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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444072

RESUMO

Previous canoe sprint studies evaluated the best paddlers of their categories. This investigation aimed to identify the importance of biological maturation and athletes' experience in kayaking performance and observe possible differences regarding anthropometry, years of practice, and performance. Eighty under 14 years of age (U14) and fifty under 16 years of age (U16) kayakers aged 13.40 ± 0.54 and 15.25 ± 0.61 years were evaluated. Kayakers were assessed for anthropometry (body mass (kg); stretch stature (cm); and sitting height (cm)), performance (time at 3000 m for U14 and 5000 m for U16 kayakers), and somatic maturation (predicted adult height (PAH) and maturity offset). In the U14 kayakers, years of practice, sitting height, and maturity offset showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the Top10 and Middle, and Middle and Bottom10 performance times. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) sitting heights were identified between the Top10 and Middle U16 kayakers. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for maturity offset and PAH% between the Top10 and Middle groups compared to the Bottom10 group. In conclusion, this research shows differences in the maturity status of young U14 and U16 kayakers, identifying that the more biologically mature individuals, with more years of specific practice, achieved better performances.


Assuntos
Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Criança , Humanos , Navios
2.
J Sports Sci ; 39(18): 2133-2143, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148529

RESUMO

The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is one of the most representative components of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Multiple equations have been developed to estimate RMR, but none have been described for Para-Athletes. This study aimed to; i) develop and validate new RMR estimation models from anthropometric variables; and ii) explore the level of agreement between the RMR determined by indirect calorimetry (IC) and the developed models, as well as a selection of existent estimation models in Para-Athletes. Fifteen young Paralympic swimmers (age, 18.7±6.5 years) underwent assessments of RMR by IC and anthropometric batteries. Four RMR estimation models (M1-M4) were developed. The anthropometric variables which explained most of the variance were biacromial breadth (M3-37%), stature (M1-45%; M2-49%), and estimated stature from half arm span (M4-24%). However, the neck girth corrected by the submandibular skinfold entered in all four models. The 95% limits of agreement between IC and M3 equation (best performance model) ranged from -142.02 to 172.39 kcal×day-1 (bias 15.19 kcal×day-1). Concerning the commonly used equations, Harris & Benedict equation was the most consistent when compared to IC. The results of this study suggest four novel RMR equations that may assist in the estimation of energy requirements in elite Para-Athletes.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Paratletas , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073134

RESUMO

(1) Background: Research on heart rate variability has increased in recent years and the temperature has not been controlled in some studies assessing repeated measurements. This study aimed to analyze how heart rate variability may change based on environmental temperature during measurement depending on parasympathetic and sympathetic activity variations. (2) Methods: A total of 22 volunteers participated in this study divided into an experimental (n = 12) and control group (n = 10). Each participant was assessed randomly under two different environmental conditions for the experimental group (19 °C and 35 °C) and two identical environmental conditions for the control group (19 °C). During the procedure, heart rate variability measurements were carried out for 10 min. (3) Results: Significantly changes were observed for time and frequency domains as well as Poincaré plot variables after heat exposure (p < 0.05). These findings were not observed in the control group, whose conditions between measurements did not change. (4) Conclusions: The reduction of heart rate variability due to exposure to hot conditions appears to be produced mostly by a parasympathetic withdrawal rather than a sympathetic activation. Therefore, if consecutive measurements have to be carried out, these should always be done under the same temperature conditions.


