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1.
Haematologica ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440924

RESUMO

Pediatric-onset Evans syndrome (pES) is defined by both immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) before the age of 18 years. There have been no comprehensive long-term studies of this rare disease, which can be associated to various immunopathological manifestations (IMs). We report outcomes of the 151 patients with pES and more than 5 years of follow-up from the nationwide French prospective OBS'CEREVANCE cohort. Median age at final follow-up was 18.5 (6.8-50.0) years and the median follow-up period was 11.3 (5.1-38.0) years. At 10 years, ITP and AIHA were in sustained complete remission in 54.5% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. The frequency and number of clinical and biological IMs increased with age: at 20 years old, 74% had at least one clinical cIM. A wide range of cIMs occurred, mainly lymphoproliferation, dermatological, gastrointestinal/hepatic and pneumological IMs. The number of cIMs was associated with a subsequent increase in the number of second-line treatments received (other than steroids and immunoglobulins; hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.60; p = 0.0002, Cox proportional hazards method). Survival at 15 years after diagnosis was 84%. Death occurred at a median age of 18 (1.7-31.5) years, and the most frequent cause was infection. The number of second-line treatments and severe/recurrent infections were independently associated with mortality. In conclusion, longterm outcomes of pES showed remission of cytopenias but frequent IMs linked to high secondline treatment burden. Mortality was associated to drugs and/or underlying immunodeficiencies, and adolescents-young adults are a high-risk subgroup.

3.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 4 subgroups of pediatric patients treated with splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as the first-option, second-line treatment for chronic immune thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN: Selection of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia from the French national prospective cohort of pediatric autoimmune cytopenia OBS'CEREVANCE and VIGICAIRE study, treated by splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as a first second-line treatment. RESULTS: For 137 patients, treated between 1989 and 2016, the median follow-up after diagnosis and after treatment initiation was 8.5 (2.8-26.4) years and 4.7 (1.1-25.1) years, respectively. Median age at diagnosis and at initiation of treatment were 9 (0.7; 16) and 12 (2; 18.1) years, respectively without significant difference between subgroups. For the whole cohort, 24-month event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 55; 71). It was 85% (95% CI 77; 95) for the 56 patients treated with splenectomy, 60% (95% CI 44; 84) for the 23 patients treated with rituximab, 46% (95% CI 30; 71) for the 24 patients treated with azathioprine, and 37% (95% CI 24; 59) for the 34 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (log-rank P < .0001). For the splenectomy subgroup, being older than 10 years at splenectomy tended to improve event-free survival (P = .05). Female teenagers with antinuclear antibody positivity benefited from hydroxychloroquine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This national study, limiting pitfalls in the analysis of the effects of second-line therapies, showed that splenectomy remains the treatment associated with the better response at 24 months.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5341, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087723

