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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 121: 111851, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579485

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic bowel disease involving chronic inflammation and ulcers in colon and implicates severe epithelial damage with disruption in colon homeostasis. Presently existing treatments possess serious concerns like off target effects and adverse reactions, drug inactivation, poor absorption and other complications resulting in poor bioavailability. In context of high risk of thrombotic events in UC patients, heparin can offer appreciable benefits in UC management due to its remarkable anti-coagulating properties, its ability to intervene inflammatory pathways and acceleration of wound healing process. However, oral administration of heparin being impractical due to harsh gastric acidic environment and heparin degradation, conventional heparin administration is done via intravenous route. Present study was designed to formulate, characterize and evaluate sustained release heparin formulation in mice model of experimental colitis. Heparin liposomes (HLp) were formulated by solvent evaporation and extrusion process and possessed hydrodynamic diameter of 242 ± 4.3 nm. Size, shape and surface morphology was confirmed by TEM, SEM and AFM micrographs while encapsulation efficiency and loading of heparin in optimized HLp were 59.61% and 12.27%, respectively. HLp enema administration ameliorated gross disease indices like body weight, colon length, stool consistency, fecal occult blood. Further, anti-inflammatory efficacy of HLp was established in histopathological analysis where HLp appreciably restored protective mucin layer, colon epithelial mucosal histoarchitecture and considerably attenuated mast cell infiltration in colon epithelia. Overall, results of this study indicate that HLp demonstrated an appreciable therapeutic efficacy in experimental colitis and these results are attributed to their ability to suppress inflammation.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573343

RESUMO

Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts as capping and reducing agents for the biomedical applications has received considerable attention. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major health concern and lookout for novel alternative effective drugs has gained momentum. In current study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the seed extract of Trachyspermum ammi (TA-AuNPs), assessed its efficacy against drug resistant biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Serratia marcescens, and evaluated its anticancer potential against HepG2 cancer cell lines. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out and characterization was done using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Most nanoparticles were observed as spherical and spheroidal with few anisotropies with an average crystalline size of 16.63 nm. Synthesized TA-AuNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes (73%) as well as S. marcescens (81%). Exopolysaccharide (EPS), motility, and CSH, key elements that facilitate the formation and maintenance of biofilm were also inhibited significantly at the tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). Further, TA-AuNPs effectively obliterated preformed mature biofilms of S. marcescens and L. monocytogenes by 64% and 58%, respectively. Induction of intracellular ROS production in TA-AuNPs treated bacterial cells could be the plausible mechanism for the reduced biofilm formation in test pathogens. Administration of TA-AuNPs resulted in the arrest of cellular proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. TA-AuNPs decrease the intracellular GSH in HepG2 cancer cell lines, cells become more prone to ROS generation, hence induce apoptosis. Thus, this work proposes a new eco-friendly and rapid approach for fabricating NPs which can be exploited for multifarious biomedical applications.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112020, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592373

RESUMO

The contribution of nanoparticles (NPs) in physiology of the plants became the new area of interest for the physiologists; as it is very much cost effective compared to the phytohormones. Our present investigation was also based on this interest in which the same doses (50 mg/L) of four different NPs were sprayed on stressed and non-stressed foliage. The experiment was conducted to assess the impact of four NPs viz., zinc oxide (ZnO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) on the morphology and physiology of linseed in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl). Plants responded positively to all the treated NPs and improved the growth, carbon and nutrient assimilation, while salt stress increased the content of proline, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Application of NPs over the stressed plants further increased the antioxidant enzymatic system and other physiochemical reactions. Results indicate that application of NPs increased the growth and physiology of the plant and also increased the salt tolerance capacity of the plant.