Assuntos
Coração , Temperatura Alta , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 161-168, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198853

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la práctica sistemática de ejercicio físico podría influir en la percepción y distorsión de la imagen corporal de mujeres adultas. OBJETIVO: analizar la evolución de la percepción y la distorsión de la imagen corporal en mujeres adultas que realizan una práctica sistemática de Pilates en suelo (PS) o Pilates con aparatos (PA). METODOLOGÍA: un total de 35 mujeres adultas participaron en un programa de PS (n = 19) o PA (n = 26) durante 16 semanas, dos días por semana. La imagen corporal se valoró antes y después de las intervenciones con el cuestionario "Inventario de la conducta alimentaria 3" (EDI-3), la escala de evaluación de la imagen corporal de Gardner y la escala de siluetas de Thompson y Gray. RESULTADOS: el grupo de PS mostró una reducción significativa de la insatisfacción con los glúteos, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la imagen percibida, el índice de distorsión, el índice de insatisfacción, la imagen mental percibida, la imagen afectiva percibida, el índice de insatisfacción cognitiva y el índice de insatisfacción afectiva (p < 0,05; TE: 0,26-0,80). En relación con el grupo de PA se encontró una disminución significativa de la insatisfacción con los muslos, la insatisfacción con las caderas, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, el índice de insatisfacción, el índice de insatisfacción cognitiva y el índice de insatisfacción afectiva (p < 0,05; 0,22-0,79). CONCLUSIONES: la práctica sistemática de PS o PA mejora la imagen corporal en mujeres adultas, reduciéndose el grado de insatisfacción corporal de las mismas


INTRODUCTION: the systematic practice of physical exercise may influence the perception and distortion of body image in adult women. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the evolution of body image perception and distortion in adult women who performed a systematic practice of mat Pilates (PM) or Pilates with apparatus (PA). METHODS: a total of 35 adult women participated in a PM (n = 19) or PA (n = 26) program for 16 weeks, two days a week. Body image was assessed before and after the interventions using the Eating Behavior Inventory 3 (EBI-3), Gardner's body image assessment scale, and Thompson and Gray's silhouette scale questionnaires. RESULTS: the PM group showed a significant reduction in dissatisfaction with buttocks, dissatisfaction with body image, perceived image, distortion index, dissatisfaction index, perceived mental image, perceived affective image, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; ES: 0.26-0.80). As compared to the PA group, a significant reduction was shown in dissatisfaction with thighs, dissatisfaction with hips, dissatisfaction with body image, dissatisfaction index, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; 0.22-0.79). CONCLUSION: the systematic practice of PM or PA improves body image in adult women, reducing their body dissatisfaction


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Corporal , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento , Percepção , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Análise de Variância , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico/fisiologia
5.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(1): 161-168, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319579

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: the systematic practice of physical exercise may influence the perception and distortion of body image in adult women. Objective: to analyze the evolution of body image perception and distortion in adult women who performed a systematic practice of mat Pilates (PM) or Pilates with apparatus (PA). Methods: a total of 35 adult women participated in a PM (n = 19) or PA (n = 26) program for 16 weeks, two days a week. Body image was assessed before and after the interventions using the Eating Behavior Inventory 3 (EBI-3), Gardner's body image assessment scale, and Thompson and Gray's silhouette scale questionnaires. Results: the PM group showed a significant reduction in dissatisfaction with buttocks, dissatisfaction with body image, perceived image, distortion index, dissatisfaction index, perceived mental image, perceived affective image, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; ES: 0.26-0.80). As compared to the PA group, a significant reduction was shown in dissatisfaction with thighs, dissatisfaction with hips, dissatisfaction with body image, dissatisfaction index, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; 0.22-0.79). Conclusion: the systematic practice of PM or PA improves body image in adult women, reducing their body dissatisfaction.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182485

