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Eur J Pharm Sci ; 159: 105727, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484813


Aligned with efforts to overcome shortcomings of conventional oral dosage forms, mucoadhesive oral thin films have been the focus of drug development. Transmucosal drug delivery through oral cavity is a popular alternative to deliver many drugs due to several advantages over conventional oral delivery including greater bioavailability due to bypassing the first-pass effect and avoiding enzymatic or acid-related degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, faster onset of action, and better patient compliance particularly in geriatric and pediatric patients. Furthermore, among solid transmucosal delivery platforms, buccal and sublingual strips or patches are more attractive due to their flexibility, ease of administration, high patient compliance, and fast dissolution. They are also more stable compared to oral gels making them a desirable candidate to deliver many small and large molecules locally or systemically. Mucoadhesion and mechanical properties of oral films are crucial in their performance, and therefore ways to measure these properties are also similarly important. Since they are relatively new to the pharmaceutical market, there are currently no FDA-recommended or USP standard methods available to characterize such dosage forms. This review intends to cover and discuss various methods cited in the literature to measure and evaluate mucoadhesive and mechanical properties of oral films.

Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 22(3): 246-250, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156783


Objectives: Many studies have focused on ventral tegmental area than of other mesocorticolimbic areas, and implicated a key role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the development of addictive behaviors. So far, the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the discriminative properties of morphine has received little attention and few studies evaluated the role of these receptors in drug dependence. Hence, we investigated the role of this receptor on morphine- induced GABA/ glutamate (GLU) changes in the mPFC following morphine administration using in vivo microdialysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 rats weighing 270-300 g were divided into six groups. First, microdialysis probe was inserted into the mPFC and was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid and collected the baseline samples in all groups. In saline and morphine groups, the saline, in phaclophen and (phaclofen+morphine) groups, phaclofen (100 nmol), and in bicuculline and (bicuculline+morphine) groups, bicuculline (20 nmol) was injected intracerebroventricular. In saline, phaclofen and bicuculline groups 20 min later, animals received saline (0.2 ml, IP) and others groups received morphine (20 mg/kg, IP). Results: Our results showed that morphine increased the average concentration of GABA and decreased the concentration of GLU within mPFC. Pretreatment with phaclofen and bicuculline 20 min before morphine administration had no effect on GABA and GLU release for 100 min. Conclusion: The present study indicated that morphine influence the GABA and GLU transmission in mPFC. Therefore evaluation of neurochemistry changes of this neural circuitry may provide further insight into the mechanisms underlying drug dependence.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(12): 1255-1271, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408424


INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid abuse is now an epidemic that has forced the government and industries to take initiatives. These include developing abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs), issuing regulatory guidances and allocating massive budgets to ensure the safety and effectiveness of these medications. Areas covered: This review covers the regulatory guidance on evaluation and labeling of the branded and generic ADFs. It also includes the relevant patents and technologies, the in-vitro, in-vivo, the post-marketing data, the FDA reviews, and the products' labeling of the FDA-approved products with abuse-deterrent features. Expert opinion: Despite the development of a dozen products with abuse-deterrent features, most of these technologies rely on the same deterrent agent, making it easier for abusers to focus their manipulation efforts and share their experience to defeat the technology. Further advancement in the field requires developing more robust, more diverse, safer, and affordable deterrent technologies for the extended- and immediate-release opioid products. Moreover, advances in the reporting of the post-market results, issuance of policies in support of the ADFs, and concurrent monitoring of the illicit opioid market are other considerations that can further help in confronting the epidemic.

Formulações de Dissuasão de Abuso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Fármacos , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
Ann Maxillofac Surg ; 6(2): 190-194, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299256


AIMS: Implant placement in the posterior region of the maxilla might be problematic due to poor regional bone quality. The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate implants which were placed in the posterior region of the maxilla (with insufficient bone height) with osteotome sinus lift technique after 19-month follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with posterior maxillary alveolar height ranging from 5 to 8 mm were chosen for this prospective study. After breaking of the cortical bony sinus floor, sufficient bone substitute was placed, and sinus floor was elevated. In this way, a new sinus floor was created, which was designated for further implants placement. Fifty implants were placed immediately after osteotomy sinus lift technique. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up period was 19 months (with a range of 14-24 months). Success factors such as the absence of mobility, pain, infection, and the amount of crestal bone loss were determined in this study. For data analyzing, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: After 19 months, results showed 96% success rate. Two out of fifty implants failed due to mobility. The mean depth of implants in sinus, mean height of residual crestal bone before surgery, and the mean rate of crestal bone loss were 3.8, 7.9, and 0.71 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: Osteotome sinus lift technique is a noninvasive surgical method for enhancing a desired length. Furthermore, implants insertion was successful after osteotome sinus lift technique in cases with insufficient bone height.

Int J Prev Med ; 4(2): 158-64, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23542877


BACKGROUND: There is only little information about the effects of GABA receptors agonist and antagonist on morphine self-administration. Present study was designed to assess role of GABAB receptors in the regulation of morphine-reinforced self-administration. METHODS: THIS STUDY WAS PERFORMED IN FOUR GROUPS OF RATS: (1) Saline group, which received saline in the self-administration session. (2) Morphine group, which received morphine in saline solution in the self-administration session. (3) Baclofen + Morphine group, which received both baclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. (4) Phaclofen + Morphine group, which received both phaclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. The number of lever pressing and self-infusion were recorded. RESULTS: Morphine significantly increased the number of active lever pressing dose dependently in self-administration session in comparative with saline group. Administration of baclofen, 20 min before morphine self-administration produced significant decrease in the initiation of morphine self-administration during all session. Conversely, pre-treatment of phaclofen increased the number of active lever pressing and self-infusion in this test. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated a short-term treatment by baclofen, reduced morphine-maintenance response in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that GABAB receptor agonists could be useful for reversing the neuroadaptations related to opiates.

J Contemp Dent Pract ; 13(5): 632-6, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23250166


INTRODUCTION: The success of bonded restorations depends on effective bonding between restorative materials and tooth structure, and it prevents microleakage. New dentin bonding systems have been introduced which promotes this concept. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of microleakage between 'single bond' vs 'Prompt L-Pop' during different time periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 nonretentive class five cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of human premolars which were scheduled to be removed for orthodontic purposes. The cavities were restored using two different bonding agents; fifth generation (Single Bond) and sixth generation (Prompt L-Pop) and then filled with resin composite (Filtek Z-250). The samples in both groups were extracted after placing the restoration in three periods of time: Immediately, 1 week and 6 months postplacement. Specimens were sealed with two layers of nail varnish except for 1 mm around restoration and immersed in a silver nitrate solution for 24 hours. The teeth were then sectioned longitudinally and the degree of microleakage was determined by stereomicroscope based on standard usual criteria. RESULTS: Single bond showed more leakage at dentin margin than enamel margin in all three extraction periods and differences were significant among three groups (p < 0.05). In samples which were restored with Prompt L-Pop only in groups of 6 months there were significant differences between enamel and dentin margins. At enamel margin there were no significant differences between microleakage of groups according to the passage of time (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study using two different bonding systems, indicate that adhesion to enamel was more valuable than dentin and perhaps systems that include self-etching primers are less sensitive to remaining moisture on dentin and they are less affected during different time periods.

Resinas Compostas/química , Infiltração Dentária/classificação , Materiais Dentários/química , Adesivos Dentinários/química , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente/métodos , Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina/química , Coloração pela Prata , Fatores de Tempo