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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

3.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations, and outcomes of different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease in a multiethnic/multiracial, prospective inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including 7 types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, and patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, and 48.8% were white. The mean ± SD age was 35.1 ± 13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment was 5.6 ± 4.2 months, and follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139 (7.6%) of 1,827 patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy (66 of 161 [41.0%]), mononeuropathy (44 of 161 [27.3%]), and cranial neuropathy (39 of 161 [24.2%]), and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with a history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical and mental component summary scores versus no NP events. According to physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time, which was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life. The outcome is favorable for most patients, but our findings indicate that several factors are associated with longer time to resolution.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if low disease activity state (LDAS)/Remission predicts a better health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients from a single center with at least two visits were included. Visits were performed every six months. HRQoL was measured with the LupusQoL. Remission: a SLEDAI-2K=0, prednisone daily dose≤5mg/d and immunosuppressive drugs on maintenance dose. LDAS: a SLEDAI-2K≤4, prednisone daily dose≤7.5mg/d and immunosuppressive drugs on maintenance dose; for these analyses, remission and LDAS were combined. Generalized estimating equations were performed, using as outcome each one of the eight components of the LupusQoL in the subsequent visit, and the activity state in the previous visit; multivariable models were adjusted for possible confounders. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were included. During the follow-up, 590 (61.6%) visits were categorized as LDAS/remission. LDAS/Remission predicted a better HRQoL in the components of physical health [B=4.17 (95%CI:1.20; 7.14); p=0.006], pain [B=6.47 (95%CI:3.18; 9.76); p<0.001], planning [B=4.97 (95%CI:1.43; 8.52); p=0.006], burden to others [B=4.12 (95%CI:0.24; 8.01); p=0.037], emotional health [B=4.50 (95%CI:1.56; 7.44); p=0.003] and fatigue [B=3.25 (95%CI:0.04; 6.47); p=0.048]. CONCLUSIONS: Being on LDAS/Remission predicts a better HRQoL, especially in the components of physical health, pain, planning, burden to others, emotional health and fatigue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245057

RESUMO

Aims: To determine whether the proportion of time systemic lupus erythematosus patients achieve remission/low disease activity state (LDAS) is associated with a better quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods: Patients from a well-established multiethnic, multicentre US cohort were included: remission: Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) score=0, prednisone≤5 mg/day and no immunosuppressants); LDAS not in remission, SLAM score≤3, prednisone≤7.5 mg/day, no immunosuppressants; the combined proportion of time patients were in these states was the independent variable. The endpoints were the Physical and Mental Components Summary measures (PCS and MCS, respectively) and the individual subscales of the Short Form (SF)-36 at the last visit. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the proportion of follow-up time in remission/LDAS and the SF-36 measures with and without adjustment for possible confounders. Results: Four hundred and eighty-three patients were included. The per cent of time on remission/LDAS was associated with better QoL after adjusting for potential confounders; for the PCS the parameter estimate was 9.47 (p<0.0001), for the MCS 5.89 (p=0.0027), and for the subscales they ranged between 7.51 (p=0.0495) for mental health and 31.79 (p<0.0001) for role physical. Conclusions: The per cent of time lupus patients stay on remission/LDAS is associated with a better QoL as measured by SF-36.