RESUMO

Physiological variables such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max), running economy (RE) and changes in lactate levels are considered the main factors determining performance in long-distance races. The aim of this review was to present the mathematical models available in the literature to estimate performance in the 5000 m, 10,000 m, half-marathon and marathon events. Eighty-eight articles were identified, selections were made based on the inclusion criteria and the full text of the articles were obtained. The articles were reviewed and categorized according to demographic, anthropometric, exercise physiology and field test variables were also included by athletic specialty. A total of 58 studies were included, from 1983 to the present, distributed in the following categories: 12 in the 5000 m, 13 in the 10,000 m, 12 in the half-marathon and 21 in the marathon. A total of 136 independent variables associated with performance in long-distance races were considered, 43.4% of which pertained to variables derived from the evaluation of aerobic metabolism, 26.5% to variables associated with training load and 20.6% to anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype components. The most closely associated variables in the prediction models for the half and full marathon specialties were the variables obtained from the laboratory tests (VO2max, vVO2max), training variables (training pace, training load) and anthropometric variables (fat mass, skinfolds). A large gap exists in predicting time in long-distance races, based on field tests. Physiological effort assessments are almost exclusive to shorter specialties (5000 m and 10,000 m). The predictor variables of the half-marathon are mainly anthropometric, but with moderate coefficients of determination. The variables of note in the marathon category are fundamentally those associated with training and those derived from physiological evaluation and anthropometric parameters.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida/fisiologia
7.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 13(3): 144-149, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate somatotype and body composition of a population of sound-tennis players. METHOD: The research included a descriptive, cross-sectional design, with a quantitative focus. The sample consists of 13 male sound-tennis players: eight Spanish and five from other countries that were recruited in an international tournament in May 2017. The Spanish population started the practice of this discipline two years before the data collection, while the other group was more experienced with 4-6 years of sports practice. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition of both populations were determined by the protocols described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. RESULTS: All the participants presented an endomorphic mesomorph somatotype. No significant differences were detected regarding fat and muscle masses when comparing Spanish vs others. Spanish players displayed significantly higher values of biceps and medial calf skinfolds, but also lower bone mass and height. CONCLUSIONS: All participants were slightly overweight. The Spanish para-athletes tend to accumulate fat in the upper and lower limbs that could affect their tennis performance. These indicators should be taken into account when planning diet, training and season goals


OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el somatotipo y la composición corporal de un grupo de tenistas con discapacidad visual. MÉTODO: La investigación contempló un diseño descriptivo, transversal, con un enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 13 jugadores masculinos de tenis: ocho españoles y cinco extranjeros, reclutados en un campeonato internacional en mayo de 2017. La población española comenzó la práctica de esta disciplina dos años antes del momento de la toma de datos, mientras que el grupo de deportistas de otros países tenía un historial de práctica de 4-6 años. Las características antropométricas y la composición corporal de ambas poblaciones fueron determinadas siguiendo los protocolos de la Sociedad Internacional para el Avance de la Cineantropometría. RESULTADOS: Los deportistas presentaron un somatotipo mesomorfo endomórfico. No se observaron diferencias en las masas grasa y muscular al comparar españoles vs extranjeros. No obstante, los jugadores españoles presentaron valores significativamente mayores en los pliegues del bíceps y medial de la pierna, así como valores más bajos de masa ósea y altura. CONCLUSIONES: Todos los participantes del presente estudio presentaron un sobrepeso límite. Sin embargo, los deportistas españoles tendían a acumular más grasa en las extremidades superiores e inferiores, lo que podría condicionar su rendimiento. Estos indicadores deberían tenerse en cuenta a la hora de planificar la dieta, el entrenamiento y los objetivos de temporada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Tênis/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952137

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder that mainly affects the small intestine, generating an inflammatory process in response to the presence of gluten (a protein). Autoimmune diseases are part of a group of diseases that are difficult to diagnose without a specific protocol or consensus to detect them due to the number of symptoms and diseases with which it has a relationship. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyze the diagnostic tools of CD used in middle-aged women, to compare the use and effectiveness of the different tools, and to propose a strategy for the use of the tools based on the results found in the literature. The present research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The search was conducted in the following databases: Scielo, PubMed, Web of Science, and Worldwide Science org. In the initial literature search, 2004 titles and relevant abstracts were found. Among them, 687 were duplicates, leaving 1130 articles. Based on the inclusion criteria, only 41 articles passed the selection process; 4 main types of analyses appear in the studies: blood tests, questionnaires, clinical history, and biopsy. It can be said that none of the analyses have a 100% reliability since most of them can present false negatives; therefore, the best way to diagnose celiac disease up to now is through a combination of different tests (Immunoglobulin A and small intestinal biopsy).