RESUMO

Autoimmunity can occur when a checkpoint of self-tolerance fails. The study of familial autoimmune diseases can reveal pathophysiological mechanisms involved in more common autoimmune diseases. Here, by whole-exome/genome sequencing we identify heterozygous, autosomal-dominant, germline loss-of-function mutations in the SOCS1 gene in ten patients from five unrelated families with early onset autoimmune manifestations. The intracellular protein SOCS1 is known to downregulate cytokine signaling by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway. Accordingly, patient-derived lymphocytes exhibit increased STAT activation in vitro in response to interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 that is reverted by the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. This effect is associated with a series of in vitro and in vivo immune abnormalities consistent with lymphocyte hyperactivity. Hence, SOCS1 haploinsufficiency causes a dominantly inherited predisposition to early onset autoimmune diseases related to cytokine hypersensitivity of immune cells.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/deficiência , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/química , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 241, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung involvement in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is infrequent and rarely life threatening, but occasionally, severe presentations are observed. METHODS: Among 1482 children (< 15 years) registered in the French LCH registry (1994-2018), 111 (7.4%) had lung involvement. This retrospective study included data for 17 (1.1%) patients that required one or more intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for respiratory failure. RESULTS: The median age was 1.3 years at the first ICU hospitalization. Of the 17 patients, 14 presented with lung involvement at the LCH diagnosis, and 7 patients (41%) had concomitant involvement of risk-organ (hematologic, spleen, or liver). Thirty-five ICU hospitalizations were analysed. Among these, 22 (63%) were secondary to a pneumothorax, 5 (14%) were associated with important cystic lesions without pneumothorax, and 8 (23%) included a diffuse micronodular lung infiltration in the context of multisystem disease. First-line vinblastine-corticosteroid combination therapy was administered to 16 patients; 12 patients required a second-line therapy (cladribine: n = 7; etoposide-aracytine: n = 3; targeted therapy n = 2). A total of 6 children (35%) died (repeated pneumothorax: n = 3; diffuse micronodular lung infiltration in the context of multisystem disease: n = 2; following lung transplantation: n = 1). For survivors, the median follow-up after ICU was 11.2 years. Among these, 9 patients remain asymptomatic despite abnormal chest imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Severe lung involvement is unusual in childhood LCH, but it is associated with high mortality. Treatment guidelines should be improved for this group of patients: viral infection prophylaxis and early administration of a new LCH therapy, such as targeted therapy.

7.
Blood Adv ; 4(15): 3621-3625, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766852

RESUMO

To identify the factors influencing outcome in childhood mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute leukemia (B-NHL/AL) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (CNS+), we analyzed patients <18 years with newly diagnosed B-NHL/AL registered in 3 Lymphomes Malins B studies in France between 1989 to 2011. CNS+ was diagnosed on fulfillment of ≥1 of the following criteria: any L3 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) blasts (CSF+), cranial nerve palsy, isolated intracerebral mass but also clinical spinal cord compression, and cranial or spinal parameningeal extension. Two hundred seventeen out of 1690 patients (12.8%) were CNS+. CNS+ was significantly associated with male gender, head/neck locations, Burkitt histology, high initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and bone marrow involvement. CSF+ was the most frequent pattern of CNS+ (45%). For the 217 CNS+ patients, the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates (95% confidence interval) were 81.5% (75.8% to 86.1%) and 83.9% (78.4% to 88.2%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, among CNS+ patients, low EFS was associated with CSF+, high initial LDH level, and poor response to cyclophosphamide, oncovin (vincristine), prednisone prephase. These findings have been considered for patient's stratification in the international randomized phase 3 trial Inter-B-NHL-ritux 2010 for children and adolescents with high-risk B-NHL/AL with CNS+ CSF+ patients only receiving intensified chemotherapy.