8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(10): 2737-2746, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify baseline predictors of remission and low disease activity (LDA) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the GLADAR (Grupo Latino Americano De estudio de la Artritis Reumatoide) cohort. METHODS: Patients with 1- and 2-year follow-up visits were included. Remission and LDA were defined by DAS28-ESR (< 2.6 and ≤ 3.2, respectively). Baseline predictors examined were gender, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, socioeconomic status, symptoms' duration, DMARDs, RF, thrombocytosis, anemia, morning stiffness, DAS28-ESR (and its components), HAQ-DI, DMARDs and corticosteroid use, and Sharp-VDH score. Multivariable binary logistic regression models (excluding DAS28-ESR components to avoid over adjustment) were derived using a backward selection method (α-level set at 0.05). RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-eight patients were included. Remission and LDA/remission were met by 19.3% and 32.5% at the 1-year visit, respectively. For the 280 patients followed for 2 years, these outcomes were met by 24.3% and 38.9%, respectively. Predictors of remission at 1 year were a lower DAS28-ESR (OR 1.17; CI 1.07-1.27; p = 0.001) and HAQ-DI (OR 1.48; CI 1.04-2.10; p = 0.028). At 2 years, only DAS28-ESR (OR 1.40; CI 1.17-1.6; p < 0.001) was a predictor. Predictors of LDA/remission at 1 year were DAS28-ESR (OR 1.42; CI 1.26-1.61; p < 0.001), non-use of corticosteroid (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.44; p = 0.008), and male gender (OR 1.77; CI 1.2-2.63; p = 0.036). A lower baseline DAS28-ESR (OR 1.45; CI 1.23-1.70; p < 0.001) was the only predictor of LDA/remission at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: A lower disease activity consistently predicted remission and LDA/remission at 1 and 2 years of follow-up in early RA patients from the GLADAR cohort. Key Points • In patients with early RA, a lower disease activity at first visit is a strong clinical predictor of achieving remission and LDA subsequently. • Other clinical predictors of remission and LDA to keep in mind in these patients are male gender, non-use of corticosteroids and low disability at baseline. • Not using corticosteroids at first visit is associated with a lower disease activity and predicts LDA/remission at 1 year in these patients.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(5): e1002800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decision-making regarding immunosuppressive therapy is challenging for individuals with lupus. We assessed the effectiveness of a decision aid for immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a United States multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT), adult women with lupus nephritis, mostly from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds with low socioeconomic status (SES), seen in in- or outpatient settings, were randomized to an individualized, culturally tailored, computerized decision aid versus American College of Rheumatology (ACR) lupus pamphlet (1:1 ratio), using computer-generated randomization. We hypothesized that the co-primary outcomes of decisional conflict and informed choice regarding immunosuppressive medications would improve more in the decision aid group. Of 301 randomized women, 298 were analyzed; 47% were African-American, 26% Hispanic, and 15% white. Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 37 (12) years, 57% had annual income of <$40,000, and 36% had a high school education or less. Compared with the provision of the ACR lupus pamphlet (n = 147), participants randomized to the decision aid (n = 151) had (1) a clinically meaningful and statistically significant reduction in decisional conflict, 21.8 (standard error [SE], 2.5) versus 12.7 (SE, 2.0; p = 0.005) and (2) no difference in informed choice in the main analysis, 41% versus 31% (p = 0.08), but clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in sensitivity analysis (net values for immunosuppressives positive [in favor] versus negative [against]), 50% versus 35% (p = 0.006). Unresolved decisional conflict was lower in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups, 22% versus 44% (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the decision aid versus pamphlet group rated information to be excellent for understanding lupus nephritis (49% versus 33%), risk factors (43% versus 27%), medication options (50% versus 33%; p ≤ 0.003 for all); and the ease of use of materials was higher in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups (51% versus 38%; p = 0.006). Key study limitations were the exclusion of men, short follow-up, and the lack of clinical outcomes, including medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: An individualized decision aid was more effective than usual care in reducing decisional conflict for choice of immunosuppressive medications in women with lupus nephritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02319525.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folhetos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 46(10): 1299-1308, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictors of remission and low disease activity state (LDAS) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Three disease activity states were defined: Remission = SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) = 0 and prednisone ≤ 5 mg/day and/or immunosuppressants (maintenance dose); LDAS = SLEDAI ≤ 4, prednisone ≤ 7.5 mg/day and/or immunosuppressants (maintenance dose); and non-optimally controlled state = SLEDAI > 4 and/or prednisone > 7.5 mg/day and/or immunosuppressants (induction dose). Antimalarials were allowed in all groups. Patients with at least 2 SLEDAI reported and not optimally controlled at entry were included in these analyses. Outcomes were remission and LDAS. Multivariable Cox regression models (stepwise selection procedure) were performed for remission and for LDAS. RESULTS: Of 1480 patients, 902 were non-optimally controlled at entry; among them, 196 patients achieved remission (21.7%) and 314 achieved LDAS (34.8%). Variables predictive of a higher probability of remission were the absence of mucocutaneous manifestations (HR 1.571, 95% CI 1.064-2.320), absence of renal involvement (HR 1.487, 95% CI 1.067-2.073), and absence of hematologic involvement (HR 1.354, 95% CI 1.005-1.825); the use of immunosuppressive drugs before the baseline visit (HR 1.468, 95% CI 1.025-2.105); and a lower SLEDAI score at entry (HR 1.028, 95% CI 1.006-1.051 per 1-unit decrease). These variables were predictive of LDAS: older age at entry, per 5-year increase (HR 1.050, 95% CI 1.004-1.098); absence of mucocutaneous manifestations (HR 1.401, 95% CI 1.016-1.930) and renal involvement (HR 1.344, 95% CI 1.049-1.721); and lower SLEDAI score at entry (HR 1.025, 95% CI 1.009-1.042). CONCLUSION: Absence of mucocutaneous, renal, and hematologic involvement, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and lower disease activity early in the course of the disease were predictive of remission in patients with SLE; older age was predictive of LDAS.