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749711

RESUMO

This study compared the ability to predict performance in half-marathon races through physiological variables obtained in a laboratory test and performance variables obtained in the Cooper field test. Twenty-three participants (age: 41.6 ± 7.6 years, weight: 70.4 ± 8.1 kg, and height: 172.5 ± 6.3 cm) underwent body composition assessment and performed a maximum incremental graded exercise laboratory test to evaluate maximum aerobic power and associated cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables. Cooper's original protocol was performed on an athletic track and the variables recorded were covered distance, rating of perceived exertion, and maximum heart rate. The week following the Cooper test, all participants completed a half-marathon race at the maximum possible speed. The associations between the laboratory and field tests and the final time of the test were used to select the predictive variables included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, which used the race time in the half marathon as the dependent variable and the laboratory variables or field tests as independent variables. Subsequently, a concordance analysis was carried out between the estimated and actual times through the Bland-Altman procedure. Significant correlations were found between the time in the half marathon and the distance in the Cooper test (r = -0.93; p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.40; p < 0.04), velocity at ventilatory threshold 1, (r = -0.72; p < 0.0001), speed reached at maximum oxygen consumption (vVO2max), (r = -0.84; p < 0.0001), oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold 2 (VO2VT2) (r = -0.79; p < 0.0001), and VO2max (r = -0.64; p < 0.05). The distance covered in the Cooper test was the best predictor of time in the half-marathon, and might predicted by the equation: Race time (min) = 201.26 - 0.03433 (Cooper test in m) (R 2 = 0.873, SEE: 3.78 min). In the laboratory model, vVO2max, and body weight presented an R 2 = 0.77, SEE 5.28 min. predicted by equation: Race time (min) = 156.7177 - 4.7194 (vVO2max) - 0.3435 (Weight). Concordance analysis showed no differences between the times predicted in the models the and actual times. The data indicated a high predictive power of half marathon race time both from the distance in the Cooper test and vVO2max in the laboratory. However, the variable associated with the Cooper test had better predictive ability than the treadmill test variables. Finally, it is important to note that these data may only be extrapolated to recreational male runners.

10.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(3): 260-267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise in hot environments and recovery to baseline values depending on relative humidity. METHODS: Ten recreational runners participated in this study. Each participant performed 2 trials consisting of 30 min of continuous running under hot and dry (HD) (38°C and 28% relative humidity) and hot and humid (HH) conditions (38°C and 64% relative humidity) at their common 10 km race-running rhythm. HRV and body mass were assessed pre- and post-trial; the rating of perceived exertion and HRV were assessed during the trial; and HRV measurements were repeated 2, 4, 8, and 24 h postexercise. Primary HRV outcomes were root mean square of the successive differences, high frequency power, stress score, and sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio. One-way analysis of variance testing was used to analyze differences. RESULTS: No significant difference in body mass occurred across the different conditions or distances covered (P>0.05). Rating of perceived exertion presented the highest correlation values with stress score (r=0.729 for HD; r=0.568 for HH) and sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (r=0.621 for HD; r=0.519 for HH) during exercise. HRV recovered to baseline values more quickly after exercising under dry conditions (4 h) than under humid conditions (between 8 and 24 h). CONCLUSIONS: Stress score and sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio seem to be the best HRV predictors of internal load. Although there are no differences in HRV during recovery at the same time points in both conditions, the recovery is slower after exercise in HH than in HD.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Corrida , Adulto , Humanos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(191): 181-187, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-187345