8.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700439

RESUMO

The nucleoside analogue, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CDA), was reported to be an active treatment for childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without risk organ (RO-) involvement. However, we lack data on long-term effects of 2CDA treatment, including the disease reactivation rate, permanent sequelae and long-term tolerance. This study included 44 children from the French LCH registry, treated for a RO- LCH with 2CDA monotherapy (median number of six courses). The median age at the beginning of 2CDA was 3·6 years (range, 0·3-19·7 years) and the median follow-up after was 5·4 years (range, 0·6-15·1 years). Objective response to 2CDA was observed in 25 patients (56·8%), while six patients (13·6%) had stable disease and 13 patients (29·5%) exhibited progressive disease. Among patients without progression, only two experienced disease reactivation after 2CDA discontinuation. The five-year cumulative incidence of disease progression or reactivation after 2CDA therapy initiation was 34·3%. The lymphopenia reported in all cases [72% below absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) of 0·5 G/l], was addressed with appropriate prophylactic measures. Other toxicities above grade 2 were uncommon, and no second malignant neoplasm or neuropathy was reported. The five-year overall survival was 97·7%. In conclusion, we could confirm that 2CDA monotherapy was a beneficial long-term therapy for treating patients with RO- LCH. Appropriate management of induced immune deficiency is mandatory.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(34): 3999-4009, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy of a risk-stratified treatment of children with relapsed anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The ALCL-Relapse trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00317408) stratified patients according to the time of relapse and CD3 expression to prospectively test reinduction approaches combined with consolidation by allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and vinblastine monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with progression during frontline therapy (very high risk) or a CD3-positive relapse (high risk) were scheduled for allogeneic SCT after reinduction chemotherapy. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse within 1 year after initial diagnosis or prior exposure to vinblastine (intermediate risk) received autologous SCT after carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan. This arm was terminated prematurely, and subsequent patients received vinblastine monotherapy instead. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse > 1 year after initial diagnosis (low risk) received vinblastine monotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria; 105 evaluable patients with CNS-negative disease had a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 53% ± 5% and a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 78% ± 4%. Before termination of autologous SCT, EFS rates of patients in the very-high- (n = 17), high- (n = 26), intermediate- (n = 32), and low- (n = 21) risk groups were 41% ± 12%, 62% ± 10%, 44% ± 9%, and 81% ± 9%; the respective OS rates were 59% ± 12%, 73% ± 9%, 78% ± 7%, and 90% ± 6%. Analyzing only the patients in the intermediate-risk group consolidated per protocol by autologous SCT, EFS and OS of 23 patients were 30% ± 10% and 78% ± 9%, respectively. All 5 patients with intermediate risk receiving vinblastine monotherapy after the amendment experienced relapse again. CONCLUSION: Shorter time to relapse was the strongest predictor of subsequent relapse. Allogeneic SCT offers a chance for cure in patients with high-risk ALCL relapse. For early relapsed ALCL autologous SCT was not effective. Vinblastine monotherapy achieved cure in patients with late relapse; however, it was not effective for early relapses.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 95, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castleman disease (CD) is a rare non-malignant lymphoproliferation of undetermined origin. Two major disease phenotypes can be distinguished: unicentric CD (UCD) and multicentric CD (MCD). Diagnosis confirmation is based on histopathological findings in a lymph node. We attempted to survey all cases of paediatric CD identified to date in France to set up a national registry aiming to improve CD early recognition, treatment and follow-up, within the context of a new national reference center (http://www.castleman.fr). METHODS: In 2016, we e-mailed a questionnaire to members of the French paediatric immunohaematology society, the paediatric rheumatology society and the Reference Centre for Castleman Disease to retrospectively collect cases of paediatric CD (first symptoms before age 18 years). Anatomopathological confirmation was mandatory. RESULTS: We identified 23 patients (12 girls) with a diagnosis of UCD (n = 17) and MCD (n = 6) between 1994 and 2018. The mean age at first symptoms was 11.47 ± 4.23 years for UCD and 8.3 ± 3.4 years for MCD. The mean diagnosis delay was 8.16 ± 10.32 months for UCD and 5.16 ± 5.81 years for MCD. In UCD, the initial symptoms were isolated lymph nodes (n = 10) or lymph node associated with other symptoms (n = 7); fever was present in 3 patients. Five patients with MCD presented fever. No patients had HIV or human herpesvirus 8 infection. Autoinflammatory gene mutations were investigated in five patients. One patient with MCD carried a K695R heterozygous mutation in MEFV, another patient with MCD and Duchenne myopathy carried two variants in TNFRSF1A and one patient with UCD and fever episodes carried two heterozygous mutations, in IL10RA and IL36RN, respectively. Treatment of UCD was mainly surgical resection, steroids, and radiotherapy. Treatment of MCD included tocilizumab, rituximab, anakinra, steroids, chemotherapy, and splenectomy. Overall survival after a mean of 6.1 ± 6.4 years of follow-up, was 100% for both forms. CONCLUSION: Paediatric CD still seems underdiagnosed, with a significant diagnosis delay, especially for MCD, but new international criteria will help in the future. Unlike adult CD, which is strongly associated with HIV and human herpesvirus 8 infection, paediatric CD could be favored by primary activation of innate immunity and may affect life expectancy less.