16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.

17.
J Rheumatol ; 46(11): 1470-1477, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a frequent, disabling issue in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is, however, difficult to quantify. The Ad Hoc Committee on SLE Response Criteria for Fatigue in 2007 recommended using the Krupp Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Since then, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue Scale has also been validated in SLE. We performed a review of instruments used to measure fatigue in adult SLE patients from 2007 onward. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, and Embase (January 2008-October 2017), identifying clinical trials and observational studies in adult SLE, where fatigue was a specifically measured outcome. All English and French studies were reviewed to determine fatigue measures and results. RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Eight scales were used. The visual analog scale (VAS), FSS, and FACIT-Fatigue Scale were most frequent. FSS was the most often used instrument in both clinical trials and observational studies. Twenty-five of the 37 studies demonstrated a difference in fatigue that was statistically significant and clinically meaningful. Of the 12 studies that did not, 6 used FSS, 3 used VAS, 2 used the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, and 1 used the Brief Fatigue Index. All 6 studies using the FACIT-Fatigue Scale detected clinically meaningful and statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: VAS, FSS, and FACIT-Fatigue Scale were the most frequently used instruments in adult SLE studies from 2008 to 2017. Many studies detected clinically important changes in fatigue. Fatigue remains a key measure in both clinical trials and observational SLE studies.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

19.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(4): 1139-1146, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of homocysteine levels on damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted in consecutive patients seen every 6 months at our Rheumatology Department since 2012. Patients with available homocysteine levels and who had at least one subsequent visit were included. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were done to determine if homocysteine levels were predictive of damage accrual as per the SLICC Damage Index (SDI). The multivariable model was adjusted for pertinent variables (age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic status, disease duration, disease activity (SLEDAI), Framingham score, antimalarial and immunosuppressive drug use, average daily dose, and exposure time to prednisone (PDN)). RESULTS: One hundred forty-five patients were included; their mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 43.70 (12.09) years, 136 (93.8%) were female, and nearly all were Mestizo. At baseline, disease duration was 7.55 (6.73) years; patients were followed for 3.54 (1.27) years. The SLEDAI was 5.60 (4.34), and the SDI 0.97 (1.35). The average daily PDN dose was 7.30 (5.78) mg/day and the time of PDN exposure was 7.36 (6.73) years. Mean homocysteine levels were 10.07 (3.71) µmol/L. The highest tertile of homocysteine levels predicted new damage accrual in the univariable and multivariable models [HR 1.78 (95% CI, 1.042-3.039); p = 0.035 and HR 2.045 (95% CI, 1.077-3.883); p = 0.029, respectively]. Increased levels (> 15 µmol/L) were found in 12 (8.3%) patients; 75 (51.7%) patients increased ≥ 1 SDI point. CONCLUSION: In SLE patients, homocysteine levels predicted damage accrual independently of other well-known risk factors for such occurrence.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social
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