RESUMO

Background: There has been an increasing number of running practitioners in the last years. Although running activity involves several benefits for practitioners, it might also induce health problems when practicing under heat conditions. Purpose: The main aim of this systematic review was to evaluate how high temperatures affect runner's health during continuous exercise. Search strategy: The search for articles for this study was carried out in two different databases, Web of Science and Pubmed.Study selection: The inclusion criteria were a) Studies that investigated the effects of endurance exercise, at least at 27º, on health variables, determining exercise intensity, indicating total time for exercise and presenting pre- and post-test results or compare with normal or cold conditions. Results: 1336 articles were identified after the searching process. 333 runners were evaluated in fifteen articles that were included in the qualitative synthesis. High increases in heart rate, body and skin temperature, some urine and blood markers, blood pH, ventilation, rate of perceived exertion and sweat rate were identified during continuous activity under heat conditions, and also when comparing with normal or cold conditions. Lower values were found in body mass, eosinophil than those observed before the running activity. Lower values for oxygen consumption and plasma lactate may occur in hot conditions when comparing with normal conditions. Conclusions: Studies analyzed conclude that an uncontrolled long-term activity in hot conditions may induce health problems related to high body and skin temperatures. Cooling strategies should be assessed after continuous exercise under hot conditions. In addition exercise in hot conditions produces greater increases in immune functions, heart rate, breathing stress, metabolic responses and rate of perceived exertion, also compared with normal and cold conditions


Introducción: El número de corredores ha incrementado en los últimos años. Aunque la actividad de correr implica varios beneficios para los practicantes, también puede provocar problemas de salud cuando se practica en condiciones de calor. Propósito: El objetivo de esta revisión fue evaluar cómo las altas temperaturas afectan la salud del corredor. Estrategia de búsqueda: La búsqueda de artículos para este estudio se llevó a cabo en Web of Science y Pubmed. Selección de estudios: Los criterios de inclusión fueron estudios que investigaron los efectos del ejercicio de resistencia, al menos a 27º, sobre variables de salud, determinando la intensidad y duración del ejercicio y se presentaron resultados previos y posteriores a la prueba o compararon con condiciones normales o frías. Resultados: 1336 artículos fueron identificados después del proceso de búsqueda. 333 corredores fueron evaluados en quince artículos que fueron incluidos en la síntesis cualitativa. Durante la actividad en condiciones de calor, se identificaron incrementos elevados en la frecuencia cardíaca, la temperatura corporal y de la piel, algunos marcadores de orina y sangre, el pH sanguíneo, la ventilación, el esfuerzo percibido y la sudoración. Se encontraron valores más bajos de masa corporal y eosinófilos que los observados antes de la actividad de carrera. Valores más bajos de consumo de oxígeno y lactato aparecen en condiciones de calor cuando se comparan con las condiciones normales. Conclusiones: Los estudios analizados concluyen que una actividad no controlada a largo plazo en condiciones de calor puede inducir problemas de salud relacionados con altas temperaturas corporales y de la piel. Además, el ejercicio en condiciones de calor produce mayores incrementos en las funciones inmunitarias, la frecuencia cardíaca, el estrés respiratorio, las respuestas metabólicas y el esfuerzo percibido, también en comparación con las condiciones normales y frías


Assuntos
Humanos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Baixa , Corrida/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia
12.
Phys Sportsmed ; 47(4): 479-486, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122113

RESUMO

Introduction: There are certain anthropometric attributes common to most high-level paddlers and among the determinants for optimal performance consecution in senior categories.Objective: The present investigation aimed to determine the evolution of morphological characteristics of elite paddlers during adolescence and to compare them with the values exhibited by Olympic competitors.Methods: In a longitudinal study, thirteen young elite paddlers (seven boys and six girls) completed a battery of anthropometric tests (heights, weight, girths, lengths, and sum of skinfolds) and on-water performance assessments (200 and 500 m) during three consecutive years.Results: Body mass and upper body sizes significantly change over the years (p < .05), especially in boys. Both male and female paddlers presented significant differences and large effect sizes in muscle mass and skin mass values (η2p > .64) whereas bone mass and fat mass remained stable from the 1st to the 3rd year. Proportionality analysis revealed girths and breadths differences in arm and chest variables as well as large effect sizes in biacromial breadth among all years (η2p > .62; p < .05), particularly in boys. Similarly, significant improvements in 200-m performance times were observed for both sexes.Conclusions: The findings of the current investigation might suggest a tendency towards a leaner and more robust morphological profile of elite paddlers in the transition from young to senior categories. In addition, the presence of superior relative body dimensions from young categories seems to be paramount in the evolution to later successful paddling.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1963-1970, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461419

