trial compared with those allocated placebo (20% versus 9%), but this difference was not statistically significant (n = 136, 5 RCTs, RR 1.99 CI 0.8 to 4.7). There is a suggestion of an increase in ataxia (loss of power of muscular coordination) for both baclofen and sodium valproate (n = 95, 2 RCTs, RR 3.26 CI 0.4 to 30.2), and in sedation (n = 113, 3 RCTs, RR 2.12 CI 0.8 to 5.4) compared with placebo, but this was not significant. Withdrawal of tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine (THIP) may cause seizures. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the effects of baclofen, progabide, sodium valproate, or THIP for people with antipsychotic-induced TD is inconclusive and unconvincing. Any possible benefits are likely to be outweighed by the adverse effects associated with their use.


Assuntos
Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/etiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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