11.
Neuropediatrics ; 51(4): 245-250, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143220

RESUMO

Cutis laxa is a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by abundant and wrinkled skin and a variable degree of intellectual disability. Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type IIIA and autosomal dominant 3 syndromes are caused by autosomal recessive or de novo pathogenic variants in ALDH18A1. Autosomal recessive variants are known to lead to the most severe neurological phenotype, and very few patients have been described.We describe a 13-month-old patient with cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type IIIA, with an extremely severe phenotype, including novel neurological findings. This description enlarges the neurological spectrum associated to cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type IIIA, and provides an additional description of this syndrome.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 189(5): 931-942, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130726

RESUMO

Childhood chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP) is a rare disease. In severe cases, there is no evidence for the optimal therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to describe the real-life management of non-selected children with cITP at diagnosis. Since 2004, patients less than 18 years old with cITP have been enrolled in the national prospective cohort, OBS'CEREVANCE. From 1990 to 2014, in 29 centres, 392 children were diagnosed with cITP. With a median follow-up of six years (2·0-25), 45% did not need second-line therapy, and 55% (n = 217) received one or more second lines, mainly splenectomy (n = 108), hydroxychloroquine (n = 61), rituximab (n = 61) or azathioprine (n = 40). The overall five-year further second-line treatment-free survival was 56% [95% CI 49·5-64.1]. The use of splenectomy significantly decreased over time. Hydroxychloroquine was administered to children with positive antinuclear antibodies, more frequently older and girls, and reached 55% efficacy. None of the patients died. Ten years after the initial diagnosis, 55% of the 56 followed children had achieved complete remission. Children with cITP do not need second-line treatments in 45% of cases. Basing the treatment decision on the pathophysiological pathways is challenging, as illustrated by ITP patients with positive antinuclear antibodies treated with hydroxychloroquine.

13.
Am J Transplant ; 20(8): 2243-2253, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065452

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a rare but frequently lethal complication after solid organ transplantation. GVHD occurs in unduly immunocompromised hosts but requires the escalation of immunosuppression, which does not discriminate between host and donor cells. In contrast, donor-targeted therapy would ideally mitigate graft-versus-host reactivity while sparing recipient immune functions. We report two children with end-stage renal disease and severe primary immune deficiency (Schimke syndrome) who developed severe steroid-resistant acute GVHD along with full and sustained donor T cell chimerism after isolated kidney transplantation. Facing a therapeutic dead end, we used a novel strategy based on the adoptive transfer of anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) through the transfusion of highly selected plasma. After approval by the appropriate regulatory authority, an urgent nationwide search was launched among more than 3800 registered blood donors with known anti-HLA sensitization. Adoptively transferred DSAs bound to and selectively depleted circulating donor T cells. The administration of DSA-rich plasma was well tolerated and notably did not induce antibody-mediated rejection of the renal allografts. Acute GVHD symptoms promptly resolved in one child. This report provides a proof of concept for a highly targeted novel therapeutic approach for solid organ transplantation-associated GVHD.

14.
Chest ; 157(2): 323-333, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare multisystemic histiocytosis. Pulmonary involvement during RDD has been poorly described. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical presentations, radiological features, and outcomes of 15 patients with RDD and lung involvement. METHODS: The cases of RDD with lung involvement were extracted from the French National Histiocytosis registry. Efficacy of the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in treating lung disease was evaluated with an 18fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanner and chest CT scans. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (six women; median age, 40 years at RDD diagnosis) were included. All patients had evidence of systemic disease with extrapulmonary localizations of the disease (lymphadenopathy [n = 12], skin [n = 9], bones [n = 6], retroperitoneal involvement [n = 3], sinuses [n = 3], parotid gland [n = 2], submandibular gland [n = 1], and breast [n = 1]). Presenting symptoms were dominated by dyspnea and dry cough in seven patients. Restrictive physiology was observed in two of five patients. BAL showed lymphocytosis in one of five cases. Eight patients received corticosteroids, all but one with variable immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. Two patients received cobimetinib for severe lung disease, with dramatic pulmonary metabolic and tumoral responses. Two patients died during follow-up: one of hemoptysis, and the other of an unrelated cerebral tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in RDD is rare, proteiform, and sometimes severe. The MEK inhibitor cobimetinib can lead to dramatic responses.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568177