RESUMO

López-Plaza, D, Alacid, F, Rubio, JÁ, López-Miñarro, PÁ, Muyor, JM, and Manonelles, P. Morphological and physical fitness profile of young female sprint kayakers. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1963-1970, 2019-Traditionally, physical and anthropometrical profiles of the most successful kayak athletes have been identified in male kayakers. This study attempted to identify the differences in morphology and fitness level of 2 performance-based groups of young elite female paddlers. Eighty-six female kayakers, aged 13.62 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD), were allocated in 2 groups (Top-10 and Rest) depending on their ranking in the 3 Olympic distances (200, 500, and 1,000 m). All subjects underwent a battery of anthropometrical (heights, mass, girths, and sum of skinfolds), physical fitness (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test, and 20-m multistage shuttle run test), and specific performance assessments (200, 500, and 1,000 m). Best paddlers presented significantly greater anthropometrical values in muscle mass percentage, maturity status, and chronological age (p ≤ 0.05), whereas physical fitness comparison only revealed significant differences in countermovement jump (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, aerobic power and muscle mass percentage seem to be crucial in achieving optimal performances at long (1,000 m) and short duration races (200 and 500 m). These findings confirm the importance of a larger and compact morphology, as well as superior fitness level, for success in female kayakers. The current results not only identify the weak areas on body composition and physical fitness depending on the maturity status but also the development of specific training programs for females.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Maturidade Sexual
14.
J Hum Kinet ; 57: 181-190, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713470

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth elite paddlers and to identify the differences between kayakers and canoeists. A total of 171 male paddlers (eighty-nine kayakers and eighty-two canoeists), aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed basic anthropometric assessments (body mass, stretch stature, sitting height, body mass index, maturity level, sum of 6 skinfolds and fat mass percentage) as well as a battery of physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, counter movement jump, sit-and-reach and 20 m multi-stage shuttle run tests). The anthropometric results revealed a significantly larger body size (stretch stature and sitting height) and body mass in the kayakers (p < 0.01) as well as a more mature biological status (p = 0.003). The physical fitness level exhibited by the kayakers was likewise significantly greater than that of the canoeists, both in the counter movement jump and estimated VO2max (p < 0.05), as well as in the overhead medicine ball throw and sit-and-reach test (p < 0.01). These findings confirm the more robust and mature profile of youth kayakers that might be associated with the superior fitness level observed and the specific requirements of this sport discipline.

15.
Food Nutr Res ; 61(1): 1330098, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659740

RESUMO

Background: Watermelon is a rich natural source of l-citrulline. This non-essential amino acid increases exercise performance. Objective: Evaluate the effect of Fashion watermelon juice enriched in l-citrulline (CWJ) (3.45 g per 500 mL) in physical performance and biochemical markers after a half-marathon race. Design: A randomised, double blind, crossover design where 2 h after drinking 500 mL of CWJ or placebo (PLA, beverage without l-citrulline) amateur male runners performed two half-marathon races. Jump height, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were evaluated before and after the races. Moreover, muscle soreness and plasma markers of muscle damage and metabolism were evaluated for 72 h after the races. Results: Muscle soreness perception was significantly lower from 24 to 72 h after the race with CWJ beverage. Immediately after the races, runners under CWJ condition showed plasma lactate and glucose concentrations significantly lower and higher lactate dehydrogenase and l-arginine concentration than runners under PLA. A maintenance of jump heights after the races under CWJ supplementation was found, decreasing significantly with PLA. Conclusion: A single Fashion watermelon juice enriched in l-citrulline dose diminished muscle soreness perception from 24 to 72 h after the race and maintained lower concentrations of plasma lactate after an exhausting exercise.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(22): 4395-4404, 2017 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513179