4.
Carbohydr Res ; 501: 108271, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636400

RESUMO

Glucose is recognized as signaling molecule that regulates growth and development of plants under various environmental cues, but their effect in regulation of copper induced toxicity in plants is not yet investigated. This study revealed the effect of exogenously sourced glucose on Cucumber plants exposed to increasing concentration of copper. Glucose mediated response on growth performance, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, ion uptake were analyzed in the presence and absence of copper. Glucose alone and in combination with lower concentration of copper improved the growth, photosynthetic performance, and antioxidant capacity of cucumber plants. However, higher concentrations of copper alone showed oxidative damage through increased electrolyte leakage, H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and reduced uptake of macronutrients. Application of glucose to copper-stressed plants enhanced activities of Rubisco, antioxidant enzymes, proline accumulation and maintained copper level in aerial parts of plants. These enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline accumulation, uptake of NPK and maintained equilibrium of copper in plants, leading to detoxification of copper stress in cucumber plants. This study provides an understanding that exogenous application of glucose can be employed as vital biochemical approach in alleviating copper-induced toxicity and could be utilized as phytoremediation technique for removal of excess transition metal from polluted soil.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 258: 117600, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593531

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder and serious cause of disability. Despite considerable advances in RA management, challenges like extensive drug metabolism and rapid clearance causes poor bioavailability. Core-shell nanocarriers for co-delivery of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and budesonide against RA were developed. GA-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and coated with budesonide encapsulated aminocellulose-grafted polycaprolactone (PCL-AC). GA- and budesonide-loaded PCL-AC-gel NPs had diameter of 200-225 nm. Dual drug-loaded (DDL) NPs reduced joint swelling and erythema in rats while markedly ameliorating bone erosion evidenced by radiological analysis, suppressed collagen destruction, restored synovial tissue, bone and cartilage histoarchitecture with reduced inflammatory cells infiltration. NPs also reduced various inflammatory biomarkers such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, COX-2, iNOS. Results of this study suggest that dual NPs exerted superior therapeutic effects in RA compared to free drugs which may be attributed to slow and sustained drug release and NPs' ability to inhibit inflammatory mediators.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 175: 1-18, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508360

RESUMO

Administration of nanomaterials based medicinal and drug carrier systems into systemic circulation brings about interaction of blood components e.g. albumin and globulin proteins with these nanosystems. These blood or serum proteins either get loosely attached over these nanocarriers and form soft protein corona or are tightly adsorbed over nanoparticles and hard protein corona formation occurs. Formation of protein corona has significant implications over a wide array of physicochemical and medicinal attributes. Almost all pharmacological, toxicological and carrier characteristics of nanoparticles get prominently touched by the protein corona formation. It is this interaction of nanoparticle protein corona that decides and influences fate of nanomaterials-based systems. In this article, authors reviewed several diverse aspects of protein corona formation and its implications on various possible outcomes in vivo and in vitro. A brief description regarding formation and types of protein corona has been included along with mechanisms and pharmacokinetic, pharmacological behavior and toxicological profiles of nanoparticles has been described. Finally, significance of protein corona in context of its in vivo and in vitro behavior, involvement of biomolecules at nanoparticle plasma interface and other interfaces and effects of protein corona on biocompatibility characteristics have also been touched upon.

7.
Protoplasma ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392740

RESUMO

In plants, glucose (Glc) acts as a crucial signaling molecule in mediating metabolism, growth, stress tolerance mechanism, etc. However, little is known about Glc supplementation in salinity tolerance. This experiment was designed to study the ameliorative effect of Glc in mustard under salt stress. The seeds were soaked in three concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, or 100 mM) for 8 h and then treated with four concentrations of Glc (0, 2, 4, or 8%) as foliar spray for 5 days at 25-day stage. The plants were harvested at three growth stages (30, 45, and 60) for examining morpho-physiological and proteomic studies. Glc application as foliar spray increases growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidative enzyme activities in NaCl-treated plants. Glc applied in plants also showed reduction in superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde content under salt stress. Amongst all doses of Glc, spray of 4% Glc proved best in alleviating the harmful effects of salinity.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124852, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383453

