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J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1482-1495, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123


BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

Vaccine ; 33(51): 7271-7275, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546263


INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infection causes significant morbidity in patients with underlying lung disease, and vaccination has been associated with reduced disease rates. Response to vaccination has not been studied in chronic lung conditions characterised by ongoing infection or inflammation like chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). METHODS: In a prospective observational study, consecutive patients with CPA, allergic aspergillosis and bronchiectasis attending a national referral centre received pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) and had pre- and post-vaccination antibody concentrations quantified as part of routine clinical care. Serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG antibodies were quantified for 12 serotypes using a multiplex microsphere assay. A protective response was defined as a level of >1.3µg/mL or a ≥ fourfold rise in concentration for ≥70% of serotypes, pre to post-vaccination. C-reactive protein, Immunoglobulins and mannose binding lectin (MBL) levels were measured and correlated to vaccine response. RESULTS: A total of 318 patients were enrolled. In vaccine-naïve patients (n=127), the lowest pre-vaccination levels were seen with serotypes 1 and 4 and the highest with serotype 19A. A protective response post-vaccination was seen in 50% of patients. The poorest responses were observed with serotypes 1, 3 and 4. Levels of C-reactive protein did not affect efficacy. Profound MBL deficiency was found in 28.8%; there were no significant differences in response to vaccination in patients with or without MBL deficiency. Post-vaccination serotype-specific concentrations waned gradually, however they were still elevated compared to pre-vaccination after 2-5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic and allergic aspergillosis exhibited a poor response to PPV-23 vaccination compared to healthy adults. An alternative vaccination strategy or delay of vaccination until their underlying condition is better controlled, e.g. after treatment with antifungals may result in better response.

Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Case Rep Nephrol ; 2015: 269895, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26613053


A 27-year-old man presented with a palpable purpuric skin rash and joint and abdominal pain in April 2010. He had acute kidney injury and his creatinine quickly deteriorated to 687 µmol/L, with associated nephrotic range proteinuria. Kidney biopsy showed crescentic Henoch-Schonlein nephritis. He was treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide and prednisolone despite which his renal function deteriorated; he required haemodialysis for a short duration and seven sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). Renal function improved, but after discharge from hospital he suffered 2 further relapses, each with AKI, in 4 months. Cyclophosphamide was not effective and therefore Rituximab was introduced. He initially had a partial response but his renal function deteriorated despite continued therapy. TPE was the only treatment that prevented rapid renal functional deterioration. A novel long-term treatment strategy involving regular TPE every one to two weeks was initiated. This helped to slow his progression to end-stage kidney disease over a 3-year period and to prolong the need for renal replacement therapy over this time.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 86(5): 520-3, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25016564


BACKGROUND: Orolingual angio-oedema is a recognised complication of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischaemic stroke. We investigated its incidence, clinical characteristics and relationship with other factors in patients receiving tPA at a UK centre. METHODS: 530 consecutive patients (median age 70 years) receiving tPA treatment for confirmed ischaemic stroke were included. Cases were defined as those developing angio-oedema within 24 h of initiation of tPA. Angio-oedema was retrospectively classified as mild, moderate or severe using predefined criteria. The primary analysis was the association between prior ACE inhibitor (ACE-I) treatment and angio-oedema. RESULTS: Orolingual angio-oedema was observed in 42 patients (7.9%; 95% CI 5.5% to 10.6%), ranging from 5 to 189 min after initiation of tPA (median 65 min). 12% of the angio-oedema cases were severe (1% of all patients treated with tPA), requiring urgent advanced airway management. 172 patients (33%) were taking ACE-I. In multifactorial analyses, only prior ACE-I treatment remained a significant independent predictor of angio-oedema (odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.7). CONCLUSIONS: Angio-oedema occurs more frequently than previously reported and is associated with preceding ACE-I treatment. Angio-oedema may be delayed and progress to life-threatening airway compromise, which has implications for the assessment and delivery of thrombolysis.

Angioedema/induzido quimicamente , Angioedema/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Angioedema/complicações , Angioedema/patologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Boca/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Língua/patologia
Clin Immunol ; 120(3): 310-8, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16782407


Although idiopathic humoral immunodeficiencies are arbitrarily classified into specific antibody deficiency (SAD) or common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), this distinction does not accurately predict the risk of the bronchiectasis, one of the major long-term clinical complications in these patients. In this study, clinical complications were compared with laboratory markers of cellular and humoral immunity in fifty-five consecutive patients (27 children and 28 adults) attending regional immunology clinics in Manchester, United Kingdom. Reduced CD19(+)CD27(+)IgD(-) B cell percentage but not serum immunoglobulin levels or classification of patients into SAD and CVID was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (OR 0.4 (0.2-0.8), P = 0.001), splenomegaly (OR 0.2 (0.1-0.5), P = 0.001) and autoimmunity (OR 0.4 (0.2-0.7), P = 0.003). We conclude that in patients with idiopathic humoral immunodeficiencies assessment of B cell switching more accurately predicts clinical prognosis than either classification of patients into SAD and CVID or serum immunoglobulin concentrations.

Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Bronquiectasia/complicações , Bronquiectasia/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Esplenomegalia/imunologia