RESUMO

l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19). Enrichment juices maintained basal levels of blood markers of muscle damage, such as lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin, and showed a significant maintenance of force during the exercise and a significant decrease in the rating of perceived exertion and muscle soreness after exercise. A positive effect was observed between l-citrulline and ellagitannins, improving the ergogenic effect of watermelon juice.


Assuntos
Citrulina/metabolismo , Citrullus/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Lythraceae/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Citrulina/análise , Citrullus/química , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Lythraceae/química , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 35(11): 1083-1090, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27433884

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the maturity-related differences and its influence on the physical fitness, morphological and performance characteristics of young elite paddlers. In total, 89 kayakers and 82 canoeists, aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± s), were allocated in three groups depending on their age relative to the age at peak height velocity (pre-APHV, circum-APHV and post-APHV) and discipline (kayak and canoe). Nine anthropometric variables, a battery of four physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test and 20 m multistage shuttle run test) and three specific performance tests (1000, 500 and 200 m) were assessed. Both disciplines presented significant maturity-based differences in all anthropometric parameters (except for fat and muscle mass percentage), overhead medicine ball throw and all performance times (pre > circum > post; P < 0.05). Negative and significant correlations (P < 0.01) were detected between performance times, chronological age and anthropometry (body mass, height, sitting height and maturity status), overhead medicine ball throw and sit and reach for all distances. These findings confirm the importance of maturity status in sprint kayaking and canoeing since the more mature paddlers were also those who revealed largest body size, physical fitness level and best paddling performance. Additionally, the most important variables predicting performance times in kayaking and canoeing were maturity status and chronological age, respectively.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Arch. med. deporte ; 33(175): 312-316, sept.-oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158929

RESUMO

Introduction: The aims of this study were to determinate the anthropometric profile and physical fitness of Parkour practitioners and to establish differences by performance level. Method: Thirteen Parkour practitioners participated on this study. Agility, hamstring extensibility, horizontal jump distance, vertical jump height, vertical jump power, estimation of maximal oxygen consumption, body composition and somatotype were assessed with a battery of six tests. Also, a specific test which simulated a competition situation was performed in order to establish two groups (A: high performance; B: low performance) by the obtained score. Results: Groups A and B obtained respectively 1.7-5.3-2.5 and 2.2-4.2-2.8 on somatotype; 7.50 ± 0.52 and 8.67 ± 2.13% on fat mass; 47.44 ± 2.03 and 45.91 ± 2.68% on skeletal muscle mass; 12.47 ± 0.70 and 12.53 ± 1.21% on bone mass; 72.80 ± 11.01 and 55.19 ± 6.06 ml•Kg-1•min-1 on estimated oxygen consumption; 14.36 ± 0.47 and 15.29 ± 0.44 s on Illinois test (agility); 13.77 ± 5.20 and 7.86 ± 12.70 cm on sit and reach test; 50.09 ± 3.47 and 37.19 ± 4.82 cm on vertical jump height; 2820.84 ± 453.72 and 2105.84 ± 237.24 W on vertical jump power and 2.97 ± 0.71 and 2.60 ± 0.22 m on horizontal jump distance. Group A obtained significant lower values on ectomorphy and higher on mesomorphy, estimated oxygen consumption, agility, horizontal jump distance and vertical jump height and power. Conclusions: After determining anthropometrical profile and physical fitness, we observe that vertical jump seems to be the most important parameter on Parkour performance, also other variables like estimated maximal oxygen consumption, agility, vertical jump power, horizontal jump distance, mesomorphy and ectomorphy appear as possibly determinant factors on Parkour performance