RESUMO

The present study reveals the effect of mercury (Hg) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on plant growth and metabolism in soybean cultivars (Pusa-24, Pusa-37and Pusa-40). Mercury stress decreased growth and biomass yield, and gas exchange attributes in all soybean cultivars. External supplementation of SNP mitigated Hg toxicity by improving growth and gas exchange parameters. Electrolyte leakage (EL) increased accompanied with elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 under Hg stress, however, they were found to be reduced in all cultivars upon the exogenous application of SNP. The activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase (SOD and CAT) and those enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione pathway were impaired by Hg stress, but they were regulated by the application of SNP. Accumulation of Hg and NO in the shoots and roots were also regulated by the application of NO. Although, all three cultivars were affected by Hg stress, Pusa-37 was relatively less affected. Mercury stress affected the growth and development of different soybean cultivars, but Pusa-37 being tolerant was less affected. Pusa-37 was found to be more responsive to SNP than Pusa-24, Pusa-40 under Hg toxicity. The external supplementation of SNP could be a sustainable approach to economically utilize Hg affected soils.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158232

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) metal toxicity is a crucial ecological matter that requires immediate efforts to mitigate it. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to Cd (0 and 200 µM as CdSO4) and foliar application of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) (0, 10-7 and 10-5 M). The toxic effect of Cd was evident in terms of declined growth and biomass yield, lowered levels of pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence, and reduction in gas exchange attributes. The levels of proline and glycinebetaine increased in response to Cd treatment. There was an imperative rise in the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde as well as electrolyte leakage in the Cd-stressed plants. With the application of EBR, there was a significant replenishment in growth attributes and photosynthetic efficacy. The contents of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and malondialdehyde as well as electrolyte leakage were reduced by the hormone supplementation. Enhancement in the contents of glutathione and ascorbic acid, and the activities of enzymes of the antioxidative defense system and glyoxalase system was recorded in response to Cd as well as hormone treatment. The in situ levels of Cd in roots and shoot were augmented in response to Cd treatment, but were found to be lowered by the EBR application.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849352

RESUMO

There is grave necessity to counter the menace of drug-resistant biofilms of pathogens using nanomaterials. Moreover, we need to produce nanoparticles (NPs) using inexpensive clean biological approaches that demonstrate broad-spectrum inhibition of microbial biofilms and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines. In the current research work, titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs were fabricated through an environmentally friendly green process using the root extract of Withania somnifera as the stabilizing and reducing agent to examine its antibiofilm and anticancer potential. Further, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques were used for determining the crystallinity, functional groups involved, shape, size, thermal behavior, surface area, and porosity measurement, respectively, of the synthesized TiO2 NPs. Antimicrobial potential of the TiO2 NPs was determined by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Serratia marcescens, and Candida albicans. Furthermore, at levels below the MIC (0.5 × MIC), TiO2 NPs demonstrated significant inhibition of biofilm formation (43-71%) and mature biofilms (24-64%) in all test pathogens. Cell death due to enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production could be responsible for the impaired biofilm production in TiO2 NP-treated pathogens. The synthesized NPs induced considerable reduction in the viability of HepG2 in vitro and could prove effective in controlling liver cancer. In summary, the green synthesized TiO2 NPs demonstrate multifarious biological properties and could be used as an anti-infective agent to treat biofilm-based infections and cancer.

11.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(4): 1080-1090, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256169

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in different stages of biofilm development, virulence production, and subsequently to the growth of bacteria in food environments. Biofilm mediated spoilage of food is one of the ongoing challenge faced by the food industry worldwide as it incurs substantial economic losses and leads to various health issues. In the present investigation, we studied the interference of quorum sensing, its regulated virulence functions, and biofilm in food-associated bacteria by colorant azorubine. In vitro bioassays demonstrated significant inhibition of QS and its coordinated virulence functions in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (elastase, protease, pyocyanin, and alginate). Further, the decrease in the production EPS (49-63%) and swarming motility (61-83%) of the pathogens was also recorded at sub-MICs. Azorubine demonstrated broad-spectrum biofilm inhibitory potency (50-65%) against Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli O157:H7, Serratia marcescens, and Listeria monocytogenes. ROS generation due to the interaction between bacteria and azorubine could be responsible for the biofilm inhibitory action of the food colorant. Findings of the in vitro studies were well supported by molecular docking and simulation analysis of azorubine and QS virulence proteins. Azorubine showed strong binding to PqsA as compared to other virulent proteins (LasR, Vfr, and QscR). Thus, it is concluded that azorubine is a promising candidate to ensure food safety by curbing the menace of bacterial QS and biofilm-based spoilage of food and reduce economic losses.