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies are inherited disorders, which may be revealed in the context of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report the case of a girl presenting with an enterovirus-related AIHA. Despite being in complete remission for her anemia after treatment, the initial CD4/CD8 lymphopenia dramatically worsened with time. Its sole clinical presentation was generalized verrucosis. Cellular quantitative and functional immunodeficiency was evidenced but no known molecular defect was identified despite extensive workup. This unlabeled profound naive T-lymphopenia was cured by bone marrow transplantation. No similar case was ever described in the scientific literature. Patients with AIHA and/or generalized verrucosis should be screened for primary immunodeficiency, before initiating any immunomodulatory treatment.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2857-2865, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

17.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 702-712, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.

18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27873, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to describe relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature acute leukemia in children/adolescents treated with the Lymphomes Malins B (LMB) regimen and their outcome in the rituximab era, relapses in the French LMB2001 study were reviewed. METHODS: Between February 2001 and December 2011, 33 patients out of 773 (4.3%) relapsed; 27 had Burkitt lymphoma and six large B-cell histology. Median age at diagnosis was 10.1 years. One patient was initially treated in risk group A, 21 in group B, and 11 in group C. RESULTS: Median time to relapse after diagnosis was 4.5 months (range 2.4-13.6). Thirty-two patients received salvage therapy. Twenty-seven received rituximab mainly in addition to high-dose cytarabine and etoposide (n = 18) and/or ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (n = 7). First-line salvage chemotherapy response rate was 66% with 47% being complete remission (CR). Twenty-one patients received high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by autologous (n = 13) or allogeneic (n = 8) transplant. With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the 5-year survival rate after relapse was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22-53%). Twelve patients were still alive; all but one (group A) received consolidation treatment. Achieving CR before consolidation was significantly associated with better survival, with a 5-year survival rate of 75% (95% CI 46.8-91.1%) for patients in CR before HDC, 33% (95% CI 9.7-70%) for patients in partial remission, and 0% for nonresponders (P = .033). CONCLUSION: Survival of children/adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma/leukemia remains poor after relapse with no apparent improvement with rituximab. Response rates to salvage chemo-immunotherapies are insufficient and new drugs are urgently needed to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Burkitt , Leucemia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Burkitt/mortalidade , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1713-1730, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/diagnóstico , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Processamento Alternativo , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
20.
Blood ; 134(1): 9-21, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940614

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare severe autoimmune disorder characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. In most cases, the underlying cause is unknown. We sought to identify genetic defects in pediatric ES (pES), based on a hypothesis of strong genetic determinism. In a national, prospective cohort of 203 patients with early-onset ES (median [range] age at last follow-up: 16.3 years ([1.2-41.0 years]) initiated in 2004, 80 nonselected consecutive individuals underwent genetic testing. The clinical data were analyzed as a function of the genetic findings. Fifty-two patients (65%) received a genetic diagnosis (the M+ group): 49 carried germline mutations and 3 carried somatic variants. Thirty-two (40%) had pathogenic mutations in 1 of 9 genes known to be involved in primary immunodeficiencies (TNFRSF6, CTLA4, STAT3, PIK3CD, CBL, ADAR1, LRBA, RAG1, and KRAS), whereas 20 patients (25%) carried probable pathogenic variants in 16 genes that had not previously been reported in the context of autoimmune disease. Lastly, no genetic abnormalities were found in the remaining 28 patients (35%, the M- group). The M+ group displayed more severe disease than the M- group, with a greater frequency of additional immunopathologic manifestations and a greater median number of lines of treatment. Six patients (all from the M+ group) died during the study. In conclusion, pES was potentially genetically determined in at least 65% of cases. Systematic, wide-ranging genetic screening should be offered in pES; the genetic findings have prognostic significance and may guide the choice of a targeted treatment.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
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