Introducción: Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar el perfil antropométrico y condición física de los practicantes de Parkour y establecer diferencias en función del nivel de rendimiento. Método: Trece practicantes de Parkour participaron en este estudio. Se valoró la agilidad, extensibilidad isquiosural, distancia de salto horizontal, altura de salto vertical, potencia de salto vertical, estimación del consumo de oxígeno máximo, composición corporal y somatotipo con un batería de seis test. Se llevó a cabo, además, un test específico que simulaba una situación de competición para establecer los dos grupos (A: mayor rendimiento; B: menor rendimiento) en función de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: Los grupos A y B obtuvieron, respectivamente, un somatotipo de 1,7-5,3-2,5 y 2,2-4,2-2,8; 7,50 ± 0,52 y 8,67 ± 2,13% en porcentaje de masa grasa; 47,44 ± 2,03 y 45,91 ± 2,68% en masa muscular esquelética; 12,47 ± 0,70 y 12,53 ± 1,21% en masa ósea; 72,80 ± 11,01 y 55,19 ± 6,06 ml•Kg-1•min-1 en consumo máximo de oxígeno estimado; 14,36 ± 0,47 y 15,29 ± 0,44 s en el test de Illinois (agilidad); 13,77 ± 5,20 y 7,86 ± 12,70 cm en sit and reach; 50,09 ± 3,47 y 37,19 ± 4,82 cm en altura de salto vertical; 2.820,84 ± 453,72 y 2.105,84 ± 237,24 W en potencia de salto vertical y 2,97 ± 0,71 y 2,60 ± 0,22 m en distancia de salto horizontal. Comparando ambos grupos, el A obtuvo valores significativamente inferiores en ectomorfia y superiores en mesomorfia, estimación del consumo máximo de oxígeno, agilidad, distancia de salto horizontal, potencia y altura de salto vertical. Conclusiones: Tras determinar el perfil antropométrico y condición física, observamos que el salto vertical se presentó como el parámetro más importante en el rendimiento en Parkour, además de otras variables como el consumo máximo de oxígeno, la potencia de salto vertical, la distancia de salto horizontal, la mesomorfia y la ectomorfia


Assuntos
Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Somatotipos
19.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 41(8): 872-878, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447685

RESUMO

The biological response to ultra-endurance mountain race events is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physiological changes after performing an ultra-endurance mountain race in runners. We recruited 11 amateur runners (age: 29.7 ± 10.2 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 76.7 ± 10.3 kg). Muscle damage, lactate concentration, energy balance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body composition changes, and jump performance were analyzed before, during (only lactate, HR, and HRV), and after the race. Athletes completed 54 km in 6 h, 44 min (±28 min). After the race, myoglobin and creatine kinase concentration increased from 14.9 ± 5.2 to 1419.9 ± 1292.1 µg/L and from 820.0 ± 2087.3 to 2421.1 ± 2336.2 UI/L, respectively (p < 0.01). In addition, lactate dehydrogenase and troponin I significantly increased after the race (p < 0.01). Leukocyte and platelet count increased by 180.6% ± 68.9% and 23.7% ± 11.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, after the competition, athletes presented a 3704 kcal negative energy balance; a significant increase in RPE values; a decrease in countermovement and squat jump height; and a decrease in body mass and lower limb girths. During the event, lactate concentration did not change and subjects presented a mean HR of 158.8 ± 17.7 beats/min, a significant decrement in vagal modulation, and a significant increase in sympathetic modulation. Despite the relative "low" intensity achieved, ultra-endurance mountain race is a stressful stimulus that produces a high level of muscle damage in the athletes. These findings may help coaches to design specific training programs that may improve nutritional intake strategies and prevent muscle damage.


Assuntos
Atletas , Metabolismo Energético , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Resistência Física , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Contagem de Plaquetas , Corrida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Women Health ; 56(7): 784-806, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583914

RESUMO

The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Cineantropometria/métodos , Somatotipos , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Somatotipos/fisiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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