12.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125480, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821927

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) toxicity and the mitigating role of nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on Vicia faba. Arsenics stress decreased the growth and biomass yield, and photosynthetic pigments, but it enhanced As accumulation. Supplementation of NO enhanced the afore-mentioned parameters except As accumulation which decreased in both shoot and root. Supplementation of NO enhanced the shoot tolerance index (Shoot TI%), root tolerance index (Root TI%) but it declined the As translocation factor (TF). Application of NO alleviated the As-induced decline in net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration and leaf relative water content. The levels of proline and glycine betaine (GB) further increased due to NO application, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL) and methylglyoxal (MG) declined considerably. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased under As stress. Supplementation of NO up-regulated the enzymes involved in Asc-Glu cycle and glyoxalase cycle under As toxicity. Another experiment was setup to authenticate whether NO was certainly able to alleviate As toxicity. For this purpose, the NO scavenger [2-(4-carboxy-2 phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tertamethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO)] was added to As and NO supplemented plants. Addition of cPTIO to NO supplemented As-treated plants showed the same effect when As alone was supplied to plants. In conclusion, addition of NO to the growth medium maintained the plant performance under As toxicity through modulation of physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, and the Asc-Glu and glyoxalase systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Nitroprussiato/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
13.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752443

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) toxicity has a great impact in terms of toxicity towards living organisms as it severely affects crop growth, yield, and food security; thus, warranting appropriate measures for the remediation of Pb polluted soils. Phytoextraction of heavy metals (HMs) using tolerant plants along with organic chelators has gained global attention. Thus, this study examines the possible influence of citric acid (CA) on unveiling the potential phytoextraction of Pb by using castor beans. For this purpose, different levels of Pb (0, 300, 600 mg kg-1 of soil) and CA (0, 2.5, and 5 mM) were supplied alone and in all possible combinations. The results indicate that elevated levels of Pb (especially 600 mg kg-1 soil) induce oxidative stress, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malanodialdehyde (MDA) production in plants. The Pb stress reduces the photosynthetic traits (chlorophyll and gas exchange parameters) in the tissues of plants (leaves and roots), which ultimately lead to a reduction in growth as well as biomass. Enzyme activities such as guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase are also linearly increased in a dose-dependent manner under Pb stress. The exogenous application of CA reduced the Pb toxicity in plants by improving photosynthesis and, ultimately, plant growth. The upsurge in antioxidants against oxidative stress shows the potential of CA-treated castor beans plants to counteract stress injuries by lowering H2O2 and MDA levels. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CA treatments play a promising role in increasing the uptake of Pb and reducing its phytotoxicity. These outcomes recommend that CA application could be an effective approach for the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils by growing castor beans.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757084

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of fly ash (FA) on the Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. trees growing at three different locations. FA stress caused significant changes in different leaf attributes like sugar, protein contents, photosynthetic pigments, nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity in foliar tissues of plants growing at a highly contaminated site, as compared to a low-pollution site. Lower rates of stomatal conductance (SC) were observed in P. dulce leaves under fly ash stress conditions that drastically reduced net photosynthetic rate (PN); however, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration and stomatal index (SI) showed an increase under the same stress conditions. On the other hand, significant increase was also observed in the proline, sulphur and nitrogen contents. A significant increase in oxidative stress and, consequently, in antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and Air pollution tolerance index were discovered at three different sites. The transcriptional expression of antioxidant and stress responsive genes was higher at HPS as compared to two other two sites of the study. Taken together the results demonstrated that the P. dulce is best suited as a fly ash stress tolerant plant species with the potential to provide an alternative for the reclamation of fly ash affected soils.

15.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652728

RESUMO

: The present research was performed to assess the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on salt-stressed soybean plants. Salt stress suppressed growth, biomass yield, gas exchange parameters, pigment content, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but all these parameters were up-regulated by EBR supply. Moreover, salt stress increased hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage. EBR supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress biomarkers. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the accumulation of proline, glycinebetaine, total phenols, and total flavonoids increased with NaCl stress, but these attributes further increased with EBR supplementation. The activities of enzymes and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants involved in the Asc-Glu cycle also increased with NaCl stress, and further enhancement in these attributes was recorded by EBR supplementation. Salinity elevated the methylglyoxal content, but it was decreased by the EBR supplementation accompanying with up-regulation of the glyoxalase cycle (GlyI and GlyII). Salinity enhanced the Na+ uptake in root and shoot coupled with a decrease in uptake of Ca2+, K+, and P. However, EBR supplementation declined Na+ accumulation and promoted the uptake of the aforementioned nutrients. Overall, EBR supplementation regulated the salt tolerance mechanism in soybean plants by modulating osmolytes, activities of key enzymes, and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(1): 247-255, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680178

RESUMO

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is an important spice and medicinal plant that is cultivated in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and North America. Its morphological and biochemical parameters, such as the changes in the floral parts (six tepals, three stamens, three stigmata), biomass, and chlorophyll content, are primarily affected by environmental conditions. A polymerase chain reaction-rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) approach was used to analyze the extent of the polymorphisms between C. sativus genotypes grown in the Saudi climate. In this research study, the DNA fingerprints of the stigmata of C. sativus genotypes [K1 & K2 = C. sativus var. cashmerianus, C1 = C. sativus (nonmutant), T1 = mutant (T0-2B), T2 = mutant (T1-2B), T3 = mutant (T4-2A)] were determined according to the floral parts, and a total of 10 decamer primers were used for PCR-RAPD analysis. Only three pairs of arbitrary primers showed polymorphisms (33.3%-88.2%) in the total genomic DNA extracted from these genotypes. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged from 0.88 to 1.0. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity and dendrogram matrix showed that two genotypes (T1-2B and T4-2A) were closely related to each other and to the strain CM-cashmerianus, while the T0 of C. sativus genotype showed divergence.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13515, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201952

RESUMO

The present study tested the efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and calcium (Ca) for mediating salinity tolerance in tomato. Salinity stress affected the morphological parameters of tomato as well as leaf relative water content (LRWC), photosynthetic and accessory pigments, leaf gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence and the uptake of essential macronutrients. The salt (NaCl) treatment induced oxidative stress in the form of increased Na+ ion concentration by 146%, electrolyte leakage (EL) by 61.11%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) 167% and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content by 175%. Salt stress also enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities including those in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Plants treated with EBL or Ca after salt exposure mitigated the ill effects of salt stress, including oxidative stress, by reducing the uptake of Na+ ions by 52%. The combined dose of EBL + Ca reversed the salt-induced changes through an elevated pool of enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, other antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase), and osmoprotectants (proline, glycine betaine). Exogenously applied EBL and Ca help to optimize mineral nutrient status and enable tomato plants to tolerate salt toxicity. The ability of tomato plants to tolerate salt stress when supplemented with EBL and Ca was attributed to modifications to enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, osmolytes and metabolites.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202175, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180173

RESUMO

The protective role of exogenously applied kinetin (10 µM KN, a cytokinin) against the adverse effects caused by NaCl-induced (150 mM) stress in Solanum lycopersicum was investigated. Application of KN significantly enhanced growth and biomass production of normally grown plants (non-stressed) and also mitigated the adverse effect of NaCl on stressed plants to a considerable extent. Among the examined parameters, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic parameters, components of the antioxidant system (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic), osmotica accumulation, and mineral uptake exhibited a significant increase following the application of KN. Furthermore, KN application reduced the generation of reactive free radical hydrogen peroxide, coupled with a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and an increase in membrane stability. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, and glyoxylase system were found to be promoted in plants exposed to NaCl, and the activities were further promoted by KN application, thereby protecting S. lycopersicum plants against NaCl-induced oxidative damage. Further strengthening of the antioxidant system in KN supplied plants was ascribed to regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, phenols and flavonoids in them. The levels of proline and glycine betaine increased considerably in KN-treated plants, thereby maintaining relative water content. Moreover, exogenous KN application reduced the inhibitory effects of NaCl on K+ and Ca2+ uptake, which resulted in a considerable reduction in tissue Na+/K+ ratio.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/biossíntese , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/biossíntese , Cinetina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 146, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL, 10-7M) and silicon (2 mM) on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd, 150 mg L-1) toxicity in Pisum sativum L. seedlings via the modulation of growth, antioxidant defense, glyoxalase system, and nutrient uptake. RESULTS: Shoot and root lengths declined by 46.43% and 52.78%, respectively, following Cd stress. Shoot and root dry weights also declined with Cd toxicity. Biochemical and physiological aspects exhibit significant decline including total chlorophyll (33.09%), carotenoid (51.51%), photosynthetic efficiency (32.60%), photochemical quenching (19.04%), leaf relative water content (40.18%), and gas exchange parameters (80.65%). However, EBL or Si supplementation alone or in combination modulates the previously mentioned parameters. Cadmium stress increased proline and glycine betaine (GB) contents by 4.37 and 2.41-fold, respectively. Exposure of plants to Cd stress increased the accumulation of H2O2, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage, and methylglyoxal, which declined significantly with EBL and Si supplementation, both individually and in combination. Similarly, Cd stress adversely affected enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, but EBL and/or Si supplementation maintained antioxidant levels. Glyoxalase I (GlyI) accumulated after Cd stress and increased further with the application of EBL and Si. However, GlyII content declined after Cd stress but increased with supplementation of EBL and Si. Cadmium accumulation occurred in the following order: roots > shoots>leaves. Supplementation with EBL and Si, individually and in combination reduced Cd accumulation and enhanced the uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients in shoots and roots, which declined with Cd toxicity. CONCLUSION: The application of 24-EBL and Si, individually and in combination, alleviated the adverse effects of Cd by improving growth, biochemical parameters, nutrient uptake, osmolyte accumulation, and the anti-oxidative defense and glyoxalase systems in Pisum sativum seedlings.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/farmacologia , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Betaína/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia
20.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1000, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875740

RESUMO

Understanding the symbiotic performance of rhizobia and responses of plant root systems to mineral nutrient supply will facilitate the development of strategies to enhance effective rhizobia-legume symbioses. Interactive effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) on the symbiotic performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nodulation, root architecture, and the N concentration in plant tissue under hydroponic conditions were studied. Plant growth was significantly higher under a high N supply combined with Mg (HNHMg) than in combination with P (HNHP), which was attributed to the interaction between N and Mg ions. The plants grown at a low N concentration combined with either high or low P or Mg (LNHP, LNHMg, LNLP, and LNLMg) showed a higher nodule dry weight compared to those grown under a high N supply. We observed that the N content in the roots and shoots of soybean plants was significantly lower under LNHP or LNLP, but it was higher under HNHMg or LNHMg, indicating that Mg promotes N acquisition by the plant tissues. Neither root nor shoot growth responded significantly to P availability regardless of the N supply. We observed significant positive relationships between the number of nodules, the N content in plant tissues and the root system architecture of soybean plants grown with a variable supply of Mg combined with N, which highlights the importance of N and Mg availability in the growth medium in regulating root system architecture and nodule formation. The number of rhizobial cells colonizing soybean roots was highest under the HNHMg treatment (6.78 × 104 CFUs/cm of root tip), followed by the HNLMg (4.72 × 104 CFUs/cm of root tip) and LNHMg (4.10 × 104 CFU/cm of root tip) treatments, and lowest under the LNLMg (1.84 × 104 CFUs/cm of root tip) nutrient conditions. The results of this study contribute to new insights for the improvement of the root system and the symbiotic performance of rhizobia inoculated on legumes, stressing the importance of a balanced supply of nutrients.

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